Miloš Obrenović I of Serbia

Prince Miloš Obrenović I of Serbia (Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Обреновић; pronounced [mîloʃ obrěːnoʋit͡ɕ]; 18 March 1780 or 1783 – 26 September 1860) born Miloš Teodorović (Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Теодоровић; pronounced [mîloʃ teodǒːroʋit͡ɕ]) was Prince of Serbia from 1815 to 1839, and again from 1858 to 1860. He participated in the First Serbian uprising, led Serbs in the Second Serbian uprising, and founded the House of Obrenović. Under his rule, Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire.[1] Prince Miloš ruled autocratically, consistently refusing to share power,[2] which generated strong domestic opposition.[3] During his rule, Miloš I bought a number of estates and ships from Ottoman Turks and also became a prominent trader.[4] He was the richest man in Serbia and one of the richest in the Balkans, with estates in Vienna, Serbia and Wallachia.[5][6]

Prince Miloš Obrenović I
MilosObrenovic 1848.jpg
Prince of Serbia
Reign23 December 1858 – 26 September 1860
PredecessorAlexander Karađorđević
SuccessorMihailo III (Obrenović)
Prince of Serbia
Reign6 November 1817 – 25 June 1839
PredecessorHimself (As Grand Vožd of Serbia)
SuccessorMilan II
Grand Vožd of Serbia
Reign23 April 1815 – 6 November 1817
PredecessorKarađorđe
SuccessorHimself (as Prince of Serbia)
Born(1780-03-18)18 March 1780 or more probably 1783
Gornja Dobrinja near Požega, Ottoman Empire (now Serbia)
Died26 September 1860(1860-09-26) (aged 80)
Belgrade, Serbia, Ottoman Empire
Burial
St. Mark's Church, Belgrade, Serbia
ConsortLjubica Vukomanović
HouseObrenović
FatherTeodor Mihailović
MotherVišnja Urošević
ReligionSerbian Orthodox
Styles of
Miloš Obrenović, Prince of Serbia
Royal Monogram of Prince Miloš Obrenović I of Serbia.svg
Reference styleHis Serene Highness
Spoken styleYour Serene Highness
Alternative styleSir

Early lifeEdit

Miloš Teodorović was the son of Teodor "Teša" Mihailović (died 1802) from Dobrinja, and Višnja (died 18 June 1817).[7] His family descended from the Bratonožići tribe.[8] This was the second marriage of his mother Višnja, from which also sprung Jovan (1787–1850) and Jevrem (1790–1856).[7] From Višnja's first marriage, with Obren Martinović (died 1780) from Brusnica, Miloš had half-brothers Jakov (died 1811) and Milan (died 1810), and half-sister Stana.[7] After the death of Obren, Višnja moved from Brusnica and married Teodor in Dobrinja.[7] Although many historians put 1780 as the year when Miloš was born, according to foundation plaque in the wall of the Old Church in Kragujevac, his capital, he was 35 when the church was finished in 1818, meaning that he was born in 1783. After the death of his brother Milan, a famed revolutionary with great reputation among the people, Miloš adopted the surname Obrenović. In official documents, his name was sometimes written Miloš Teodorović Obrenović (Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Теодоровић Обреновић; pronounced [mîloʃ teodǒːroʋit͡ɕ obrěːnoʋit͡ɕ]).[9]

First Serbian UprisingEdit

Miloš fought in the First Serbian uprising[10] until its very end in 1813. He was wounded in the battle for Užice.[11] His half-brother Milan also took part in the Uprising,[12] rising to become the voivode of the Rudnik district, until his death in 1810. After Milan's death, Miloš adopted the surname of his half-brother, Obrenović.[13] This name was the patronymic which his half-brother derived from Obren, the first name of his own father (Miloš's step-father).[14] After the rebellion collapsed, Miloš was among the few of its leaders that remained in Serbia to face the returning Ottomans.[15]

Second Serbian UprisingEdit

 
Takovo, proclamation of Uprising.

In April 1815, Prince Miloš organized and led the Second Serbian uprising. After defeating the Turks, and Napoleon's defeat in Russia, the Turks agreed to the terms of the agreement from 1815. After the killing of Karađorđe Petrović, in 1817, Obrenović became the leader of the Serbs. As a result of the agreement, Serbia gained some autonomy, but remained under Ottoman sovereignty. Miloš Obrenović was left in power as its absolute ruler.[16]

Between the end of 1828 and the autumn of 1830, Prince Miloš created a so-called "legislative commission" to translate the Code Napoléon into Serbian and codify the laws and customs of the country. After discussing the commission, Miloš invited two distinguished legal specialists to come from Hungary to prepare a more suitable criminal and civil code of laws for Serbia. They were Vasilije Lazarević, Bürgermeister (mayor) of Zemun, and Jovan Hadžić, lawyer, poet, and member of the municipal senate of Novi Sad.[17]

In January 1831, Prince Miloš informed a great national assembly that he had obtained an imperial edict from the Sultan ending all direct obligations of Serbian peasants to their former Turkish lords, guaranteeing Ottoman recognition of Serbian autonomy in most matters of internal administration, and offering Serbia the prospect of territorial aggrandizement, as well as the express right to institute schools, courts, and a governmental administration of her own. The Sultan's decrees of 1830 and 1833 expanded the same rights to a larger territory, and made Serbia a sovereign principality,[18] with Miloš Obrenović as hereditary prince. A Metropolitanate of Serbia was established in Belgrade as an autonomous unit of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Russia's status as the guarantor of Serbia's autonomy was also recognized.

ReignEdit

 
Miloš Obrenović, portrait probably done in Istanbul. Exposition of Princess Ljubica's Residence (2017)

The supporters of the rule of law often rebelled against Miloš's government. Following one such rebellion, he agreed to adopt a constitution, the Sretenje or Candlemas constitution, in 1835.[19] The move was opposed by neighboring Austria, the ruling Ottoman Empire and Russia.[20] It is believed that the three great empires saw the constitution as a danger to their own autocratic systems of government.[21] Metternich's Austria particularly ridiculed the fact that Serbia had its own flag and foreign ministry. Miloš abolished the constitution at the demand of Russia and Turkey,[22] and it was replaced by the "Turkish" Constitution of 1838.

Miloš abdicated in 1839 in favor of his sons—Milan, who died a few weeks later, and Mihailo, who then became prince. Mihailo was deposed in 1842, and the family was out of power until 1858, when it returned with Miloš restored as prince for the last two years of his life.[23]

LegacyEdit

 
A bust of Miloš Obrenović, Kragujevac, Serbia.
 
Monument to Milos Obrenovic, Požarevac, Serbia.

Miloš Obrenović was given the epithet the Great. He was proclaimed Father of the Fatherland by the National Assembly.[24]

Things named after Miloš ObrenovićEdit

Biographies and memoirsEdit

  • Milan Milićević published the book "Prince Miloš and His Story" in 1891. It was written with the basis of a manuscript in which Prince Miloš talked about his life.[25]
  • For several years his barber was Nićirof Ninković who left memoirs about it.
  • His personal physician during his first reign was Bartolomeo Kunibert, who wrote a two-volume book translated into Serbian entitled "The Serbian Uprising and the First Reign of Milos Obrenovic 1804–1850".
  • Part of Knez Miloš' family correspondences has been preserved with his daughter Petrija Bajić near Timișoara. In 1925 the property was bought by Joca Vujić who left the correspondences to the Belgrade University Library "Svetozar Marković", which the book "Family Correspondences of Knez Miloš Obrenović from the Archival Collection of Joca Vujić at the Belgrade University Library "Svetozar Marković"".[26][27]

Enterprises and organizationsEdit

PlacesEdit

  • Miloš Obrenović's House in Gornja Crnuća, from which Miloš ruled Serbia for two years and in which the decision to start the Second Serbian Uprising was made, was declared a cultural monument of exceptional importance.
  • Saint Sava Church in Šarani was founded by him.[28]
  • Elementary School "Miloš Obrenović" in Aranđelovac.[29]
  • "Knez Miloš Street" in Belgrade is named after him, as well as streets in many other Serbian cities. Along this road, numerous state institutions and embassies are located. The street was called "Miloš the Great" until it was renamed with its present name during communist Yugoslavia.
  • "Miloš the Great" Highway, a section of Corridor XI (or A2 motorway; part of the E761 and E763 European routes) from Obrenovac to Preljina, was opened in Serbia on 18 August 2019.[30]

Plaques and memorialsEdit

Awards and honoursEdit

Marriage and childrenEdit

In 1805, Miloš married Ljubica Vukomanović (September 1785 – Vienna, 26 May 1843). The couple had eight children whose names are known. It is speculated that Ljubica had other pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages, stillbirths, or children who died shortly after birth, with some sources giving a number as high as 17 pregnancies.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Melichárek, Maroš. "Druhé Srbské povstanie proti osmanskej nadvláde (1815–1816) a vytváranie autonómneho srbského štátu počas prvej vlády Miloša Obrenovića /Second Serbian uprising against Ottomans (1815-1816) and creation of autonomous Serbia under Miloš Obrenović/". Dejiny. 6 (2): 26–39.
  2. ^ "Srpsko Nasledje". www.srpsko-nasledje.rs. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  3. ^ Hall, Richard C. (9 October 2014). War in the Balkans: An Encyclopedic History from the Fall of the Ottoman Empire to the Breakup of Yugoslavia. ABC-CLIO. p. 210. ISBN 978-1-61069-031-7.
  4. ^ Katić, Tatjana. Ottoman Documents on Sales of Turkish Real Estates to the Prince Milos Obrenovic / Osmanska dokumenta o prodaji turskih imanja knezu Milosu Obrenovicu.
  5. ^ "Knez Miloš Obrenović". Virtuelni zavičajni muzej Požege. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  6. ^ "КНЕЗ МИЛОШ ОБРЕНОВИЋ – ПРВИ ИЛИ ДРУГИ "ОТАЦ" МОДЕРНЕ СРБИЈЕ?". Културни центар Новог Сада (in Serbian). 27 August 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d А. Ивић. "Родословне таблице: Број 16. и 17. Обреновићи".
  8. ^ Banac, Ivo (1988). The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801494931.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  9. ^ Serbia (1877). Зборник закона и уредаба. p. 51.
  10. ^ "На данашњи дан 1860 умро кнез Милош Обреновић; 1371. одиграла се Маричка битка; Рођен Мартин Хајдегер; Потписан Споразум о успостављању специјалних паралелних односа између Србије и РС". Нова српска политичка мисао (in Serbian). Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  11. ^ "Knez Miloš Obrenović". Virtuelni zavičajni muzej Požege. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  12. ^ "Knez Miloš Obrenović". Virtuelni zavičajni muzej Požege. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  13. ^ "Поријекло српске краљевске династије Обреновић". Порекло (in Serbian). 17 March 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  14. ^ "Поријекло српске краљевске династије Обреновић". Порекло (in Serbian). 17 March 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  15. ^ "КНЕЗ МИЛОШ ОБРЕНОВИЋ – ПРВИ ИЛИ ДРУГИ "ОТАЦ" МОДЕРНЕ СРБИЈЕ?". Културни центар Новог Сада (in Serbian). 27 August 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  16. ^ Boric, Tijana. "Konak in Gornja Crnuca: The Court of Prince Milos Obrenovic". FACTA UNIVERSITATIS: Series: Visual Arts and Music.
  17. ^ "Na današnji dan donet Srpski građanski zakonik | Fakulteti". fakulteti.edukacija.rs. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Конак кнеза Милоша". IMUS - Istorijski muzej Srbije (in Serbian). Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  19. ^ Avramović, Sima. "Sretenjski Ustav - 175 godina posle" (PDF). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  20. ^ Avramović, Sima. "Sretenjski Ustav - 175 godina posle" (PDF). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ "SRETENJSKI USTAV - PRVI USTAV MODERNE SRBIJE". Glas Šumadije. 15 February 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  22. ^ "Sretenjski ustav: Događaji koji su menjali Srbiju (11)". Nedeljnik. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  23. ^ Leovac, Danko (2011). "Serbia and Russia during the Second Rule of Prince Miloš Obrenović (1858–1860)". Belgrade Historical Review. 2: 205–219.
  24. ^ Milutin D. Nešić (1920). Knez Mihailo. Štamparija braće grujić i prometnog D.D. С државнога балкона у згради Народне Скупштине (Велика пивара) читаше се прокламација народу српском, да је повраћен па престо отац отаџбине Велики Милош. Ко је видео како је та одлука за час угасила оне упаљене ...
  25. ^ Кнез у чају Марсела Пруста („Данас“, 18. октобар 2013)
  26. ^ Породична преписка кнеза Милоша Обреновића (23. фебруар 2016)
  27. ^ Преки књаз меког срца („Политика”, 10. март 2018)
  28. ^ "Dva veka prve zadužbine kneza Miloša Obrenovića – Crkva Svetog Save na Savincu" (in Serbian). Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  29. ^ "Основна школа". www.osmilosobrenovic.edu.rs. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  30. ^ Sve o novom Autoputu Miloš Veliki, by A. Milutinović, Blitz, 18 August 2019.
  31. ^ Pavlović, Srđan Rudić; Lela (1 September 2016). Srpska revolucija i obnova državnosti Srbije: Dvesta godina od Drugog srpskog ustanka: =Serbian Revolution and Renewal of Serbian Statehood : Two Hundred Years since the Second Serbian Uprising (in Serbian). Istorijski institut, Beograd; Međuopštinski istorijski arhiv, Čačak. p. 209. ISBN 978-86-7743-116-7.
  32. ^ Acović, Dragomir (2012). Slava i čast: Odlikovanja među Srbima, Srbi među odlikovanjima. Belgrade: Službeni Glasnik. p. 78.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  33. ^ Acović, Dragomir (2012). Slava i čast: Odlikovanja među Srbima, Srbi među odlikovanjima. Belgrade: Službeni Glasnik. p. 78.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  34. ^ Acović, Dragomir (2012). Slava i čast: Odlikovanja među Srbima, Srbi među odlikovanjima. Belgrade: Službeni Glasnik. p. 543.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  35. ^ Leovac, Danko (2011). "Serbia and Russia during the Second Rule of Prince Miloš Obrenović (1858–1860)". Belgrade Historical Review. 2: 205–219.

SourcesEdit

Miloš Obrenović I of Serbia
Born: 18 March [7 March o.s.] 1780 Died: 26 September 1860
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Karađorđe
Grand Vožd of Serbia
1815 – 1817
Title abolished
proclaimed Prince of Serbia
New title Prince of Serbia
1817–1839
Succeeded by
Milan Obrenović II
Preceded by
Aleksandar Karađorđević
Prince of Serbia
1858–1860
Succeeded by
Mihailo Obrenović III