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Miloš Obrenović (pronounced [mîloʃ obrěːnoʋit͡ɕ]; Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Обреновић; 18 March 1780 – 26 September 1860) born Miloš Teodorović (Милош Теодоровић) was Prince of Serbia from 1815 to 1839, and again from 1858 to 1860. He participated in the First Serbian Uprising, led Serbs in the Second Serbian Uprising, and founded the House of Obrenović. Under his rule, Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. Prince Miloš ruled autocratically, permanently refusing to share power. During his rule, he was the richest man in Serbia and one of the richest in the Balkans.
|Prince of Serbia|
|Reign||December 23, 1858 – September 26, 1860|
|Successor||Mihailo III (Obrenović)|
|Prince of Serbia|
|Reign||November 6, 1817 – June 25, 1839|
|Predecessor||Himself (As Grand Vožd of Serbia)|
|Grand Vožd of Serbia|
|Reign||April 23, 1815 – November 6, 1817|
|Successor||Himself (as Prince of Serbia)|
|Born||March 18, 1780|
Gornja Dobrinja near Požega
|Died||September 26, 1860 (aged 80)|
Miloš Obrenović, Prince of Serbia
|Reference style||His Serene Highness|
|Spoken style||Your Serene Highness|
Miloš Teodorović ([teodǒːroʋit͡ɕ]) was the son of Teodor "Teša" Mihailović (died 1802) from Dobrinja, and Višnja (died 18 June 1817). This was the second marriage of his mother Višnja, from which also sprung Jovan (1787–1850) and Jevrem (1790–1856). From Višnja's first marriage, with Obren Martinović (died 1780) from Brusnica, Miloš had half-brothers Jakov (died 1811) and Milan (died 1810), and half-sister Stana. After the death of Obren, Višnja moved from Brusnica and married Teodor in Dobrinja. After the death of his brother Milan, a famed revolutionary with great reputation among the people, Miloš adopted the surname Obrenović. In official documents, his name was sometimes written Miloš Teodorović Obrenović.
First Serbian UprisingEdit
Miloš fought in the First Serbian Uprising until its very end in 1813. His half-brother Milan also took part in the Uprising, rising to become the vojvoda (commander, duke) of the Rudnik district, until his death in 1810. After Milan's death, Miloš adopted the surname of his half-brother, Obrenović. This name was the patronymic which his half-brother derived from Obren, the first name of his own father (Miloš's step-father). After the rebellion collapsed, Miloš was among the few of its leaders that remained in Serbia to face the returning Ottomans.
Second Serbian UprisingEdit
In April 1815, Prince Miloš organized and led the Second Serbian Uprising. After defeating the Turks, and Napoleon's defeat in Russia, the Turks agreed to the terms of the agreement from 1815. After the killing of Karađorđe Petrović, in 1817, Obrenović became the leader of the Serbs. As a result of the agreement, Serbia gained some autonomy, but remained under Ottoman sovereignty. Miloš Obrenović was left in power as its absolute ruler.
Between the end of 1828 and the autumn of 1830, Prince Miloš created a so-called "legislative commission" to translate the Code Napoléon into Serbian and codify the laws and customs of the country. After discussing the commission, Miloš invited two distinguished legal specialists to come from Hungary to prepare a more suitable criminal and civil code of laws for Serbia. They were Vasilije Lazarević, Bürgermeister (mayor) of Zemun, and Jovan Hadžić, lawyer, poet, and member of the municipal senate of Novi Sad.
In January 1831, Prince Miloš informed a great national assembly that he had obtained an imperial edict from the Sultan ending all direct obligations of Serbian peasants to their former Turkish lords, guaranteeing Ottoman recognition of Serbian autonomy in most matters of internal administration, and offering Serbia the prospect of territorial aggrandizement, as well as the express right to institute schools, courts, and a governmental administration of her own. The Sultan's decrees of 1830 and 1833 expanded the same rights to a larger territory, and made Serbia a sovereign principality, with Miloš Obrenović as hereditary prince. A Metropolitanate of Serbia was established in Belgrade as an autonomous unit of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Russia's status as the guarantor of Serbia's autonomy was also recognized.
The supporters of the rule of law often rebelled against Miloš's government. Following one such rebellion, he agreed to adopt a constitution, the Sretenje or Candlemas constitution, in 1835. The move was opposed by neighboring Austria, the ruling Ottoman Empire and Russia. It is believed that the three great empires saw the constitution as a danger to their own autocratic systems of government. Metternich's Austria particularly ridiculed the fact that Serbia had its own flag and foreign ministry. Miloš abolished the constitution at the demand of Russia and Turkey, and it was replaced by the "Turkish" Constitution of 1838.
Miloš abdicated in 1839 in favor of his sons—Milan, who died a few weeks later, and Mihailo, who then became prince. Mihailo was deposed in 1842, and the family was out of power until 1858, when it returned with Miloš restored as prince for the last two years of his life.
Miloš Obrenović was given the epithet the Great. He was proclaimed Father of the Fatherland by the National Assembly.
Awards and honoursEdit
- Austria: Order of the Iron Crown, Knight 1st Class
- Greece: Order of the Redeemer, Grand Cross
- Ottoman Empire:
- Nişan-ı Zişan
- Portrait of the Sultan with Jewels (Mahmud II)
- Portrait of the Sultan with Jewels (Abdülmecid II)
Marriage and childrenEdit
In 1805, Miloš married Ljubica Vukomanović (September 1785 – Vienna, 26 May 1843). The couple had eight children whose names are known. It is speculated that Ljubica had other pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages, stillbirths, or children who died shortly after birth, with some sources giving a number as high as 17 pregnancies.
- Prince Petar
- Princess Petrija (5 August 1808 – 1870)
- Princess Savka (28 March 1814 – 5 October 1848)
- Prince Milan (21 October 1819 – 8 July 1839)
- Prince Mihailo (16 September 1823 – 10 June 1868)
- Princess Marija (born and died 9 July 1830)
- Prince Todor (died in childhood)
- Prince Gabriel (died in childhood)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Miloš Obrenović I, Prince of Serbia.|
- А. Ивић. "Родословне таблице: Број 16. и 17. Обреновићи".
- Serbia (1877). Зборник закона и уредаба. p. 51.
- Milutin D. Nešić (1920). Knez Mihailo. Štamparija braće grujić i prometnog D.D.
С државнога балкона у згради Народне Скупштине (Велика пивара) читаше се прокламација народу српском, да је повраћен па престо отац отаџбине Велики Милош. Ко је видео како је та одлука за час угасила оне упаљене ...
- Ćirković, Sima (2004). The Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
- Radosavljević, Nedeljko V. (2010). "The Serbian Revolution and the Creation of the Modern State: The Beginning of Geopolitical Changes in the Balkan Peninsula in the 19th Century". Empires and Peninsulas: Southeastern Europe between Karlowitz and the Peace of Adrianople, 1699–1829. Berlin: LIT Verlag. pp. 171–178.
- Rajić, Suzana (2010). "Serbia - the Revival of the Nation-state, 1804-1829: From Turkish Provinces to Autonomous Principality". Empires and Peninsulas: Southeastern Europe between Karlowitz and the Peace of Adrianople, 1699–1829. Berlin: LIT Verlag. pp. 143–148.
- Stojančević, Vladimir (1959). "Политички погледи кнеза Милоша Обреновића". Историјски часопис. Научно дело. 9–10: 345–362.
- Cunibert, Barthélemy Sylvestre. Srpski ustanak i prva vladavina Miloša Obrenovića: 1804–1850. Vol. 96. Štamparija D. Dimitrijevića, 1901.
- Krestić, Vasilije, and Nikola Petrović. Protokol kneza Miloša Obrenovića 1824–1825. SANU, 1973.
- Катарина Митровиh "двор кнеза Милоша Обреновиhа" (2008).
- Karadžić, Vuk S. Žizn'i podvigi knjazja Miloša Obrenovića, Verchovnogo Voždja i predvoditelja naroda serbskago. 1825.
- Гавриловић, Михаило. Милош Обреновић. Давидовић, 1908.
- Gavrilović, Mihailo, and Obrenović Miloš. Miloš Obrenović: 1813–1820. Vol. 126. Nova štamparija" Davidović", 1908.
- Miloš Obrenović information ‹See Tfd›(in Serbian)
Miloš ObrenovićBorn: 18 March [7 March o.s.] 1780 Died: 26 September 1860
| Grand Vožd of Serbia
1815 – 1817
proclaimed Prince of Serbia
|New title|| Prince of Serbia
Milan Obrenović II
| Prince of Serbia
Mihailo Obrenović III