Millennium celebrations

The millennium celebrations were a worldwide, coordinated series of events to celebrate and commemorate the end of 1999 and the start of the year 2000 in the Gregorian calendar. The celebrations were held as marking the end of the 2nd millennium and the 20th century, and the start of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century (although the start and end points of such periods was then, and continues to be, disputed). Countries around the globe held official festivities in the weeks and months leading up to the date, such as those organised in the United States by the White House Millennium Council, and most major cities produced firework displays at midnight. Equally, many private venues, cultural and religious centres held events[1] and a diverse range of memorabilia was created – such as souvenir postage stamps.[2]

Millennium countdown on the Eiffel Tower, Paris, France

As with every New Year's Eve, many events were timed with the stroke of midnight in the time zone of the location. There were also many events associated with the dawn on 1 January. An international television broadcast called 2000 Today was produced by a consortium of 60 broadcasters, while an alternative program Millennium Live was cancelled two days before the event.

Several countries in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, and hence close to the International Date Line made arguments they were the first to enter the new millennium. Variously, the Chatham Islands, New Zealand, Tonga, Fiji and Kiribati all laid claims to the status – by moving the dateline itself, the temporary institution of daylight saving time, and claiming the "first territory", "first land", "first inhabited land" or "first city" to see the new year.[3]

EventsEdit

 
Standard Time Zones Map, as of 31 December 2021. (On 31 December 1999, Sri Lanka was on UTC+6, Belarus and Turkey were on UTC+2, Morocco was on UTC±0, and Samoa and Tokelau were on UTC-11.) Celebrations occurred from right to left.

UTC+14Edit

The US Navy submarine Topeka positioned itself 400 metres (1,300 ft) underwater, straddling both the International Date Line and the Equator.[4]

At Caroline Island in the mid-Pacific, renamed as "Millennium Island", the Republic of Kiribati claimed the first land to see the new millennium.[5] Simultaneously, a ceremony was held in Tonga, consisting of a choir recitation of Hallelujah, and an address by King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV.[6]

On the Chatham Islands (UTC+13:45) there was a Maori blessing. "As they faced the Pacific Ocean, a beacon was lit and school children sang."[7]

UTC+13Edit

In Auckland, a fireworks display on the Harbour made New Zealand the first industrial nation to celebrate the year 2000, being just west of the International Date Line.

UTC+12Edit

UTC+11Edit

Sydney, the host city of the 2000 Summer Olympics, held a large fireworks display centering on the Harbour Bridge, with the locally famous graffito Eternity being recreated.[8] For the first time in its history, the Sydney Opera House precinct was almost completely cordoned off from the public. Instead, tickets costing as much as A$2,000 each were being sold for Opera House parties.[5] However, public transport and access was available to view the fireworks on the Bridge, which included a "waterfall" effect.[9]

UTC+10Edit

Adelaide's celebrations were at their Central Business District with a special presentation before the countdown and many fireworks. Adelaide was on UTC+10:30 during daylight saving time.

Brisbane's celebrations were broadcast live on ABC (Australia) and worldwide via 2000 Today.

UTC+9Edit

In Tokyo, there were a series of concerts (NHK's Kohaku Uta Gassen at NHK Hall, Johnny's Countdown Live at the Tokyo Dome) and a fireworks display. At midnight, temple bells across Japan were rung 108 times to "dispel the evils of mankind".[4] The Japanese heavy metal band Seikima-II played its last concert "The Doomsday" before its first breakup on December 31. A major part of the band's fictional storyline is that a prophecy stated that they would conquer the world before breaking up in 1999, indeed, the name of the band of a pun meaning "the end of the century" in Japanese. At the end of The Doomsday at the exact end of the century on December 31, 1999, at 23:59:59 (one second before the millennium, the band disbands and is seen disappearing into a portal of light leaving the stage.[10]

UTC+8Edit

The traditional Chinese New Year did not start until 5 February of that year, however celebrations were still held in Beijing alongside fireworks and dragon dances.

In the Philippines, millennium parties simultaneously began in different parts of the country. President Joseph Estrada and top government officials joined celebrations at the Rizal Park (which was broadcast on ABS-CBN), while at the Ayala Millennium Center, Regine Velasquez sang the Philippine Millennium Theme Song, "Written in the Sand" at the top of the Peninsula Manila at about ten minutes to the Philippine midnight as part of the Philippine presentation on 2000 Today (Global Millennium Day broadcast on GMA).

In Singapore, a pop trio consisting of Fann Wong, Tanya Chua and Elsa Lin performed a millennium song for Singapore, entitled Moments of Magic.

In Hong Kong, At eight minutes to midnight, film star Jackie Chan led a group of singers And At the stroke of midnight, the Fireworks display began.

UTC+7Edit

Fireworks for the Vietnamese New Year in February were cancelled; in turn, Ho Chi Minh City organized a countdown party on 31 December at 10 pm, culminating in fireworks which began at midnight.[citation needed]

UTC+6Edit

In India (UTC+5:30), many Indians use the Hindu calendar, but the start of the year 2000 was still celebrated. On New Year's Eve, fireworks were observed in the capital New Delhi. This was overshadowed by the return of Indian Airlines Flight 814's passengers and crew, who arrived home from Afghanistan after being held hostage for a week. One way the new millennium was celebrated in India was with the grand opening of the Thiruvalluvar Statue a 41 m (133 ft) stone statue in Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, depicting Valluvar, a Tamil speaking poet, philosopher and author of the Tirukkural, a book on morality.[11] Both Valluvar and the Tirukkural are treated with reverence by Tamil speakers regardless of political or religious background with the Valluvar considered the most important work written in Tamil.[12]

UTC+5Edit

UTC+4Edit

In Dubai, the Dubai Millennium Party Had A Countdown and Fireworks Celebrations.

UTC+3Edit

 
Boris Yeltsin during his New Year Address.
Vladimir Putin's New Year Address.

Moscow's government and the Russian national government had sponsored parties across the city. Celebrations were held at the Spasskaya Tower to ring in the new millennium. The President of Russia Boris Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned on December 31 during the annual Presidential New Year Address.[13] For the rest of the day and into 2000, The acting president was then Prime Minister Vladimir Putin who also gave a New Year Address that year.[14][15] This marked the start of the Putin era lasting onto the 2020s where Vladimir Putin is prominent in Russian and world politics first as President (1999 - 2008), then again as Prime Minister (2008 - 2012) and once more as President (2012–Present).[16]

UTC+2Edit

South Africa's Nelson Mandela lit a candle in his former cell at Robben Island at the stroke of midnight.

Athens held a fireworks display over the Acropolis and a televised choir sang the Olympic anthem, a Byzantine anthem and the Greek national anthem.[17]

In Jerusalem, and particularly at the Mount of Olives, fears that doomsday fanatics "...could try to trigger an apocalypse prompted one of Israel's biggest peacetime police operations."[4]

In Giza, a concert called The Twelve Dreams of the Sun with music by Jean-Michel Jarre was held on the Pyramids. At the time, most Egyptians were observing the Muslim holy month of Ramadan.[18]

UTC+1Edit

Paris was the focal point of celebrations in France where searchlights and 20,000 strobe lights for the event were installed on the Eiffel Tower. They remained in operation until June 2003, when they were replaced by another installation.[19]

In Madrid, star-shaped balloons were set up at midnight on top of the Casa de Correos building in Puerta del Sol Square.[20]

Pope John Paul II led a Blessing In St Peter´s Square.

UTC±0Edit

In London, attention focused around Big Ben, as well as the opening of the Millennium Dome. A huge fireworks display, called the "River of Fire", went along 4 miles (6 km) of the River Thames.

The Irish national radio and television organisation RTÉ produced a marathon 19-hour broadcast called Millennium Eve: Celebrate 2000, while the BBC in the United Kingdom headed an international 28-hour event known as 2000 Today.

UTC–1Edit

UTC–2Edit

Rio de Janeiro held a special party led by Gal Costa at minutes to midnight. South Georgia and the Sandwich Islands became the first place in the Americas to celebrate the millennium but with no people on it, all of the British inhabitants chose to spend the midnight celebrations back at GMT time.[citation needed]

UTC–3Edit

Argentina's celebration was centered in Ushuaia, the southernmost city in the world, with a tango performance by Julio Bocca and Eleonora Cassano, broadcast on ARTEAR (El Trece)'s El Dia del Milenio and worldwide through the BBC-led 2000 Today.

UTC–4Edit

In Newfoundland (UTC-4:30), a concert was held that was broadcast to thousands of Canadians as the small island celebrated being the first place in North America to welcome the 21st century. Meanwhile, in Bermuda celebrations were marked as the first Caribbean nation to crossover to the new millennium reached its highest at midnight.

UTC–5Edit

 
The millennium celebration with ABC News during the ABC 2000 Today broadcast in Times Square.

In Ottawa, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien presided over celebrations on Parliament Hill, which included artistic performances and a midnight fireworks display launched from the Peace Tower.[21][22]

Fireworks were launched from the CN Tower in Toronto.[21]

In New York City's Times Square, a new Times Square Ball made of Waterford Crystal was commissioned and organizers expected a total attendance exceeding two million spectators.[23] It was broadcast live during ABC 2000 Today with Peter Jennings and Dick Clark in the United States, and worldwide via 2000 Today.[24]

A millennium celebration was held at the Walt Disney World in Florida, primarily at the Epcot theme park.

U.S. President Bill Clinton watched with thousands of spectators in Washington, D.C. as the Washington Monument lit up at midnight. Washington was also the world's largest Y2K command center despite GMT being the coordinated time zone.

UTC–6Edit

Chicago celebrated the millennium by hosting a fireworks show on Navy Pier, along with celebrations at homes and in Grant Park, as was viewed during the ABC 2000 Today broadcast.[24]

UTC–7Edit

Singer Neil Diamond sang "America" during a concert given by him at the Pepsi Center in Denver, Colorado and incorporated the Mountain Time millennium countdown and celebrations into the performance.[25]

UTC–8Edit

In Los Angeles, the Hollywood Sign became illuminated in various colors, one of the very few times the sign became lit.[26] It was also the last stop in the ABC 2000 Today broadcast in the United States.[24]

UTC–9Edit

UTC–10Edit

Hawaiian celebrations were centered in Honolulu. The party was headed by then-governor Benjamin Cayetano and his family.

UTC–11Edit

Samoa, the last independent nation to celebrate the new millennium, remains unchallenged in its claim as the last place on Earth to celebrate the closing of the century. This time zone remained in use in Samoa until 29 December 2011, when it would be shifted to UTC+13.[3]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "A pointer to celebrations". Asia week.com. CNN. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  2. ^ "Stamp issue – Millennium Firsts". Posterity Post. Chatham Islands Postal Service. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  3. ^ a b Aimee, Harris (1999). "Millenium: Date Line Politics". Honolulu Magazine (August ed.): 20. Archived from the original on 28 June 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  4. ^ a b c "Japan Holds Traditional, Millennium Celebrations". Orlando Sentinel. 1 January 2000. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  5. ^ a b Rivera, Larry (1 January 2000). "Into the New Millennium". Australia Travel. About.com. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  6. ^ "TONGA: MILLENNIUM CELEBRATIONS: MIDNIGHT". AP Archive. YouTube. 31 December 1999. Retrieved 18 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ Beale, Jonathan (31 December 1999). "Celebrating on Chatham Island". BBC. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  8. ^ Dennis, Anthony (1 January 2000). "Millennium dawns". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Digital. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  9. ^ "Video of Sydney Millennium fireworks". YouTube. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  10. ^ "BLABBERMOUTH.NET - Japan's SEIKIMA-II To Release 'Akuma Nativity - Songs of the Sword' Compilation". www.roadrunnerrecords.com. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009.
  11. ^ "Archive News". The Hindu.
  12. ^ "Hinduism Today".
  13. ^ "BBC News | MONITORING | Yeltsin's resignation speech".
  14. ^ "Новогоднее обращение исполняющего обязанности Президента Владимира Путина к гражданам России".
  15. ^ http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/speeches/1999/12/31/0001_type84779_124026.shtml[dead link]
  16. ^ "Putin — already Russia's longest leader since Stalin — signs law that may let him stay in power until 2036". USA Today.
  17. ^ "ET1". Youtube. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  18. ^ "The Twelve Dreams of the Sun was a concert by Jean Michel Jarre". YouTube. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  19. ^ "The Eiffel Tower's Illuminations". Société d'Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  20. ^ "TeleMadrid – Campanadas 1999 [Entrada al 2000]". YouTube. 31 December 1999.
  21. ^ a b Branswell, Brenda; DeMont, John; Wood, Chris; Phillips, Andrew; Came, Barry; Fennell, Tom; Bergman, Brian; Geddes, John (10 January 2000). "New Year Celebrations and No Y2K Disasters". Maclean's. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  22. ^ "Year 2000 arrives in Central Canada". CBC Archives. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  23. ^ Kelley, Tina (30 December 1999). "There's Another Countdown Before the Famed '10, 9, 8 . . .'". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  24. ^ a b c "ABC 2000 Today Highlights". YouTube. ABC. 31 December 1999.
  25. ^ "Neil Diamond Denver NYE 1999/2000". 31 December 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2021 – via YouTube.
  26. ^ "Fast Facts". 20 June 2017.