Milan(Redirected from Milan, Italy)
Milan (English // or US //; Italian: Milano [miˈlaːno] ( listen); Lombard: Milan [miˈlã] (Milanese variant)) is a city in Italy, capital of the Lombardy region, and the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. Milan is the second richest city in the European Union, after Paris. The population of the city proper is 1,369,000, and that of the Metropolitan City of Milan is 3,209,000. According to Eurostat, the commuting area counts 4,252,000 inhabitants but its built-up-urban area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Milan), has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 in 1,891 square kilometres (730 square miles), ranking 4th in the European Union. The wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that comprehends almost every province of Lombardy, the Piedmont province of Novara, and some parts of the province of Piacenza and which counts an estimated population of 8,123,020. It is Italy's main industrial and financial centre and one of the most significant globally. In terms of GDP, it has the largest economy among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe.
|Comune di Milano|
|Province / Metropolitan city||Milan|
|• Mayor||Giuseppe Sala (PD)|
|• Total||181.76 km2 (70.18 sq mi)|
|Elevation||120 m (390 ft)|
|Population (31 December 2016)|
|• Density||7,500/km2 (20,000/sq mi)|
|Demonym(s)||Milanesi o Meneghini|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Saint day||7 December|
Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in the arts, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, services, research, and tourism. Its business district hosts Italy's Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks and companies. The city is a major world fashion and design capital, well known for several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions, academies and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students.
Milan's museums, theatres and landmarks (including the Milan Cathedral, Sforza Castle and Leonardo da Vinci paintings such as The Last Supper, a UNESCO World Heritage Site) attract over 9 million visitors annually. Milan has one of the highest numbers of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide among Italian cities. The city hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. Milan hosts two of Europe's major football teams, A.C. Milan and F.C. Internazionale, and one of Italy's major basketball teams, Olimpia Milano.
The etymology of Milan (Lombard: Milan [miˈlã]) is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio (in the middle) and planus (plain). However, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory (source of the Welsh word llan, meaning a sanctuary or church, ultimately cognate to English/German Land) in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence, Mediolanum could signify the central town or sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, the name "Mediolanum" is borne by about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France, e.g. Saintes (Mediolanum Santonum) and Évreux (Mediolanum Aulercorum). In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow (the Scrofa semilanuta) an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata (1584), beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, and the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French.
The foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar; therefore "The city's symbol is a wool-bearing boar, an animal of double form, here with sharp bristles, there with sleek wool." Alciato credits Ambrose for his account.
||It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Milan. (Discuss) (December 2016)|
History tells us that Mediolanum (Milan), the Latinized form of Medhelanon, meaning "sanctuary", was founded by the Insubri Celts in 590 B.C. According to Titus Livy’s comments, the city was founded around 600 B.C. by Belloveso, chief of the Celtic tribe. Legend has it that Belloveso found a mythological animal known as the scrofa semilanuta (in Italian: "half-woollen boar") which became the ancient emblem of the city of Milan (from semi-lanuta or medio-lanum). Several ancient sources (including Sidonius Apollinaris, Datius, and, more recently, Andrea Alciato) have argued that the scrofa semilanuta is connected to the etymology of the ancient name of Milan, "Mediolanum", and this is still occasionally mentioned in modern sources, although this interpretation has long been dismissed by scholars. Nonetheless wool production became a key industry in this area, as recorded in during the early Middle Ages (see below).
Milan was conquered by the Romans in 222 B.C. due to its strategic position on the northern borders of the Empire. When Diocletian decided to divide the Empire in half choosing the Eastern half for himself, Milan became the residence of Maximian, ruler of the Western Roman Empire. The construction of the second city walls, roughly four and a half kilometers long and unfurling at today’s Foro Bonaparte, date back to his reign. After the abdication of Maximian (in 306 A.D.) on the same day in which Diocletian also abdicated, there were series of wars of succession, during which there was a succession of three emperors in just a few short years: first Severo, who prepared the expedition against Maxentius, then Maxentius himself in war against Constantine, and finally Constantine, victor of the war against Maxentius. In 313 A.D. the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan (Edict of Constantine), ending the persecutions against Christians.
The beginning of the 5th century was the start of a tortuous period of barbarian invasions for Milan. After the city was besieged by the Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. An age of decadence began which worsened when Attila, King of the Huns, sacked and devastated the city in 452 A.D. In 539, the Ostrogoths conquered and destroyed Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569, a Teutonic tribe, the Lombards (from which the name of the Italian region Lombardy derives), conquered Milan, overpowering the small Byzantine army left for its defence. Some Roman structures remained in use in Milan under Lombard rule.
Milan surrendered to Charlemagne and the Franks in 774. The aristocracy and majority of the clergy had taken refuge in Genoa. In 774 when Charlemagne took the title of "King of the Lombards" he established his imperial capital of Aachen in what is today Germany. Before then the Germanic kingdoms had frequently conquered each other, but none had adopted the title of King of another people. The Iron Crown of Lombardy (i.e. referring to Charlemagne's kingdom and not to the Italian region) which was worn by Charlemagne, dates from this period. Milan’s domination under the Franks led by Charlemagne, did nothing to improve the city’s fortune and the city's impoverishment increased and Milan became a county seat.
The 11th century saw a reaction against the control of the German emperors. The city-state was born, an expression of the new political power of the city and its will to fight against all feudal powers. Milan was no exception. It did not take long, however, for the City States to begin fighting each other to try to limit neighbouring powers. The Milanese destroyed Lodi and continuously warred with Pavia, Cremona and Como, who in turn asked the Emperor of Germany, Frederick I Barbarossa for help. This brought the destruction of much of Milan in 1162. A fire destroyed the storehouses containing the entire food supply: and within just a few days Milan was forced to surrender.
A period of peace followed and Milan prospered as a centre of trade due to its position. As a result of the independence that the Lombard cities gained in the Peace of Constance in 1183, Milan became a duchy. In 1208 Rambertino Buvalelli served a term as podestà of the city, in 1242 Luca Grimaldi, and in 1282 Luchetto Gattilusio. The position was a dangerous one: in 1252 Milanese heretics assassinated the Church's Inquisitor, later known as Saint Peter Martyr, at a ford in the nearby contado; the killers bribed their way to freedom, and in the ensuing riot the podestà was almost lynched. In 1256 the archbishop and leading nobles were expelled from the city. In 1259 Martino della Torre was elected Capitano del Popolo by members of the guilds; he took the city by force, expelled his enemies, and ruled by dictatorial powers, paving streets, digging canals, and taxing the countryside. He also brought the Milanese treasury to collapse; the use of often reckless mercenary units further angered the population, granting an increasing support for the Della Torre's traditional enemies, the Visconti. The most important industries in this period were armaments and wool production, a whole catalogue of activities and trades is given in Bonvesin della Riva's "de Magnalibus Urbis Mediolani".
On 22 July 1262, Ottone Visconti was made archbishop of Milan by Pope Urban IV, against the candidacy of Raimondo della Torre, Bishop of Como. The latter thus started to publicise allegations of the Visconti's closeness to the heretic Cathars and charged them of high treason: the Visconti, who accused the Della Torre of the same crimes, were then banned from Milan and their properties confiscated. The ensuing civil war caused more damage to Milan's population and economy, lasting for more than a decade. Ottone Visconti unsuccessfully led a group of exiles against the city in 1263, but after years of escalating violence on all sides, in the Battle of Desio (1277) he won the city for his family. The Visconti succeeded in ousting the della Torre permanently, and proceeded to rule Milan and its possessions until the 15th century.
Much of the prior history of Milan was the tale of the struggle between two political factions: the Guelphs and the Ghibellines. Most of the time the Guelphs were successful in the city of Milan. Eventually, however, the Visconti family were able to seize power (signoria) in Milan, based on their "Ghibelline" friendship with the German Emperors. In 1395, one of these emperors, Wenceslas (1378–1400), raised the Milanese to the dignity of a duchy. Also in 1395, Gian Galeazzo Visconti became duke of Milan. The Ghibelline Visconti family was to retain power in Milan for a century and a half from the early 14th century until the middle of the 15th century.
In 1447 Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, died without a male heir; following the end of the Visconti line, the Ambrosian Republic was enacted. The Ambrosian Republic took its name from St. Ambrose, popular patron saint of the city of Milan. Both the Guelph and the Ghibelline factions worked together to bring about the Ambrosian Republic in Milan. Nonetheless, the Republic collapsed when, in 1450, Milan was conquered by Francesco Sforza, of the House of Sforza, which made Milan one of the leading cities of the Italian Renaissance.
The Italian Wars were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, and later most of the major states of Western Europe. Milan's last independent ruler, Lodovico il Moro, called French king Charles VIII into Italy in the expectation that France might be an ally in inter-Italian wars. The future king of France, Louis of Orléans, took part in the expedition and realised Italy was virtually defenceless. This prompted him to come back a few years later in 1500, and claim the Duchy of Milan for himself, his grandmother having been a member of the ruling Visconti family. At that time, Milan was also defended by Swiss mercenaries. After the victory of Louis's successor François I over the Swiss at the Battle of Marignan, the duchy was promised to the French king François I. When the Spanish Habsburg Emperor Charles V defeated François I at the Battle of Pavia in 1525, northern Italy, including Milan, passed to Habsburg Spain.
In 1556, Charles V abdicated in favour of his son Philip II and his brother Ferdinand I. Charles's Italian possessions, including Milan, passed to Philip II and remained with the Spanish line of Habsburgs, while Ferdinand's Austrian line of Habsburgs ruled the Holy Roman Empire.
The Great Plague of Milan in 1629–31 killed an estimated 60,000 people out of a population of 130,000. This episode is considered one of the last outbreaks of the centuries-long pandemic of plague that began with the Black Death.
In 1700 the Spanish line of Habsburgs was extinguished with the death of Charles II. After his death, the War of the Spanish Succession began in 1701 with the occupation of all Spanish possessions by French troops backing the claim of the French Philippe of Anjou to the Spanish throne. In 1706, the French were defeated in Ramillies and Turin and were forced to yield northern Italy to the Austrian Habsburgs. In 1713–1714 the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt formally confirmed Austrian sovereignty over most of Spain's Italian possessions including Lombardy and its capital, Milan.
Napoleon invaded Italy in 1796, and Milan was declared capital of the Cisalpine Republic. Later, he declared Milan capital of the Kingdom of Italy and was crowned in the Duomo. Once Napoleon's occupation ended, the Congress of Vienna returned Lombardy, and Milan, along with Veneto, to Austrian control in 1815. During this period, Milan became a centre of lyric opera. Here in the 1770s Mozart had premiered three operas at the Teatro Regio Ducal. Later La Scala became the reference theatre in the world, with its premières of Bellini, Donizetti, Rossini and Verdi. Verdi himself is interred in the Casa di Riposo per Musicisti, his present to Milan. In the 19th century other important theatres were La Cannobiana and the Teatro Carcano.
On 18 March 1848, the Milanese rebelled against Austrian rule, during the so-called "Five Days" (Italian: Le Cinque Giornate), and Field Marshal Radetzky was forced to withdraw from the city temporarily. The Kingdom of Sardinia stepped in to help the insurgents; a plebiscite held in Lombardy decided in favour of unification with Sardinia. However, after defeating the Sardinian forces at Custoza on 24 July, Radetzky was able to reassert Austrian control over Milan and northern Italy. A few years on, however, Italian nationalists again called for the removal of Austria and Italian unification. Sardinia and France formed an alliance and defeated Austria at the Battle of Solferino in 1859. Following this battle, Milan and the rest of Lombardy were incorporated into the Kingdom of Sardinia, which soon gained control of most of Italy and in 1861 was rechristened as the Kingdom of Italy.
The political unification of Italy cemented Milan's commercial dominance over northern Italy. It also led to a flurry of railway construction that had started under Austrian partronage (Venice–Milan; Milan–Monza) that made Milan the rail hub of northern Italy. Thereafter with the opening of the Gotthard (1881) and Simplon (1906) railway tunnels, Milan became the major South European rail focus for business and passenger movements e.g. the Simplon Orient Express. Rapid industrialization and market expansion put Milan at the centre of Italy's leading industrial region, including extensive stone quarries that have led to much of the air pollution we see today in the region. In the 1890s Milan was shaken by the Bava-Beccaris massacre, a riot related to a high inflation rate. Meanwhile, as Milanese banks dominated Italy's financial sphere, the city became the country's leading financial centre.
Late modern and contemporaryEdit
In 1919, Benito Mussolini's Blackshirts rallied for the first time in Piazza San Sepolcro and later began their March on Rome in Milan. During the Second World War Milan suffered extensive damage from Allied bombings. When Italy surrendered in 1943, German forces occupied most of Northern Italy until 1945. As a result, resistance groups formed. As the war came to an end, the American 1st Armored Division advanced on Milan – but before they arrived, the resistance seized control of the city and executed Mussolini along with several members of his government. On 29 April 1945, the corpses of Mussolini, his mistress Clara Petacci and other Fascist leaders were hanged in Piazzale Loreto.
During the post-war economic boom, a large wave of internal migration (especially from rural areas of Southern Italy), moved to Milan. The population grew from 1.3 million in 1951 to 1.7 million in 1967. During this period, Milan was largely reconstructed, with the building of several innovative and modernist skyscrapers, such as the Torre Velasca and the Pirelli Tower. The economic prosperity was however overshadowed in the late 1960s and early 1970s during the so-called Years of Lead, when Milan witnessed an unprecedented wave of street violence, labour strikes and political terrorism. The apex of this period of turmoil occurred on 12 December 1969, when a bomb exploded at the National Agrarian Bank in Piazza Fontana, killing seventeen people and injuring eighty-eight.
In the 1980s, with the international success of Milanese houses (like Armani, Versace and Dolce & Gabbana), Milan became one of the world's fashion capitals. The city saw also a marked rise in international tourism, notably from America and Japan, while the stock exchange increased its market capitalisation more than five-fold. This period led the mass media to nickname the metropolis "Milano da bere", literally "Milan to drink". However, in the 1990s, Milan was badly affected by Tangentopoli, a political scandal in which many politicians and businessmen were tried for corruption. The city was also affected by a severe financial crisis and a steady decline in textiles, automobile and steel production.
In the early 21st century, Milan underwent a series of sweeping redevelopments. Its exhibition centre moved to a much larger site in Rho. New business districts such as Porta Nuova and CityLife  were constructed. With the decline in manufacturing, the city has sought to develop on its other sources of revenue, including publishing, finance, banking, fashion design, information technology, logistics, transport and tourism. In addition, the city's decades-long population decline seems to have come to an end in recent years, with signs of recovery as it grew by seven percent since the last census.
Milan is located in the north-western section of the Po Valley, approximately halfway between the river Po to the south and the foothills of the Alps with the great lakes (Lake Como, Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano) to the north, the Ticino river to the west and the Adda to the east. The city's land is flat, the highest point being at 122 m (400.26 ft) above sea level.
The administrative commune covers an area of about 181 square kilometres (70 sq mi), with a population, in 2013, of 1,324,169 and a population density of 7,315 inhabitants per square kilometre (18,950/sq mi). The Metropolitan City of Milan covers 1,575 square kilometres (608 sq mi) and in 2015 had a population estimated at 3,196,825, with a resulting density of 2,029 inhabitants per square kilometre (5,260/sq mi). A larger urban area, comprising parts of the provinces of Milan, Monza e Brianza, Como, Lecco and Varese is 1,891 square kilometres (730 sq mi) wide and has a population of 5,270,000 with a density of 2,783 inhabitants per square kilometre (7,210/sq mi).
The concentric layout of the city centre reflects the Navigli, an ancient system of navigable and interconnected canals, now mostly covered. The suburbs of the city have expanded mainly to the north, swallowing up many communes to reach Varese, Como, Lecco and Bergamo.
Milan has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), according to the Köppen climate classification, or a temperate oceanic climate (Do), according to the Trewartha climate classification. Milan's climate is similar to much of Northern Italy's inland plains, with hot, sultry summers and cold, foggy winters. However, the mean number of days with precipitation per year is one of the lowest in Europe. The Alps and Apennines mountains form a natural barrier that protects the city from the major circulations coming from northern Europe and the sea.
During winter, daily average temperatures can fall below freezing (0 °C [32 °F]) and accumulations of snow can occur: the historic average of Milan's area is 25 centimetres (10 in) in the period between 1961 and 1990, with a record of 90 centimetres (35 in) in January 1985. In the suburbs the average can reach 36 centimetres (14 in). The city receives on average seven days of snow per year.
The city is often shrouded in heavy fog, although the removal of rice paddies from the southern neighbourhoods and the urban heat island effect have reduced this occurrence in recent decades. Occasionally, the Foehn winds cause the temperatures to rise unexpectedly: on 22 January 2012 the daily high reached 16 °C (61 °F) while on 22 February 2012 it reached 21 °C (70 °F). Air pollution levels rise significantly in wintertime when cold air clings to the soil, causing Milan to be one of Europe’s most polluted cities.
In summer, humidity levels are high and peak temperatures can reach temperatures above 35 °C (95 °F). Usually this season enjoys clearer skies with an average of more than 13 hours of daylight: when precipitations occur though, there is a higher likelihood of them being thunderstorms and hailstorms. Springs and autumns are generally pleasant, with temperatures ranging between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F); these seasons are characterised by higher rainfall, especially in April and May. Relative humidity typically ranges between 45% (comfortable) and 95% (very humid) throughout the year, rarely dropping below 27% (dry) and reaching as high as 100% Wind is generally absent: over the course of the year typical wind speeds vary from 0 to 14 km/h (0 to 9 mph) (calm to gentle breeze), rarely exceeding 29 km/h (18 mph) (fresh breeze), except during summer thunderstorms when winds can blow strong. In the spring, gale-force windstorms may happen, generated either by Tramontane blowing from the Alps or by Bora-like winds from the north.
|Climate data for Milan (Linate Airport, 1971–2000, Extremes 1946–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.7
|Average high °C (°F)||5.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−15.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||58.7
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||6.7||5.3||6.7||8.1||8.9||7.7||5.4||7.1||6.1||8.3||6.4||6.3||83.0|
|Average relative humidity (%)||86||78||71||75||72||71||71||72||74||81||85||86||77|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||58.9||96.1||151.9||177.0||210.8||243.0||285.2||251.1||186.0||130.2||66.0||58.9||1,915.1|
|Source: Servizio Meteorologico|
The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council (Consiglio Comunale), which is composed by 48 councillors elected every five years with a proportional system, contextually to the mayoral elections. The executive body is the City Committee (Giunta Comunale), composed by 12 assessors, that is nominated and presided over by a directly elected Mayor. The current mayor of Milan is Giuseppe Sala, a left-wing independent leading a progressive alliance composed by Democratic Party and Italian Left.
The municipality of Milan is subdivided into nine administrative Borough Councils (Consigli di Municipio), down from the former twenty districts before the 1999 administrative reform. Each Borough Council is governed by a Council (Consiglio) and a President, elected contextually to the city Mayor. The urban organisation is governed by the Italian Constitution (art. 114), the Municipal Statute and several laws, notably the Legislative Decree 267/2000 or Unified Text on Local Administration (Testo Unico degli Enti Locali). After the 2016 administrative reform, the Borough Councils have the power to advise the Mayor with nonbinding opinions on a large spectrum of topics and are responsible for running most local services, such as schools, social services, waste collection, roads, parks, libraries and local commerce; in addition they are supplied with an autonomous funding in order to finance local activities.
Provincial and regional governmentEdit
Milan is the capital of the eponymous administrative province and of Lombardy, one of the twenty regions of Italy. While the Province of Milan has a population of 3,195,211, making it the second most populated province of Italy after Rome, Lombardy is by far the most populated region of Italy, with more than ten million inhabitants, almost one sixth of the national total. The seat of the regional government is Palazzo Lombardia that, standing at 161.3 metres (529 feet), is the second tallest building in Milan.
According to the last governmental dispositions concerning administrative reorganisation, the urban area of Milan is one of the 15 Metropolitan municipalities (città metropolitane), new administrative bodies fully operative since 1 January 2015. The new Metro municipalities, giving large urban areas the administrative powers of a province, are conceived for improving the performance of local administrations and to slash local spending by better co-ordinating the municipalities in providing basic services (including transport, school and social programs) and environment protection. In this policy framework, the Mayor of Milan is designated to exercise the functions of Metropolitan mayor (Sindaco metropolitano), presiding over a Metropolitan Council formed by 16 mayors of municipalities within the Metro municipality.
The Metropolitan City of Milan is headed by the Metropolitan Mayor (Sindaco metropolitano) and by the Metropolitan Council (Consiglio metropolitano). Since 21 June 2016 Giuseppe Sala, as mayor of the capital city, has been the mayor of the Metropolitan City.
There are only few remains of the ancient Roman colony, notably the well-preserved Colonne di San Lorenzo. During the second half of the 4th century, Saint Ambrose, as bishop of Milan, had a strong influence on the layout of the city, reshaping the centre (although the cathedral and baptistery built in Roman times are now lost) and building the great basilicas at the city gates: Sant'Ambrogio, San Nazaro in Brolo, San Simpliciano and Sant'Eustorgio, which still stand, refurbished over the centuries, as some of the finest and most important churches in Milan. Milan's Cathedral, built between 1386 and 1577, is the fifth largest cathedral in the world and the most important example of Gothic architecture in Italy. The gilt bronze statue of the Virgin Mary, placed in 1774 on the highest pinnacle of the Duomo, soon became one of the most enduring symbols of Milan.
In the 15th century, when the Sforza ruled the city, an old Viscontean fortress was enlarged and embellished to become the Castello Sforzesco, the seat of an elegant Renaissance court surrounded by a walled hunting park. Notable architects involved in the project included the Florentine Filarete, who was commissioned to build the high central entrance tower, and the military specialist Bartolomeo Gadio. The alliance between Francesco Sforza and Florence's Cosimo de' Medici bore to Milan Tuscan models of Renaissance architecture, apparent in the Ospedale Maggiore and Bramante's work in the city, which includes Santa Maria presso San Satiro (a reconstruction of a small 9th-century church), the tribune of Santa Maria delle Grazie and three cloisters for Sant'Ambrogio. The Counter-Reformation in the 16th–17th century was also the period of Spanish domination and was marked by two powerful figures: Saint Charles Borromeo and his cousin, Cardinal Federico Borromeo. Not only did they impose themselves as moral guides to the people of Milan, but they also gave a great impulse to culture, with the creation of the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, in a building designed by Francesco Maria Ricchino, and the nearby Pinacoteca Ambrosiana. Many notable churches and Baroque mansions were built in the city during this period by the architects, Pellegrino Tibaldi, Galeazzo Alessi and Ricchino himself.
Empress Maria Theresa of Austria was responsible for the significant renovations carried out in Milan during the 18th century. This profound urban and artistic renewal included the establishment of Teatro alla Scala, inaugurated in 1778 and today one of the world's most famous opera houses, and the renovation of the Royal Palace. The late 1700s Palazzo Belgioioso by Giuseppe Piermarini and Royal Villa of Milan by Leopoldo Pollack, later the official residence of Austrian vice-roys, are often regarded among the best examples of Neoclassical architecture in Lombardy. The Napoleonic rule of the city in 1805–1814, having established Milan as the capital of a satellite Kingdom of Italy, took steps in order to reshape it accordingly to its new status, with the construction of large boulevards, new squares (Porta Ticinese by Luigi Cagnola and Foro Bonaparte by Giovanni Antonio Antolini) and cultural institutions (Art Gallery and the Academy of Fine Arts). The massive Arch of Peace, situated at the bottom of Corso Sempione, is often compared to the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. In the second half of the 19th century, Milan quickly became the main industrial centre in of the new Italian nation, drawing inspiration from the great European capitals that were hubs of the second industrial revolution. The great Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, realised by Giuseppe Mengoni between 1865 and 1877 to celebrate Vittorio Emanuele II, is a covered passage with a glass and cast iron roof, inspired by the Burlington Arcade in London. Another late 19th century eclectic monument in the city is the Cimitero Monumentale graveyard, built in a Neo-Romanesque style between 1863 and 1866.
The tumultuous period of early 20th century brought several, radical innovations in Milanese architecture. Art Nouveau, also known as Liberty in Italy, is recognisable in Palazzo Castiglioni, built by architect Giuseppe Sommaruga between 1901 and 1904. Other remarkable examples include Hotel Corso and Berri-Meregalli house, the latter built in a traditional Milanese Art Nouveau style combined with elements of neo-Romanesque and Gothic revival architecture, regarded as one of the last such types of architecture in the city. A new, more eclectic form of architecture can be seen in buildings such as Castello Cova, built the 1910s in a distinctly neo-medieval style, evoking the architectural trends of the past. An important example of Art Deco, which blended such styles with Fascist architecture, is the huge Central railway station inaugurated in 1931.
The post–World War II period saw rapid reconstruction and fast economic growth, accompanied by a nearly two-fold increase in population. In the 1950s and 1960s, a strong demand for new residential and commercial areas drove to extreme urban expansion, that has produced some of the major milestones in the city's architectural history, including Gio Ponti's Pirelli Tower (1956–60), Velasca Tower (1956–58), and the creation of brand new residential satellite towns, as well as huge amounts of low quality public housings. In recent years, de-industrialization, urban decay and gentrification led to a vast urban renewal of former industrial areas, that have been transformed into modern residential and financial districts, notably Porta Nuova in downtown Milan and FieraMilano in the suburb of Rho. In addition, the old exhibition area is being completely reshaped according to the Citylife regeneration project, featuring residencial areas, museums, an urban park and three skyscrapers designed by international architects, and after whom they are named: the 202-metre (663-foot) Isozaki Tower – when completed, the tallest building in Italy, the twisted Hadid Tower, and the curved Libeskind Tower.
Parks and gardensEdit
The largest parks in the central area of Milan are Sempione Park, at the north-western edge, and Montanelli Gardens, situated northeast of the city. English-style Sempione Park, built in 1890, contains a Napoleonic Arena, the Milan City Aquarium, a steel lattice panoramic tower, an art exhibition centre, a Japanese garden and a public library. The Montanelli gardens, created in the 18th century, hosts the Natural History Museum of Milan and a planetarium. Slightly away from the city centre, heading east, Forlanini Park is characterised by a large pond and a few preserved shacks which remind of the area's agricultural past.
In addition, even though Milan is located in one of the most urbanised regions of Italy, it's surrounded by a belt of green areas and features numerous gardens even in its very centre. Since 1990, the farmlands and woodlands north (Parco Nord Milano) and south (Parco Agricolo Sud Milano) of the urban area have been protected as regional parks. West of the city, the Parco delle Cave (Sand pit park,) has been established on a neglected site where gravel and sand used to be extracted, featuring artificial lakes and woods.
|Source: ISTAT 2011|
With rapid industrialisation in post-war years, the population of Milan peaked at 1,743,427 in 1973. Thereafter, during the following thirty years, almost one third of the population moved to the outer belt of new suburbs and satellite settlements that grew around the city proper. There were an estimated 1,324,169 official residents in the commune of Milan at the end of 2013 and 3,196,825 in its administrative metropolitan city. However, Milan's conurbation extends well beyond the limits of its administrative area and was home to 5,270,000 people in 2015, while its wider metropolitan area has a population of between 7 and 10 million depending on the definition used.
Using the administrative division of the Milanese territory in the functional areas some important aspects of the spatial distribution of demographic phenomena can be captured. As well as the aggregated data on the stocks, the individual information (also geographically referenced) by the population register are considered for this purpose. The stocks at the 1st on January of the years from 2005 to 2009 are available. The totals for individuals and family are consistent with the totals published by ISTAT (National Institute of Statistics) by means of appropriate scaling coefficients, since some differences can occur between the two sources. As of the 2011 census, the Italian national institute of statistics estimated that 236,855 foreign-born residents lived in Milan, representing almost 20% of the total resident population, a rapid increase from recent years levels. After World War II, Milan experienced two main waves of immigration: the first, dating from the 1950s to the early 1970s, saw a large influx of migrants from poorer and rural areas within Italy; the second, starting from the late 1980s, has been characterised by the preponderance of foreign-born immigrants.
The early period coincided with the so-called Italian economic miracle of postwar years, an era of extraordinary growth based on rapid industrial expansion and great public works, that brought to the city a large influx of over 400,000 people, mainly from rural and overpopulated Southern Italy. In the last three decades, the foreign born share of the population soared. Immigrants came mainly from Africa (in particular Egyptian, Moroccans, Senegalese, and Nigerian), and the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe (notably Albania, Romania, Ukraine, Macedonia, Moldova), in addition to a growing number of Asians (in particular Chinese, Sri Lankans and Filipinos) and Latin Americans (Mainly South Americans). At the beginning of the 1990s, Milan already had a population of foreign-born residents of approximately 58,000 (or 4% of the then population), that rose rapidly to over 117,000 by the end of the decade (about 9% of the total).
Decades of continuing high immigration have made the city the most cosmopolitan and multicultural in Italy. Milan notably hosts the oldest and largest Chinese community in Italy, with almost 21,000 people in 2011. Situated in the 9th district, and centred on Via Paolo Sarpi, an important commercial avenue, the Milanese Chinatown was originally established in the 1920s by immigrants from Wencheng County, in the Zhejiang province, and used to operate small textile and leather workshops. Milan has also a substantial English-speaking community (more than 3,000 American, British and Australian expatriates), and several English schools and language publications, such as Hello Milano, Where Milano and Easy Milano.
|Top nationalities of foreign residents (2015)|
|Country of birth||Population|
Milan's population, like that of Italy as a whole, is mostly Catholic. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan. The city is also home to sizeable Orthodox, Buddhist, Jewish, Muslim, and Protestant communities.
Milan has its own historic Catholic rite known as the Ambrosian Rite (Italian: Rito ambrosiano). It varies slightly from the typical Catholic rite (the Roman, used in all other western regions), with some differences in the liturgy and mass celebrations, in the Canons are Easter and Lent, in the colour of liturgical vestments, peculiar use of incense, marriage form, office for the dead, baptism by immersion, and in the calendar (for example, the date for the beginning of lent is celebrated some days after the common date, so the carnival has different date). The season of Advent is of six weeks duration and starts on the Sunday after the feast of Saint Martin (11 November). The Ambrosian rite is also practised in other surrounding locations in Lombardy, parts of Piedmont and in the Swiss canton of Ticino. The sounding of church bells uses a peculiar technique. Another important difference concerns the liturgical music. The Gregorian chant was completely unused in Milan and surrounding areas, because the official one was its own Ambrosian chant, definitively established by the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and earlier than the Gregorian. To preserve this music there has developed the unique schola cantorum, a college, and an Institute called PIAMS (Pontifical Ambrosian Institute of Sacred Music), in partnership with the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music (PIMS) in Rome.
The Milan Synagogue was designed by Luca Beltrami in 1892. The Anglican Episcopal Church of All Saints Milan was built in 1896. In 2014 the City Council agreed on the construction of a mosque next to the area of the former sport venue Palatrussardi.
While Rome is Italy's political capital, Milan is the country's industrial and financial heart. With a 2010 GDP estimated at €132.5 billion, the province of Milan generates approximately 9% of the national GDP; while the economy of the Lombardy region generates approximately 20% of Italy's GDP (or an estimated €325 billion in 2010, roughly the size of Belgium). The province of Milan is home to about 45% of businesses in the Lombardy region and more than 8 percent of all businesses in Italy, including three Fortune 500 companies.
Milan is, since the late 1800s, an important industrial and manufacturing centre, especially for the automotive industry, with companies such as Alfa Romeo, Pirelli and Techint having a significant presence in the city. Other important products manufactured in Milan include chemicals, machinery, pharmaceuticals and plastics, health and biotechnologie and food & beverage.
The city is home to a large number of media and advertising agencies, national newspapers and telecommunication companies, including both the public service broadcaster RAI and private television companies like Mediaset, La7 and Sky Italia. The city hosts the headquarters of the largest Italian publishing companies, such as Feltrinelli, Mondadori, RCS Media Group, Messaggerie Italiane, and Giunti Editore. Milan has also seen a rapid increase in internet companies with both domestic and international companies such as Altavista, Google, Lycos, Virgilio and Yahoo! establishing their Italian operations in the city.
Milan is the seat of Italy's main banking groups (198 companies), including Banca Popolare di Milano, Mediobanca, Banca Mediolanum and UniCredit and over forty foreign banks. Also, most asset management companies are based in Milan, including Anima Holding, Azimut Holding, ARCA SGR, and Eurizon Capital. The Associazione Bancaria Italiana representing the Italian banking system and Milan Stock Exchange (225 companies listed on the stock exchange) are both located in the city.
Milan is a major world fashion centre, where the sector can count on 12,000 companies, 800 show rooms, and 6,000 sales outlets (with brands such as Armani, Prada, Versace, Valentino and Luxottica), while four weeks a year are dedicated to top shows and other fashion events. The city is also a global hub for trade and design. The city successfully hosted Expo 2015. FieraMilano, the historical city trade fair operator, operates one of the largest expo areas in the world and the second in Europe (after Hannover) in the northern suburb of Rho, responsible for fairs such as Milan Furniture Fair, EICMA, EMO on 0.7 mln m² of exhibition areas with about 4.5 million visitors every year.
Porta Nuova is the main business district of Milan, and one of the most important in Italy. AXA, Bank of America, BNP Paribas, Celgene, China Construction Bank, Finanza & Futuro Banca, FinecoBank, FM Global, Google, Herbalife, HSBC, KPMG, Maire Tecnimont, Microsoft, Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, Samsung, Shire, Telecom Italia, UniCredit, UnipolSai and many other companies have their main Italian headquarters located there.
Tourism is an increasingly important part of the city's economy: with 7.65 million registered international arrivals in 2016 (up 1.8% on the previous year), Milan ranked as the world's 14th most visited city.
Museums and art galleriesEdit
Milan is home to many cultural institutions, museums and art galleries, that account for about a tenth of the national total of visitors and receipts. The Pinacoteca di Brera is one of Milan's most important art galleries. It contains one of the foremost collections of Italian painting, including masterpieces such as the Brera Madonna by Piero della Francesca. The Castello Sforzesco hosts numerous art collections and exhibitions, especially statues, ancient arms and furnitures, as well as the Pinacoteca del Castello Sforzesco, with an art collection including Michelangelo's last sculpture, the Rondanini Pietà, Andrea Mantegna's Trivulzio Madonna and Leonardo da Vinci's Codex Trivulzianus manuscript. The Castello complex also includes The Museum of Ancient Art, The Furniture Museum, The Museum of Musical Instruments and the Applied Arts Collection, The Egyptian and Prehistoric sections of the Archaeological Museum and the Achille Bertarelli Print Collection.
Milan's figurative art flourished in the Middle-Ages, and with the Visconti family being major patrons of the arts, the city became an important centre of Gothic art and architecture (Milan Cathedral being the city's most formidable work of Gothic architecture). Leonardo worked in Milan from 1482 until 1499. He was commissioned to paint the Virgin of the Rocks for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception and The Last Supper for the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie.
The city was affected by the Baroque in the 17th and 18th centuries, and hosted numerous formidable artists, architects and painters of that period, such as Caravaggio and Francesco Hayez, which several important works are hosted in Brera Academy. The Museum of Risorgimento is specialised on the history of Italian unification Its collections include iconic paintings like Baldassare Verazzi's Episode from the Five Days and Francesco Hayez's 1840 Portrait of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria. The Triennale is a design museum and events venue located in Palazzo dell'Arte, in Sempione Park. It hosts exhibitions and events highlighting contemporary Italian design, urban planning, architecture, music, and media arts, emphasising the relationship between art and industry.
Milan in the 20th century was the epicentre of the Futurist artistic movement. Filippo Marinetti, the founder of Italian Futurism wrote in his 1909 "Futurist Manifesto" (in Italian, Manifesto Futuristico), that Milan was "grande...tradizionale e futurista" ("grand...traditional and futuristic", in English). Umberto Boccioni was also an important Futurism artist who worked in the city. Today, Milan remains a major international hub of modern and contemporary art, with numerous modern art galleries. The Modern Art Gallery, situated in the Royal Villa, hosts collections of Italian and European painting from the 18th to the early 20th centuries. The Museo del Novecento, situated in the Palazzo dell'Arengario, is one of the most important art galleries in Italy about 20th-century art; of particular relevance are the sections dedicated to Futurism, Spatialism and Arte povera. In the early 1990s architect David Chipperfield was invited to convert the premises of the former Ansaldo Factory into a Museum. Museo delle Culture (MUDEC) opened in April 2015. The Gallerie di Piazza Scala, a modern and contemporary museum located in Piazza della Scala in the Palazzo Brentani and the Palazzo Anguissola, hosts 195 artworks from the collections of Fondazione Cariplo with a strong representation of nineteenth century Lombard painters and sculptors, including Antonio Canova and Umberto Boccioni. A new section was opened in the Palazzo della Banca Commerciale Italiana in 2012. Other private ventures dedicated to contemporary art include the exhibiting spaces of the Prada Foundation and HangarBicocca. The Nicola Trussardi Foundation is renewed for organising temporary exhibition in venues around the city. Milan is also home to many public art projects, with a variety of works that range from sculptures to murals to pieces by internationally renowned artists, including Arman, Francesco Barzaghi, Alberto Burri, Pietro Cascella, Maurizio Cattelan, Leonardo Da Vinci, Giorgio de Chirico, Fausto Melotti, Claes Oldenburg, Igor Mitoraj, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Arnaldo Pomodoro, Aldo Rossi, Giuseppe Spagnulo and Domenico Trentacoste.
Milan is a major national and international centre of the performing arts, most notably opera. The city hosts La Scala operahouse, considered one of the world's most prestigious, having throughout history witnessed the premieres of numerous operas, such as Nabucco by Giuseppe Verdi in 1842, La Gioconda by Amilcare Ponchielli, Madama Butterfly by Giacomo Puccini in 1904, Turandot by Giacomo Puccini in 1926, and more recently Teneke, by Fabio Vacchi in 2007. Other major theatres in Milan include the Teatro degli Arcimboldi, Teatro Dal Verme, Teatro Lirico and formerly the Teatro Regio Ducal. The city is also the seat of a renowned symphony orchestra and musical conservatory, and has been, throughout history, a major centre for musical composition: numerous famous composers and musicians such as Gioseppe Caimo, Simon Boyleau, Hoste da Reggio, Verdi, Giulio Gatti-Casazza, Paolo Cherici and Alice Edun lived and worked in Milan. The city is also the birthplace of many modern ensembles and bands, including Camaleonti, Camerata Mediolanense, Gli Spioni, Dynamis Ensemble, Elio e le Storie Tese, Krisma, Premiata Forneria Marconi, Quartetto Cetra, Stormy Six and Le Vibrazioni.
Fashion and designEdit
Milan is widely regarded as a global capital in industrial design, fashion and architecture. In the 1950s and 60s, as the main industrial centre of Italy and one of Europe's most dynamic cities, Milan became a world capital of design and architecture. There was such a revolutionary change that Milan’s fashion exports accounted for $726 million (US currency) in 1952, and by 1955 that number grew to $2.5 billion. Modern skyscrapers, such as the Pirelli Tower and the Torre Velasca were built, and artists such as Bruno Munari, Lucio Fontana, Enrico Castellani and Piero Manzoni gathered in the city. Today, Milan is still particularly well known for its high-quality furniture and interior design industry. The city is home to FieraMilano, Europe's largest permanent trade exhibition, and Salone Internazionale del Mobile, one of the most prestigious international furniture and design fairs.
Milan is also regarded as one of the fashion capitals of the world, along with New York City, Paris, and London. Milan is synonymous with the Italian prêt-à-porter industry, as many of the most famous Italian fashion brands, such as Valentino, Gucci, Versace, Prada, Armani and Dolce & Gabbana, are headquartered in the city. Numerous international fashion labels also operate shops in Milan. Furthermore, the city hosts the Milan Fashion Week twice a year, one of the most important events in the international fashion system. Milan's main upscale fashion district, quadrilatero della moda, is home to the city's most prestigious shopping streets (Via Monte Napoleone, Via della Spiga, Via Sant'Andrea, Via Manzoni and Corso Venezia), in addition to Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, one of the world's oldest shopping malls.
Languages and literatureEdit
In the late 18th century, and throughout the 19th, Milan was an important centre for intellectual discussion and literary creativity. The Enlightenment found here a fertile ground. Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria, with his famous Dei delitti e delle pene, and Count Pietro Verri, with the periodical Il Caffè were able to exert a considerable influence over the new middle-class culture, thanks also to an open-minded Austrian administration.
In the first years of the 19th century, the ideals of the Romantic movement made their impact on the cultural life of the city and its major writers debated the primacy of Classical versus Romantic poetry. Here, too, Giuseppe Parini, and Ugo Foscolo published their most important works, and were admired by younger poets as masters of ethics, as well as of literary craftsmanship. Foscolo's poem Dei sepolcri was inspired by a Napoleonic law that—against the will of many of its inhabitants—was being extended to the city.
In the third decade of the 19th century, Alessandro Manzoni wrote his novel I Promessi Sposi, considered the manifesto of Italian Romanticism, which found in Milan its centre; in the same period Carlo Porta, reputed the most renowned local vernacular poet, wrote his poems in Lombard Language. The periodical Il Conciliatore published articles by Silvio Pellico, Giovanni Berchet, Ludovico di Breme, who were both Romantic in poetry and patriotic in politics.
After the Unification of Italy in 1861, Milan lost its political importance; nevertheless it retained a sort of central position in cultural debates. New ideas and movements from other countries of Europe were accepted and discussed: thus Realism and Naturalism gave birth to an Italian movement, Verismo. The greatest verista novelist, Giovanni Verga, was born in Sicily but wrote his most important books in Milan.
Milan is an important national and international media centre. Corriere della Sera, founded in 1876, is one of the oldest Italian newspapers, and it is published by Rizzoli, as well as La Gazzetta dello Sport, a daily dedicated to coverage of various sports and currently considered the most widely read daily newspaper in Italy. Other popular local dailies are the general broadsheets Il Giorno, Il Giornale, the Roman Catholic Church-owned Avvenire, and Il Sole 24 Ore, a daily business newspaper owned by Confindustria (the Italian employers' federation). Free daily newspapers include Leggo and Metro. Milan is also home to many architecture, art, and fashion periodicals, including Abitare, Casabella, Domus, Flash Art, Gioia, Grazia, and Vogue Italia. Panorama and Oggi, two of Italy’s most important weekly news magazines, are also published in Milan.
Several commercial broadcast television networks have their national headquarters in the Milan conurbation, including Mediaset Group (owner of Canale 5, Italia 1, Iris and Rete 4), Telelombardia and MTV Italy. National radio stations based in Milan include Radio Deejay, Radio 105 Network, R101 (Italy), Radio Popolare, RTL 102.5, Radio Capital and Virgin Radio Italia.
Like most cities in Italy, Milan has developed its own local culinary tradition, which, as it is typical for North Italian cuisines, uses more frequently rice than pasta, butter than vegetable oil and features almost no tomato or fish. Milanese traditional dishes includes cotoletta alla milanese, a breaded veal (pork and turkey can be used) cutlet pan-fried in butter (similar to Viennese Wiener Schnitzel). Other typical dishes are cassoeula (stewed pork rib chops and sausage with Savoy cabbage), ossobuco (braised veal shank served with a condiment called gremolata), risotto alla milanese (with saffron and beef marrow), busecca (stewed tripe with beans), and brasato (stewed beef or pork with wine and potatoes).
Season-related pastries include chiacchiere (flat fritters dusted with sugar) and tortelli (fried spherical cookies) for Carnival, colomba (glazed cake shaped as a dove) for Easter, pane dei morti ("bread of the (Day of the ) Dead", cookies flavoured with cinnamon) for All Souls' Day and panettone for Christmas. The salame Milano, a salami with a very fine grain, is widespread throughout Italy. Renowned Milanese cheeses are gorgonzola (from the namesake village nearby), mascarpone, used in pastry-making, taleggio and quartirolo.
Milan is well known for its world-class restaurants and cafés, characterised by innovative cuisine and design. As of 2014[update], Milan has 157 Michelin-selected places, including three 2-Michelin-starred restaurants; these include Cracco, Sadler and il Luogo di Aimo e Nadia. Many historical restaurants and bars are found in the historic centre, the Brera and Navigli districts. One of the city's oldest surviving cafés, Caffè Cova, was established in 1817. In total, Milan has 15 cafés, bars and restaurants registered among the Historical Places of Italy, continuously operating for at least 70 years.
Milan hosted the FIFA World Cup in 1934 and 1990, the UEFA European Football Championship in 1980 and most recently the 2003 World Rowing Championships, the 2009 World Boxing Championships, and some games of the Men's Volleyball World Championship in 2010 and the final games of the Women's Volleyball World Championship in 2014.
Milan is the only city in Europe that is home to two European Cup/Champions League winning teams – Serie A renewed football clubs A.C. Milan and F.C. Internazionale Milano. Both teams have also won the Intercontinental Cup (now FIFA Club World Cup). With a combined ten Champions League titles, Milan is second after Madrid as city that have won the most European Cups. They are the most successful clubs in the world of football in terms of international trophies. Both teams play at the UEFA 5-star rated Giuseppe Meazza Stadium, more commonly known as the San Siro, that is one of the biggest stadiums in Europe, with a seating capacity of over 80,000. The Meazza Stadium hosted the 2016 UEFA Champions League Final, in which Real Madrid C.F. defeated Atlético Madrid 5-3 in a penalty shoot out. A third team, Brera Calcio F.C. plays in Seconda Categoria.
There are currently four professional Lega Basket clubs in Milan: Olimpia Milano, Pallacanestro Milano 1958, Società Canottieri Milano and A.S.S.I. Milano. Olimpia is the most titled basketball club in Italy, having won 27 Italian League championships, 6 Italian National Cups, 1 Italian Super Cup, 3 European Champions Cups, 1 FIBA Intercontinental Cup, 3 FIBA Saporta Cups, 2 FIBA Korać Cups and many junior titles. The team play at the Mediolanum Forum, with a capacity of 12,700 where it has been hosted the final of the 2013-14 Euroleague. In some cases the team play also at the PalaDesio, with a capacity of 6,700.
Milan is also home to Italy's oldest American football team: Rhinos Milano, that won 4 Italian Super Bowls. The team play at the Velodromo Vigorelli, with a capacity of 8,000. Milan has also two cricket teams, Milano Fiori (currently competing in the second division) and Kingsgrove Milan, who won the Serie A championship in 2014. Amatori Rugby Milano, the most titled rugby team in Italy, was founded in Milan in 1927. The world-famous Monza Formula One circuit is located near the city, inside a suburban park. It is one of the world's oldest car racing circuits. The capacity for the F1 races is currently of over 113,000. It has hosted an F1 race nearly every year since the first year of competition, with the exception of 1980.
Milan is home to some of Italy's most prominent educational institutions. Milan's higher education system includes 7 universities, 48 faculties and 142 departments, with 185,000 university students in 2011 (approximately 11 percent of the national total) and the largest number of university graduates and postgraduate students (34,000 and more than 5,000, respectively) in Italy.
Founded in 1863, the Politecnico di Milano is the oldest university in Milan. The Politecnico is organised in 16 departments and a network of 9 Schools of engineering, architecture and industrial design spread over 7 campuses in the Lombardy region. The number of students enrolled in all campuses is approximately 38,000, which makes Politecnico the largest technical university in Italy. The University of Milan, founded in 1923, is the largest public teaching and research university in the city, with 9 faculties, 58 departments, 48 institutes and a teaching staff of 2,500 professors. A leading institute in Italy and Europe in scientific publication, the University of Milan is the sixth largest university in Italy, with approximately 60,000 enrolled students.
Other prominent universities in Milan include: the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, a private institute founded in 1921 and located in the Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio, famous for its law and economics teaching, currently the largest Catholic university in the world with 42,000 enrolled students; the Bocconi University, a private management and finance school established in 1902, ranking as the seventh best business school in Europe; the University of Milan Bicocca, a multidisciplinary public university with more than 30,000 enrolled students; the IULM University of Milan, specialising in marketing, information and communications technology, tourism and fashion; the Università Vita Salute San Raffaele, linked to the San Raffaele hospital, is home to research laboratories in neurology, neurosurgery, diabetology, molecular biology, AIDS studies and cognitive science.
Milan is also well known for its fine arts and music schools. The Milan Academy of Fine Arts (Brera Academy) is a public academic institution founded in 1776 by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria; the New Academy of Fine Arts is the largest private art and design university in Italy; the European Institute of Design is a private university specialised in fashion, industrial and interior design, audio/visual design including photography, advertising and marketing and business communication; the Marangoni Institute, is a fashion institute with campuses in Milan, London, and Paris; the Domus Academy is a private postgraduate institution of design, fashion, architecture, interior design and management; the Pontifical Ambrosian Institute of Sacred Music, a college of music founded in 1931 by the blessed cardinal A.I. Schuster, archbishop of Milan, and raised according to the rules by the Holy See in 1940, is – similarly to the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music in Rome, which is consociated with – an Institute "ad instar facultatis" and is authorised to confer university qualifications with canonical validity and the Milan Conservatory, a college of music established in 1807, currently Italy's largest with more than 1,700 students and 240 music teachers.
Milan is one of southern Europe's key transport nodes and one of Italy's most important railway hubs. Its five major railway stations, such as the Milan Central station, are among Italy's busiest. Since the end of 2009, two high speed train lines link Milan to Rome, Naples and Turin, considerably shortening travel times with other major cities in Italy.
The Azienda Trasporti Milanesi (ATM) operates within the metropolitan area, managing a public transport network consisting of an underground rapid transit network and tram, trolley-bus and bus lines. Overall the network covers nearly 1,400 km (870 mi) reaching 86 municipalities. Besides public transport, ATM manages the interchange parking lots and other transportation services including bike sharing and car sharing systems.
Milan Metro is the rapid transit system serving the city, that with 4 lines and a total length of more than 100 km (62 mi) is one of the largest in Europe. The recently opened M5 line is undergoing further expansion and the construction of the M4 line has been approved. The Milan suburban railway service comprises 12 lines and connects the metropolitan area with the city centre through the Milan Passerby underground railway. Commonly referred to as "Il Passante", it has a train running every 6 minutes (and in the city functions as a subway line with full transferability to the Milan Metro).
The city tram network consists of approximately 160 kilometres (99 mi) of track and 17 lines. Bus lines cover over 1,070 km (665 mi). Milan has also taxi services operated by private companies and licensed by the City council of Milan. The city is also a key node for the national road network, being served by all the major highways of Northern Italy. Numerous long-distance bus lines link Milan with many other cities and towns in Lombardy and throughout Italy.
Milan is served by three international airports. Linate, the oldest and the only airport lying within the city limits, is mainly used for domestic and short-haul international flights, and served 9 million passengers in 2014. Malpensa International Airport, the second busiest airport in Italy (about 19 million passengers in 2014), is 45 km (28 mi) from central Milan and connected to the city by the "Malpensa Express" railway service. The airport of Orio al Serio, near the city of Bergamo, serves the low-cost traffic of Milan (8.8 million passengers in 2014). Milano Bresso Airport, operated by Aero Club Milano, is a general aviation airport.
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
The partnership with the city of St. Petersburg, Russia, that started in 1967, was suspended in 2012 (a decision taken by the city of Milan), because of the prohibition of the Russian government on "homosexual propaganda".
Other forms of co-operation, partnership and city friendshipEdit
Milan has the following collaborations:
- "Resident population by age, nationality and borough". City of Milan – Statistical Department.
- "Milan: definition of Milan in Oxford dictionary (American English)". oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- Dizionario di toponomastica. Storia e significato dei nomi geografici italiani. Torino: UTET. 1990.
- "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". istat.it.
- Demographia: World Urban Areas. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "Le aree metropolitane in Italia e i loro caratteri socio-territoriali" (PDF).
- "Comunicato stampa d'ateneo".
- Gert-Jan Hospers (2002). "Beyond the Blue Banana? Structural Change in Europe's Geo-Economy" (PDF). 42nd EUROPEAN CONGRESS of the Regional Science Association Young Scientist Session – Submission for EPAINOS Award 27–31 August 2002 – Dortmund, Germany. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2006.
- "Global city GDP 2013–2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2010". Lboro.ac.uk. 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "The Global Language Monitor » Fashion". Languagemonitor.com. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- "Milan, Italy | frog". Frogdesign.com. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- "Milan Furniture Fair [Monocle]". Monocle.com. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "University and research in Milan". Province of Milan. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- "A Milano l'onda lunga di Expo: turisti ancora in crescita". ilsole24ore.com. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Guida Michelin 2016: ristoranti stellati in Lombardia". Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- Ambrogio, Renzo (2009). Nomi d'Italia : origine e significato dei nomi geografici e di tutti i comuni. Novara: Istituto geografico De Agostini. p. 385. ISBN 8851114129.
- Wise, Hilary (1997). The vocabulary of modern French origins, structure and function. London: Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 0-203-42979-6.
- Michell, John (2009). The sacred center: the ancient art of locating sanctuaries. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-59477-284-9.
- medius + lanum; Alciato's "etymology" is intentionally far-fetched.
- Bituricis vervex, Heduis dat sucula signum.
- Laniger huic signum sus est, animálque biforme, Acribus hinc setis, lanitio inde levi.
- "Alciato, Emblemata, Emblema II". Emblems.arts.gla.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- Tellier, Luc-Normand (2009). Urban World History. Québec: Press de l'Université du Québec. p. 274. ISBN 978-2-7605-1588-8.
- "313 The Edict of Milan". www.christianitytoday.com. Christian History. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- See the Laudes Mediolanensis civitatis.
- "Milan: a history of greatness, from its origins to the twentieth century". Portale per il Turismo del Comune di Milano. Retrieved 2017-05-15.
- Henry S. Lucas, The Renaissance and the Reformation (Harper & Bros.: New York, 1960) p. 37.
- Ibid., p. 38.
- Robert S. Hoyt & Stanley Chodorow Europe in the Middle Ages (Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich: New York, 1976) p. 614.
- Henry S. Lucas, The Renaissance and the Reformation p. 268.
- "The History of Milan – Relazioni Internazionali – Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore". internationalrelations.unicatt.it. Archived from the original on 8 November 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic Vol. II (Harper Bros.: New York, 1855) p. 2.
- Cipolla, Carlo M. Fighting the Plague in Seventeenth Century Italy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981.
- Bloy, Marjie (30 April 2002). "The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814—8 June 1815". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Graham J. Morris. "Solferino". Archived from the original on 30 June 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Morgan, Philip (2008). The fall of Mussolini: Italy, the Italians, and the Second World War (Reprint. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 67. ISBN 0199219346.
- Cooke, Philip (1997). Italian resistance writing: an anthology. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-7190-5172-X.
- Ginsborg, Paul (2003). A history of contemporary Italy: society and politics, 1943 – 1988. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 220. ISBN 1-4039-6153-0.
- John Foot (2001). Milan since the miracle: city, culture, and identity. New York: Berg. ISBN 1-85973-545-2.
- "Italian Stock Exchange – Main Indicators 1975–2012". Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "L'uomo che inventò la Milano da bere". Lastampa.It. 4 January 2008. Archived from the original on 14 September 2009. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
- "New Milan Exhibition System official website". Archived from the original on 1 December 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- "Milano Porta Nuova official website". Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- Ni, Pengfei (2012). The global urban competitiveness report 2011. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. p. 127. ISBN 9780857934215.
- "Metropoli Milano 2016" (PDF). Statistical Service of the Metropolitan City of Mialn. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- Raffaele Pugliese, Marco Lucchini (2009). Milano città d'acqua: nuovi paesaggi urbani per la tutela dei navigli. Florence: Alinea. p. 32. ISBN 978-88-6055-469-7.
- King, Russell (1985). The industrial geography of Italy. London: Croom Helm. pp. 250–254. ISBN 0-7099-1501-2.
- "The ENVIBASE-Project – Climate of Milan". Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Weather Overview for Milan". Holyday-Weather.com. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Recorded temperatures, Milan". Accuweather. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Smog in Northern Italy". NASA.
- "Historical temperatures, Milan". Accuweather. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Average weather in Milan". WeatherSpark. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Average monthly precipitation over the year (rainfall, snow)". World weather and climate information. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Milano/Linate (MI)" (PDF). Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
- "Stazione 080 Milano-Linate: Medie Mensili Periodo 1961-90". Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
- "Milano Linate: Record mensili dal 1946" (in Italian). Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
- "The Borough Councils of Milan". Municipality of Milan. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "The Municipal Statute of Milan". Municipality of Milan. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "Local self-government authority system under the Italian legislation". Italian Ministry of Internal Affairs. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat". Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "Spending Review Act". Italian Government. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Vittorio Ferri (2009). "Metropolitan cities in Italy. An institution of federalism" (PDF). University of Milan-Bicocca. Retrieved 23 May 2011.[dead link]
- Ferrari-Bravo, Anna (1985). Milano. (9a ed.). Milano: Touring club italiano. p. 130. ISBN 88-365-0004-8.
- Wilson, Sharon (2011). A perfect trip to Italy in the golden years. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse Inc. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-4502-8443-1.
- 'The Castle Reconstructed by the Sforza', Castello Sforzesco website.
- Murray, Peter (1986). "Milan: Filarete, Leonardo Bramante". The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. Thames and Hudson. pp. 105–120.
- Wittkower, Rudolf (1993). "Art and Architecture Italy, 1600–1750". Pelican History of Art. 1980. Penguin Books.
- ed, Ellen Judy Wilson, principal author. Peter Hanns Reill, consulting (2004). Encyclopedia of the enlightenment (Rev. ed.). New York, NY: Facts On File. p. 392. ISBN 0-8160-5335-9.
- Mazzocca, Fernando (2007). La Galleria d'Arte Moderna e la Villa Reale di Milano. Cinisello Balsamo (Milano): Silvana. p. 21. ISBN 9788836610037.
- De Finetti, Giuseppe (2002). Milano : costruzione di una città. Milano: U. Hoepli. p. 324. ISBN 88-203-3092-X.
- "Storia di Milano ::: Palazzi e case liberty". Storiadimilano.it. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "Verso Una Conclusione: Casa Berri Meregalli". 100milano.com. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "Castello Cova – info2015expo". Info2015expo.it. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "Isozaki Tower – CityLife". City-life.it. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "Torre Hadid – CityLife – CityLife". City-life.it. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "Liebskind Tower – CityLife". City-life.it. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "Sempione Park". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "Indro Montanelli Gardens". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "Forlanini Park". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- Farnese: Pomp, Power and Politics in Renaissance Italy, p. 9, at Google Books
- European Cities and Towns: 400–2000, p. 30, at Google Books
- Metropolis and Hinterland: The City of Rome and the Italian Economy, 200 BC-AD 200, p. 182, at Google Books
- The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change, p. 132, at Google Books
- A Companion to Latin Studies, p. 356, at Google Books
- Northern Italy, from Alps to Florence at Google Books
- The City-State in Europe, 1000–1600: Hinterland, Territory, Region, p. 17, at Google Books
- Malfreda, Germano; Pizzorni, Geoffry John; Ricciardi, Ferruccio; Romano, Roberto (2006). Lavoro e società nella Milano del Novecento. Milano: Angeli. p. 331. ISBN 9788846480316.
- OECD. "Competitive Cities in the Global Economy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
- Salet, Willem; Thornley, Andy; Kreukels, Anton (2003). Metropolitan governance and spatial planning : comparative case studies of European city-regions. New York: Spon Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0415274494.
- "Foreign residents in the municipality of Milan, 1999–2015". City of Milan. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Foot, John. "Mapping Diversity in Milan. Using the administrative division of the Milanese territory in the functional areas some important aspects of the spatial distribution of demographic phenomena can be captured. As well as the aggregated data on the stocks, the individual information (also geographically referenced) by the population register are considered for this purpose. The stocks at the 1st on January of the years from 2005 to 2009 are available. The totals for individuals and family are consistent with the totals published by ISTAT (National Institute of Statistics) by means of appropriate scaling coefficients, since some differences can occur between the two sources. Historical Approaches to Urban Immigration" (PDF). Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Istituto Nazionale di Urbanistica della Lombardia (1999). Lombardia, politiche e regole per il territorio. Florence: Alinea Editrice. p. 139. ISBN 88-8125-332-1.
- "COMUNE DI MILANO – Stranieri: dati statistici". Comune.milano.it. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- Antonella Ceccagno (1997). ll caso delle comunità cinesi: comunicazione interculturale ed istituzioni. Rome: Armando Editore. pp. 29–35. ISBN 88-7144-718-2.
- "Top 10 nationalities of foreign residents in the municipality of Milan". City of Milan. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "chiesa ortodossa milano – Google Maps". Maps.google.it. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "Lankarama Buddhist Temple – Milan, Italy". Lankaramaya.com. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "Jewish Community of Milan". Mosaico-cem.it. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "Islam in Italy " Inter-Religious Dialogue " OrthodoxEurope.org". OrthodoxEurope.org. 4 December 2002. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "Milan: The Center for Radical Islam in Europe". American Chronicle. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- Cini. "Centro Culturale Protestante – Protestanti a Milano delle Chiese Battiste Metodiste Valdesi" (in Italian). Protestantiamilano.it. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "Chiesa Evangelica Valdese – Milano". Milanovaldese.it. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "Catholic Encyclopedia: Ambrosian Chant". Newadvent.org. 1 March 1907. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- Emanuele Vecchio. "PIAMS :: Pontifical Ambrosian Institute of Sacred Music". Unipiams.org. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- di ZITA DAZZI (7 October 2014). "Moschea a Milano, ecco le due aree e l'edificio individuati da Palazzo Marino per il progetto". Repubblica.it. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "Milan in Figures". Milan Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Nominal GDP of Italian regions, 2000–2010". Lombard Industry Association. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "Fortune 500 – 2011 ranking by location". Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "Milan: city profile". Municipality of Milan.
- "Who we are". FieraMilano. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- "Milan city-region: Is it still competitive and charming? Pathways to creative and knowledge-based regions" (PDF). University of Amsterdam. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "Global Destination Cities Index by Mastercard, 2016 edition" (PDF).
- "STATE MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES. NUMBER OF VISITORS AND RECEIPTS BY TYPE OF ADMISSION AND TYPE OF INSTITUTE, 2011". Province of Milan. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Kemp, Martin (2004). Leonardo.
- "Galleria d'Arte moderna di Milano". GAM Milano. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- Le città d'arte:Milano, Guide brevi Skira, ed.2008, autori vari (Italian language).
- Milan, Lonely Planet Encounter Guides, 1st Edition, January 2009 (English language).
- "Museum of Cultures Completes in Milan". archdaily.com. 10 April 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Willey, David (12 November 2005). "Europe | La Scala faces uncertain future". BBC News. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- Knox, Paul L. (2010). Cities and design. London: Routledge. pp. 228–235. ISBN 0-203-84855-1.
- "Cambridge Journals Online – Business History Review – Abstract – Turning Fashion into Business: The Emergence of Milan as an International Fashion Hub". cambridge.org. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "Frieze Magazine | Archive | Milan and Turin". Frieze.com. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- "Salone Internazionale del Mobile official website". Archived from the original on 10 April 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "New York Takes Top Global Fashion Capital Title from London, edging past Paris". Languagemonitor.com. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- Bye, Elizabeth (2010). Fashion design (English ed.). Oxford: Berg. pp. 136–137. ISBN 1847882668.
- "Milan Fashion Week – Home of the best". Mojeh Magazine. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Klaffke, Pamela (2003). Spree : a cultural history of shopping. Vancouver, B.C.: Arsenal Pulp Press. p. 46. ISBN 1551521431.
- Coluzzi, Paolo (2007). Minority language planning and micronationalism in Italy : an analysis of the situation of Friulian, Cimbrian and Western Lombard with reference to Spanish minority languages. Oxford: New York. p. 260. ISBN 978-3039110414.
- "Where Are the World's Best Shopping and Dining Destinations?". Four Seasons Magazine. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "best restaurant in milan". Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- "Michelin Guide restaurants – Milan". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Cova Pasticceria Confetteria – dal 1817". Pasticceriacova.com. Archived from the original on 26 March 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2010.
- "Historic places of Lombardy". Associazione Locali Storici d’Italia. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Struttura". SanSiro.net. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "Brera Calcio F.C.". Breracalcio.it. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
- "5th Congress of the European Society on Family Relations (ESFR)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- "Facts at a Glance". Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "About us". University of Milan. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "Largest universities in Italy". Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- "UCSC in figures". Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- "European Business School Rankings 2011". Financial Times. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- "Enrolled students – figures". Milan Bicocca University. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- "Libera Università di Lingue e Comunicazione IULM". Crui.it. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "Vita-Salute San Raffaele University – Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele". Unisr.it. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "About us". Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- "Pontificio Istituto Ambrosiano di Musica Sacra: What is it?". Unipiams.org. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Conservatorio di musica "G.Verdi" di Milano: Introduzione". Consmilano.it. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
- "List of major railway stations in Italy with passenger figures.". Ferrovie dello Stato. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "Milano Centrale station official page on Ferrovie dello stato website.". Ferrovie dello Stato. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "Carta della Mobilità 2011" (PDF). Azienda Trasporti Milanesi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "world.nycsubway.org/Europe/Italy/Milan (Urban Trams)". World.nycsubway.org. 8 December 2003. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "Long-Distance Buses". City of Milan. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "Total passengers, January–December 2014". Assaeroporti – Associazione Italiana Gestori Aeroporti. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- "Airport passenger traffic statistics – 2010". ASSAEROPORTI. Archived from the original on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "Città gemellate: Milano è gemellata con 14 città" (in Italian). Milan, Italy: Comune di Milano. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Kraków – Miasta Bliźniacze" [Kraków – Twin Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "Milano si è gemellata con la città sudcoreana di Daegu" (in Italian). Rome, Italy: Askanews. 2 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "Russia banned "gay propaganda". Milan ends twinning". Ilfattoquotidiano.it. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
- "Accordi di collaborazione" (in Italian). Milan, Italy: Comune di Milano. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Acts of international convention "Milan Capital", Convegno archeologico internazionale Milano capitale dell'impero romano 1990; Milano Altri autori: Sena Chiesa, Gemma Arslan, Ermanno A.
- Agostino a Milano: il battesimo – Agostino nelle terre di Ambrogio: 22–24 aprile 1987 / (relazioni di) Marta Sordi (et al.) Augustinus publ.
- Anselmo, Conte di Rosate: istoria milanese al tempo del Barbarossa / Pietro Beneventi, Europia publ.
- The decline and fall of the Roman Empire (Edward Gibbon)
- The later Roman empire (Jones), Blackwell and Mott, Oxford
- Milano romana / Mario Mirabella Roberti (Rusconi publisher) 1984
- Marchesi, i percorsi della Storia Minerva Italica (It)
- Milano tra l'eta repubblicana e l'eta augustea: atti del Convegno di studi, 26–27 marzo 1999, Milano
- Milano capitale dell'impero romano: 286–402 d.c. (Milano): Silvana (1990). –533 p.: ill.; 28 cm (11 in).
- Milano capitale dell'Impero romano: 286–402 d.c. — album storico archeologico. – Milano: Cariplo: ET, 1991.—111 p.: ill; 47 cm (19 in). (Pubbl. in occasione della Mostra tenuta a Milano nel) 1990.
- Torri, Monica (23 January 2007). Milan & The Lakes. DK Publishing (Dorling Kindersley). ISBN 978-0-7566-2443-9. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
- Welch, Evelyn S (1995). Art and authority in Renaissance Milan. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut. ISBN 978-0-300-06351-6. Retrieved 10 March 2010.