The Mil Mi-2 (NATO reporting name Hoplite) is a small, three rotor blade Soviet-designed multi-purpose helicopter developed by the Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant designed in the early 1960s, and produced exclusively by WSK "PZL-Świdnik" in Poland.

Mi-2
Mil mi-2(modified).jpg
Mi-2 of the Polish Air Force
Role Helicopter
Design group Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant
Built by PZL-Świdnik
First flight 22 September 1961
Introduction 1965
Primary users Soviet Air Force
Polish Armed Forces
Aeroflot
Produced 1965-1998[1]
Number built 5,497[1]
Developed from Mil Mi-1
Variants PZL Kania

Design and developmentEdit

The Mi-2 was produced exclusively in Poland, in the WSK "PZL-Świdnik" factory in Świdnik.

The first production helicopter in the Soviet Union was the Mil Mi-1, modelled along the lines of the S-51 and Bristol Sycamore and flown by Mikhail Mil's bureau in September 1948. During the 1950s it became evident, and confirmed by American and French development, that helicopters could be greatly improved with turbine engines. S. P. Isotov developed the GTD-350 engine and Mil used two of these in the far superior Mi-2.

The twin shaft-turbine engines used in the Mi-2 develop 40% more power than the Mi-1's piston engines, for barely half the engine weight, with the result that the payload was more than doubled. The Mi-2 fuselage was extensively altered from its predecessor, with the engines mounted overhead. However, the external dimensions remained similar.

The Mil-built prototype first flew in the Soviet Union on 22 September 1961, after the initial development the project was transferred to Poland in 1964. The first Świdnik-built example flew on 4 November 1965 (making this the only Soviet-designed helicopter to be built solely outside the Soviet Union). PZL-Świdnik produced a total of 5,497 helicopters, about a third for military users. The factory also developed fiberglass rotor blades, and developed the wide-body Mi-2M seating 10 passengers instead of eight. Most typical role-change kits include four stretchers for air ambulance usage, or aerospraying or cropdusting applications.

In Poland, several specialized military variants were also developed in early 1970s for support or training roles, with 23 mm autocannon, machine guns and/or two 57 mm rocket pods, four 9K11 Malyutka anti-tank missiles or Strela-2 AA missiles.[2]

Operational historyEdit

The Mi-2 was first introduced into the Soviet Air Force in 1965. The Mi-2 is used by mainly former Soviet and Eastern Bloc countries, although it was also purchased by Mexico and Myanmar armed forces.

Most of the armed Mi-2 variants were used by Poland. Some were also used by the former East Germany (with 7.62 mm machine gun and 57 mm unguided rocket armament only).[3]

North Korea still maintains a large active fleet of Mi-2s.[citation needed]

During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russian forces were recorded capturing three Mi-2 helicopters in Kherson International Airport.[4]

The helicopter is also used to spray agricultural chemicals by private owners in Ukraine. 2 were killed in a crash in 2021 near Zaive in the region of Mykolaiv. [5]

VariantsEdit

 
Mi-2Ch exhibited in Polish Aviation Museum
 
Mi-2 Plus air ambulance in Poland
 
Mi-2P exhibited in Polish Army Museum in Warsaw.
 
Mi-2MSB, Helicopter World Cup in Poland 2019
V-2
First prototype.
V-2V
Armament prototype.
Mi-2 Platan
Aerial minelayer version with 20 tube launchers on external pods and in left cab door, each for six or nine mines. 18 converted for Polish Army starting from 1989.[6]
Mi-2A
Mi-2B
Upgraded export version for the Middle East, fitted with improved systems and navigational aids.
Mi-2Ch Chekla
Chemical reconnaissance / smokescreen layer version.
Mi-2D Przełącznik
Aerial command post equipped with R-111 radio.
Mi-2FM
Survey version.
Mi-2P
Passenger / cargo version, with accommodation for 6 passengers.
Mi-2R
Agricultural version.
Mi-2RL
Land rescue/ambulance version.
Mi-2RM
Sea rescue version equipped with electric winch for two people and dropped rafts.
Mi-2Ro
Reconnaissance version equipped with cameras.
UMi-2Ro
Reconnaissance trainer version.
Mi-2RS Padalec ('Slowworm')
Chemical and biohazard reconnaissance version.
Mi-2S
Air ambulance version, equipped to carry four stretcher, plus an attendant.
Mi-2Sz
Dual-control training version.
Mi-2T
Cargo/utility version.
Mi-2U
Dual-control training version.
Mi-2US
Armed version fitted with a fixed 23mm NS-23 cannon, 4 x 7,62mm PKT machine gun pods and optional cabin PK machine gun. 30 built for Polish Army in 1972-73.[2] Similar without a cannon built for East Germany.[3]
Mi-2URN Żmija ('Viper')
Armed variant with a fixed 23mm NS-23 gun and two 16x57mm S-5 unguided rocket pods Mars-2. Optional 7,62mm PK machine gun window-mounted. 7 built for Polish Army in 1973 and 18 rebuilt from Mi-2US.[2] Similar without a cannon built for East Germany.[3]
Mi-2URP Salamandra ('Salamander')
Anti-tank variant, armed with 23mm NS-23 gun, optional window-mounted 7,62mm PK machine gun, and 4x AT-3 Sagger (9M14M Malutka) wire-guided missiles on external weapons racks and 4x additional missiles in the cargo compartment. Two rebuilt and 44 built for Polish Army in 1975-84.[2]
Mi-2URP-G Gniewosz ('Smooth snake')
Mi-2URP with additional 4x AA missiles Strzała-2 (Strela 2) in two Gad rocket launchers. Six rebuilt in 1988.[6]
Mi-2 Plus
Upgraded Mi-2 with uprated GTD-350W2 engines, all-composite rotor blades, new avionics and other modifications.
Mi-3
Planned Mi-2 derivative that lacked suitable engines for the program to continue.
Mi-2MSB or MSB-2 Nadia ('Hope')
Modernized by Motor Sich to passenger-transport version for the civil aviation.[7][8][9]
Mi-2MSB-V or MSB-2MO
Modernized by Motor Sich for Ukrainian Air Force.[10] Original engine replaced with AI-450M 465 hp (347 kW) engine, armed with rocket and machine gun pods, IR-jamming system and flares dispenser for defence against MANPADS.[11]

OperatorsEdit

  Algeria
  Armenia
  Azerbaijan
  Belarus
  Democratic Republic of the Congo
  Indonesia
  Libya
  Myanmar
  North Korea
  Peru
  Poland
 
A Polish Mi-2 on takeoff
  Russia
  Senegal
  Syria
  Transnistria
  Ukraine
  United States

Former operatorsEdit

  Bulgaria
  Cuba
  Czechoslovakia
  Djibouti
  Estonia
  East Germany
  Germany
  Ghana
  Hungary
  Latvia
  Lithuania
  Liberia
  Mexico
  Mongolia
  Nicaragua
  Poland
  Russia
  Slovakia
  Ukraine
  Soviet Union
  Yugoslavia

Specifications (Mi-2T)Edit

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982–83[50]

General characteristics

  • Crew: One
  • Capacity: 8 passengers / 700 kg (1,543 lb) internal cargo / 800 kg (1,764 lb) external cargo
  • Length: 11.4 m (37 ft 5 in)
  • Height: 3.75 m (12 ft 4 in)
  • Empty weight: 2,372 kg (5,229 lb)
  • Gross weight: 3,550 kg (7,826 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 3,700 kg (8,157 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × PZL GTD-350P turboshaft engines, 300 kW (400 shp) each
  • Main rotor diameter: 14.5 m (47 ft 7 in)
  • Main rotor area: 165.15 m2 (1,777.7 sq ft)
  • Blade section: NACA 23012M[51]

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 200 km/h (120 mph, 110 kn)
  • Range: 440 km (270 mi, 240 nmi) (max internal fuel, no reserves)
  • Service ceiling: 4,000 m (13,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 4.5 m/s (890 ft/min)
  • Disk loading: 22.41 kg/m2 (4.59 lb/sq ft)
  • Power/mass: 0.0806 kW/kg (0.0490 hp/lb)

See alsoEdit

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Ми-2, "avia.cybernet.name"
  2. ^ a b c d Rochowicz 2021, p. 92-93.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Girke, Thomas; Bader, Georg (March–April 1999). "NRD-owskie Mi-2" [DDR's Mi-2]. Lotnictwo Wojskowe (in Polish). Vol. Nr. 2(5)/1999. Magnum-X. pp. 46–48.{{cite magazine}}: CS1 maint: date format (link)
  4. ^ "Russia Captured Three Of Ukraine's Smallest Helicopters. So Ukraine's Allies Sent Three Replacements". Forbes. 18 August 2022.
  5. ^ "2 killed in helicopter crash in Ukraine". 17 July 2021.
  6. ^ a b Rochowicz 2021, p. 97.
  7. ^ Il'yashenko, Matviy. "First flight of upgraded helicopter Mi-2MSB - Motor Sich". www.motorsich.com. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
  8. ^ Il'yashenko, Matviy. "The Mi-2 upgraded helicopter passed an altitude of 7 thousand meters. - Motor Sich". www.motorsich.com. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
  9. ^ Karpenko, A.V. "Modernized helicopter Mi-2MSB (Ukraine)". bastion-karpenko.ru. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
  10. ^ "Ukrainian Military Helicopters - Modernization And Development Plans". Retrieved 2016-10-03.
  11. ^ "Mi-2MSB - Ukrainian Combat Variant Of The Mi-2 Helicopter". Defence24.com.
  12. ^ a b c Hoyle and Farfad Flight International 10–16 December 2019, p. 33.
  13. ^ a b "World Air Forces 2022". Flightglobal. 2022. Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  14. ^ TEMPO Edisi 19-25 Maret 2007 (pp. 36-37)
  15. ^ ANGKASA No.07 Edisi April 2007 (p. 16)
  16. ^ a b Hoyle and Farfad Flight International 10–16 December 2019, p. 43.
  17. ^ a b Hoyle and Farfad Flight International 10–16 December 2019, p. 44.
  18. ^ Hoyle and Farfad Flight International 10–16 December 2019, p. 45.
  19. ^ Hoyle and Farfad Flight International 10–16 December 2019, p. 46.
  20. ^ a b c Hoyle and Farfad Flight International 10–16 December 2019, p. 47.
  21. ^ "Poland Border Guard Aircraft Types". aeroflight.co.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  22. ^ Hoyle and Farfad Flight International 10–16 December 2019, pp. 47–48.
  23. ^ a b Hoyle and Farfad Flight International 10–16 December 2019, p. 48.
  24. ^ Hoyle and Farfad Flight International 10–16 December 2019, p. 50.
  25. ^ Hoyle and Farfad Flight International 10–16 December 2019, p. 52.
  26. ^ "United States Army Threat Systems Management Office (TSMO)". angelfire.com. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  27. ^ "Operator Performance Labs". opl.uiowa.edu. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  28. ^ "Bulgaria Air Force - Equipment". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  29. ^ "Bulgarian (PZL-Swidnik) Mi-2". Demand media. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  30. ^ "Cuba Air Force Aircraft Types". aeroflight.co.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  31. ^ "World Air Forces 2018". Flightglobal Insight. 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  32. ^ "Djibouti Air Force Aircraft Types". xairforces.net. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  33. ^ "Estonia Air Force - Equipment". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  34. ^ "Mil Mi-2 datbase". helicopter-database.de. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  35. ^ "Polizei Mil Mi-2 (PZL-Swidnik)". Demand media. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  36. ^ "Hungarian Air Force History". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  37. ^ "Hungary Police Aviation". aeroflight.co.uk. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  38. ^ "Hungary Police Mil Mi-2". Demand media. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  39. ^ "Lithuanian Air Force - Equipment". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  40. ^ "Lithuania - Air Force Mil Mi-2". jetphotos.net. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  41. ^ "Mexican Armada". aeroflight.co.uk. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
  42. ^ World Air Forces - Historical Listings Mongolia (MON) Archived 2012-09-05 at the Wayback Machine. worldairforces.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-27.
  43. ^ "World Air Forces 2013" (PDF). Flightglobal Insight. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
  44. ^ "Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe » Ostatni lot Mi-2" (in Polish). Retrieved 2021-03-22.
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  46. ^ "Ukraine - Air Force Equipment". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
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  48. ^ "Aeroflot Mil Mi-2". jetphotos.net. Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  49. ^ "Yugoslavian use of Mil Mi-2 in military and air ambulance use". Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  50. ^ Taylor 1982, pp. 169–170.
  51. ^ Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  • Hoyle, Craig and Fafard, Antoine. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, 10–16 December 2019, Volume 196, issue 5716. pp. 26–54.
  • Mondey, David, Encyclopedia of The World's Commercial and Private Aircraft. Crescent Books, New York NY, 1981. p. 245, "WSK-Swidnik Mi-2 Hoplite"
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982–83. London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1982. ISBN 0 7106-0748-2.
  • Mi-2 DataBase
  • Mi-2 Photo Gallery
  • Rochowicz, Robert (November 2021). "Lotnictwo wojsk lądowych w ludowym Wojsku Polskim" [Ground forces' aviation in people's Polish Army]. Nowa Technika Wojskowa (in Polish). Vol. nr. 4/2021. ISSN 1230-1655.

External linksEdit