Mikhlaf (Arabic: مخلاف, plural Makhleef; مخاليف) was an administrative division in ancient Yemen and is a geographical term used in Yemen. According to Ya'qubi there were eighty-four Mikhlaf in Yemen.[1][2] The leader of the Mikhlaf is called Qil (Arabic: قيل, plural Aqial; أقيال).[3]

OverviewEdit

Makhleef were mini-kingdoms under the united kingdom of Saba' and Dhu Raydan.[1] In the second century AD, Shamir Yuhari'sh II extended the Kingdom of Saba and Dhu Raydan to the kingdom of Hadramout and kingdom of Yamnat and so the kings of that time adopted the long title "King of Saba, Dhu raydan, Hadrmawt and Yamant". They are also known as Tubba kings who established the second Himyarite Kingdom.[4] In the fifth century AD the Tubba king AbuKarib As'ad had the title "King of Saba', Dhu raydan, Hadramawt, Yamnat and his Arabs, on Tawdum (the high plateau) and Tihamah".[5] The system of Makhaleef expanded to these areas and was essential to control these areas.[1]

List of MakhaleefEdit

The following list appears in al-Ya'qubi's Kitab al-Buldan and, with minor differences, in his Ta'rikh ibn Wadih. Neither list contains 84 names.[2]

  1. al-Yahsibayn
  2. Yakla
  3. Dhimar
  4. Tamu’
  5. Tyan
  6. Tamam
  7. Hamal
  8. Qudam
  9. Khaywan
  10. Sinhan
  11. Rayhan
  12. Jurash
  13. Sa'da
  14. al-Akhruj
  15. Majnah
  16. Haraz
  17. Hawzan
  18. Qufa'a
  19. al-Wazira
  20. al-Hujr
  21. al-Ma'afir
  22. 'Ayan
  23. al-Shawafi
  24. Jublan
  25. Wasab
  26. al-Sakun
  27. Shar'ab
  28. al-Janad
  29. Maswar
  30. al-Thujja
  31. al-Mazra'
  32. Hayran
  33. Ma’rib
  34. Hadhur
  35. 'Ulqan
  36. Rayshan
  37. Jayshan
  38. Nihm
  39. Baysh
  40. Dankan
  41. Qanawna
  42. Yaba
  43. Zanlf
  44. al-'Ursh of Jazan
  45. al-Khasuf
  46. al-Sa'id
  47. Balha, which is (also called) Mawr
  48. al-Mahjam
  49. al-Kadra’, which is (also called) Saham
  50. al-Ma'qir, which is (also called) Dhuwal
  51. Zabid
  52. Rima'
  53. al-Rakb
  54. Bani Majid
  55. Lahj
  56. Abyan
  57. Bayn al-Wadiyayn
  58. Alhan
  59. Hadramawt
  60. Muqra
  61. Hays
  62. Harad
  63. al-Haqlayn
  64. 'Ans
  65. Bani Amir
  66. Ma’dhin
  67. Humlan
  68. Dhl Jura
  69. Khawlan
  70. al-Sarw
  71. al-Dathina
  72. Kubayba
  73. Tabala

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Al-Akwa'a, Ismael (2009). Makhleef Al-Yaman. Sana'a, Yemen: Al-Jeel Al-Jadid Nashroon. pp. 8.
  2. ^ a b Gordon, Matthew S.; Robinson, Chase F.; Rowson, Everett K.; Fishbein, Michael (2017-12-07). The Works of Ibn Wāḍiḥ al-Yaʿqūbī (Volume 1): An English Translation. BRILL. p. 154. ISBN 9789004364141.
  3. ^ Tarcici, Adnan (1971). The Queen of Sheba's Land: Yemen (Arabia Felix). Nowfel.
  4. ^ "ملوك سبأ وذو ريدان وحضرموت ويمنات". www.uobabylon.edu.iq. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
  5. ^ Tabari (1999-11-04). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 5: The Sasanids, the Byzantines, the Lakhmids, and Yemen. SUNY Press. ISBN 9780791497227.