Mikhail Gromov (aviator)
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Mikhail Mikhailovich Gromov (Russian: Михаи́л Миха́йлович Гро́мов; 24 February [O.S. 12 February] 1899 – 22 January 1985) was a Russian and Soviet military aviator, test pilot, researcher, and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Mikhail Mikhaylovich Gromov, 1934
|Born||24 February [O.S. 12 February] 1899|
|Died||22 January 1985 (aged 85)|
|Resting place||Novodevichy Cemetery|
|Monuments||Zhukovsky, Russia at the headquarters of the Gromov Flight Research Institute|
|Known for||Establishing a new non-stop flight distance record|
of 12411 kilometers (6,306 mi) from Moscow
to San Jacinto, California, U.S
|Awards||Hero of the Soviet Union|
National Order of the Legion of Honour
|Air force||Imperial Russian Army→|
Soviet Air Forces
|Rank||General-Polkovnik of aviation (1944)|
Gromov's father, Mikhail Konstantinovich Gromov, was of noble intelligentsia and served as military medic. His mother, Lyubov Ignatyevna Andreeva, was from peasant family, had obstetrician training. Gromov spent his childhood in Kaluga, Rzhev, Myza-Raevo (near Moscow). He graduated from Voskresensky Real School in Moscow, he studied in IMTS from 1916 to 1917. In 1917, Gromov graduated from aviation theoretical courses at IMTS and started his army service.
Upon graduation from the Moscow Central Aviation School in 1918, Gromov served as a flight instructor and military pilot. In 1923, he won the Soviet championship in weightlifting (heavy body mass, over 82,5 kg). In 1925, he started working as a test pilot testing the aeroplanes designed by Andrei Tupolev and Nikolai Polikarpov in Air Force Research Institute. From 1930 to 1941, Gromov worked in the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute and became chief-pilot. On 25 April 1927 made the first Soviet parachute jump out of a Polikarpov I-1 under testing that had entered an unrecoverable spin.
From June to September 1925, Gromov flew the Polikarpov R-1 in the long-haul group flight of nine aeroplanes on the route Moscow-Beijing-Tokyo. On 30 August 1926, Gromov started and completed in three days a 7,150 kilometers (4,440 mi) European promotional flight in a Tupolev ANT-3 on the route Moscow-Königsberg-Berlin-Paris-Rome-Vienna-Prague-Warsaw-Moscow.
From 10 to 12 September 1934, Gromov, A. I. Filin, and I. T. Spirin in a Tupolev ANT-25 made a record closed-circle non-stop flight on the route Moscow-Ryazan-Kharkov, flying 12,411 kilometers (7,712 mi) in 75 hours. He was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union for this deed.
From 12 to 14 July 1937, Gromov, A. B. Yumashev, and S. A. Danilin established a new non-stop flight distance record of 10,148 kilometers (6,306 mi) from Moscow to San Jacinto, California, via the North Pole in a Tupolev ANT-25.
From March to August 1941, Gromov was the first director of the Flight Research Institute, a flight research and testing centre in Zhukovsky. The name of M. M. Gromov was awarded to the institute in 1991 to celebrate 50th anniversary of the institute.
During World War II, Gromov took command of several units:
- From December 1941 to February 1942, Gromov was commander of 31st Mixed Aviation Division (Kalinin Front).
- From February to May 1942, he was commander of the Air Force of Kalinin Front.
- From May 1942 to May 1943, he took command of the 3rd Air Army.
- From May 1943 to June 1944, he was commander of the 1st Air Army.
- From 1944 to 1946, Gromov was head of the Main Department of combat training of frontline aviation of the Air Force.
After the war, Gromov was deputy commander of the Long-Range Aviation from 1946 to 1949. Later, till 1955, he was head of Department of flight service of Ministry of Aviation Industry. In 1955 he was discharged.
From 1937 to 1946, Gromov was deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1st convocation).
From 1959 to 1961, Gromov headed the Weightlifting Federation of USSR.
Monument in Rzhev, Russia
Mikhail Gromov memorial plate on the Gromov Flight Research Institute hangar 1
- "Громов Михаил Михайлович". www.warheroes.ru. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- "Открытие памятника Герою СССР М.М. Громову". rjev.bezformata.com. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- Gromov, Mikhail (2005). На земле и в небе. Moscow: Гласность-АС. ISBN 5-85868-004-6.
- Громов, Михаил (1986). Через всю жизнь [Through the Whole Life] (in Russian). Москва: Молодая гвардия. p. 190.
- Gunston, Bill (1995). The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft 1875–1995. London: Osprey. ISBN 1-85532-405-9., pp. 286-287.
- Gromov, M. M. (1939). Across the North pole to America. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. p. 38.
- Знаменская, Наталья, ed. (2002). ШЛИ со временем [ShLI in Time] (in Russian) (2 ed.). Жуковский: ООО "Редакция газеты "Жуковские вести". p. 400.
- "Легенды не стареют! Нина Георгиевна Громова снова в седле". Equnews.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Establishing the Gromov Medal". www.lii.ru (in Russian). Gromov Flight Research Institute. 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2017.