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Kaman (Geman, Geman Deng, Kùmán), or Miju (Miju Mishmi, Midzu), is a small language of India and China. Long assumed to be a Sino-Tibetan language, it may be a language isolate.[3]

Kaman
Geman, Kman
Miju, Kùmán
Pronunciation[kɯ˧˩mɑn˧˥]
RegionArunachal Pradesh, India
EthnicityMiju Mishmi
Native speakers
18,000 (2006)[1]
possibly Sino-Tibetan (Midzuish), or a language isolate
  • Kaman
Language codes
ISO 639-3mxj
Glottologmiju1243[2]

Contents

LocationsEdit

In China, the Miju are known as the Deng 僜人. The Deng number over 1,000 in Zayü County, Tibet, China, with 1,000 of the Deng having the autonym tɑ˧˩ruɑŋ˥˧ (大让), and 130 having the autonym kɯ˧˩mɑn˧˥ (格曼) (Geman). They are also neighbors with the Idu or i˥˧du˧˩ (义都) people.

In India, Miju is spoken in Hawai Circle and the Parsuram Kund area of Lohit District, Arunachal Pradesh (Boro 1978,[4] Dasgupta 1977[5]). Ethnologue reports that Miju is spoken in 25 villages located in high altitude areas to the east of upper Lohit and Dau valleys, which are located east of the Haguliang, Billong, and Tilai valleys.

PhonologyEdit

These are the sounds in the Miju/Kaman language.[6]

ConsonantsEdit

Consonant phonemes
  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar

(Palato-
alveolar
)
Retroflex Palatal Palata-
lized
velar
Labia-
lized
velar
Glottal
Plosive p, b         t, d                 k, ɡ ʔ  
Affricate             ts dz , tʃʰ                    
Fricative     f v θ ð s z ʃ                   ɣʷ
Nasal   m           n       ɳ   ɲ            
Trill               r                        
Tap or flap                       ɽ                
Approximant w     ʋ                   j            
Lateral approximant               l       ɭ                

VowelsEdit

Monophthong phonemes
  Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Close-mid     o
Open-mid ɛ ə ʌɔ
Open   a  

TonesEdit

There are three main tones in the Miju language, rising (á), falling (à), and level (ā).[7]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kaman at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kman". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Blench, Roger; Post, Mark (2011), (De)classifying Arunachal languages: Reconstructing the evidence (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-26
  4. ^ Boro, A. 1978. Miju dictionary. Shillong: Research Department, Arunachal Pradesh Administration.
  5. ^ Dasgupta, K. 1977. A phrase book in Miju. Shillong: Director of Information and Public Relations, Arunachal Pradesh.
  6. ^ Blench, Roger (2015), Kman ethno-ophresiology; characterising taste, smell and texture in a language of Arunachal Pradesh
  7. ^ Blench, Roger; Kri, Sokhep; Ngadong, Kruleso; Masong, Barum (2015), Kman Reading and writing Kman