Middle Turkic languages

Middle Turkic refers to a phase in the development of the Turkic language family, covering much of the Middle Ages (c. 900–1500 CE). In particular the term is used by linguists to refer to a group of Karluk and Oghuz and related languages spoken during this period in Central Asia, Iran, and other parts of the Middle East occupied by the Seljuk Turks. Its best known literary form is the Karakhanid[1][2] (also called Khaqani Turkic)[3] dialects spoken in Kashgar, Balasaghun and other cities along the Silk Road. The literary language of the Chagatai Khanate is considered a later form of Middle Turkic. Confusingly, the Karluk and Oghuz "Middle Turkic" period overlaps with the East Turkic Old Turkic period, which covers the 8th to 13th centuries.

Middle Turkic
RegionCentral Asia
Erac. 900–1500 CE
Language codes
ISO 639-3xqa Karakhanid
qjj Middle Turkish
 xqa Karakhanid

Literary worksEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Mary Beth Norton (1995). The American Historical Association's guide to historical literature. Oxford University Press. p. 260.
  2. ^ Peter B. Golden (2010). Turks and Khazars: Origins, Institutions, and Interactions in Pre-Mongol Eurasia. Ashgate/Variorum. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4094-0003-5.
  3. ^ Bill Hickman, Gary Leiser, (2015), Turkish Language, Literature, and History. Travelers' Tales, Sultans, and Scholars Since the Eighth Century, p. 139
  4. ^ Book of Wisdom. World Digital Library. Lithographic Printing House of the Kazan Imperial University. 1904. p. 366.
  5. ^ "Divan-i Khikmet". Kazakhstan National Commission For UNESCO - natcom.unesco.kz.
  • Sinor, Dennis. "Old Turkic and Middle Turkic Languages." History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, vol. IV, 2 (2000), pp. 331–334.