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The micro-pulling-down (µ-PD) method is a crystal growth technique based on continuous transport of the melted substance through micro-channel(s) made in a crucible bottom. Continuous solidification of the melt is progressed on a liquid/solid interface positioned under the crucible. In a steady state, both the melt and the crystal are pulled-down with a constant (but generally different) velocity.

Crystallization · Crystal growth
Recrystallization · Seed crystal
Protocrystalline · Single crystal
Methods and technology
Bridgman–Stockbarger technique
Crystal bar process
Czochralski process
Flux method
Fractional crystallization
Fractional freezing
Hydrothermal synthesis
Kyropoulos process
Laser-heated pedestal growth
Shaping processes in crystal growth
Skull crucible
Verneuil process
Zone melting
Nucleation · Crystal
Crystal structure · Solid

Many different types of crystal are grown by this technique, including Y3Al5O12, Si, Si-Ge, LiNbO3, α-Al2O3, Y2O3, Sc2O3, LiF, CaF2, BaF2, etc.[1][2]

Crystal growth routineEdit

Standard routine procedure used in the growth of most of µ-PD crystals is well developed. The general stages of the growths include:

  • charging of the crucible with starting materials (mixture of powders),
  • heating of the crucible until starting materials in the crucible are completely melted,
  • upward displacement of the seed until its contact with the meniscus or crucible,
  • formation of the meniscus and partial melting of the seed top,
  • correction of the shape of the meniscus through appropriate adjustment of crucible temperature and position of the seed crystal,
  • crystal growth through pulling of the seed in downward direction,
  • separation of the as grown crystal from the meniscus,
  • and cooling of the system (including the crystal and the crucible) to room temperature

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Fukuda, Tsuguo; Chani, Valery I (2007). T. Fukuda and V.I. Chani (eds.). Shaped Crystals: Growth by Micro-Pulling-Down Technique. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-71294-1.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  2. ^ Yoshikawa, A.; Nikl, M.; Boulon, G.; Fukuda, T. (2007). "Challenge and study for developing of novel single crystalline optical materials using micro-pulling-down method". Opt. Mater. 30 (1): 6–10. Bibcode:2007OptMa..30....6Y. doi:10.1016/j.optmat.2006.10.030.