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Mickey Mouse is an American newspaper comic strip by the Walt Disney Company featuring Mickey Mouse, and is the first published example of Disney comics. The strip debuted on January 13, 1930, and ran until July 29, 1995.[1] It was syndicated by King Features Syndicate.

Mickey Mouse
Mickey Mouse - Blaggard Castle.png
Author(s)Walt Disney, Win Smith, Floyd Gottfredson, Ted Osborne, Merrill De Maris, Bill Walsh, Dick Shaw, Del Connell, Floyd Norman, Daan Jippes
Illustrator(s)Ub Iwerks, Win Smith, Floyd Gottfredson, Manuel Gonzales, Bill Wright, Carson Van Osten, Roman Arambula, Daan Jippes, Rick Hoover
Current status/scheduleConcluded daily & Sunday strips
Launch dateDaily: January 13, 1930
Sunday: January 10, 1932[1]
End dateJuly 29, 1995[1]
Syndicate(s)King Features Syndicate
Genre(s)Humor
Adventure
Anthropomorphic animals

The early installments were written by Walt Disney, with art by Ub Iwerks and Win Smith. Beginning with the May 5, 1930 strip, the art chores were taken up by Floyd Gottfredson (often aided by various inkers), who also either wrote or supervised the story continuities (relying on various writers to flesh out his plots). Gottfredson continued with the strip until 1975.

By 1931, the Mickey Mouse strip was published in 60 newspapers in the US, as well as papers in twenty other countries.[2] Starting in 1940, strips were reprinted in the monthly comic book Walt Disney's Comics and Stories, and since then Gottfredson reprints have become a staple of Disney comics publishing around the world.

Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, a definitive collection of Gottfredson's work, was published by Fantagraphics Books from 2011 to 2018. There are fourteen volumes in the set -- twelve books of the daily strips from 1930 to 1955, and two volumes of Gottfredson's Sunday pages from 1932 to 1938.

DevelopmentEdit

Early daysEdit

A Mickey Mouse comic strip was suggested by Joseph Connolly, the president of King Features Syndicate, in a July 24, 1929 letter to Disney animator Ub Iwerks: "I think your mouse animation is one of the funniest features I have ever seen in the movies. Please consider producing one in comic strip form for newspapers. If you can find time to do one, I shall be very interested in seeing some specimens." The Disney team was busy producing new cartoons, but by November, samples of the new strip were approved by the syndicate.[3] The comic strip launched on January 13, 1930,[1] written by Disney himself, with art by Ub Iwerks.

The strip begins with young Mickey as an optimistic, imaginative young mouse living on a farm, and dreaming of becoming a great aviator like his hero, Charles Lindbergh. In a sequence based on the 1928 short Plane Crazy, Mickey puts together a homemade plane, and takes a flight with his girlfriend Minnie. She falls out of the plane, and Mickey travels through a storm to land on a deserted island, inhabited by fierce natives who want to cook him alive.[4]

As these first strips were being released in January 1930, Iwerks left the Disney studio, signing a contract with Disney competitor Pat Powers to leave Disney and start an animation studio under his own name.[5] Win Smith, who had been inking the strips, took over the pencilling as well with the February 10th strip.[1] Smith left the studio in April after a fight with Disney, who wanted him to take over writing the strip. As a "temporary replacement", Disney asked a young inbetweener at the studio named Floyd Gottfredson to fill in. Gottfredson's first strip was published on May 5th, and he took over the scripting two weeks later. He would continue as the creative force of the strip for more than 45 years.[6]

While the early months of the strip did have a loose plot, the pace and style were still the standard gag-a-day approach to comic strips. With adventure and daily continuity strips like The Gumps and Wash Tubbs becoming increasingly popular, King Features Syndicate asked Disney to make Mickey Mouse a more serious adventure strip.

This led to the first adventure storyline, "Mickey Mouse in Death Valley", which ran from April 1 to September 20, 1930. The story -- begun by Smith, and continued by Gottfredson -- involves a crooked lawyer, Sylvester Shyster, and his thuggish associate Peg-Leg Pete, who kidnap Minnie in order to find a map to her Uncle Mortimer's hidden gold mine in Death Valley. Mickey and Minnie race Shyster and Pete to the desert, to lay claim to the mine. The story runs through a number of Western melodrama tropes -- a desperate horse chase, gunplay, a crusty old sheriff, the heroine getting locked up in a jail cell, the hero unfairly branded an outlaw. Over six months, Gottfredson made it clear that Mickey Mouse could deliver action and thrills.[7]

The next story, "Mr. Slicker and the Egg Robbers", included a sequence in which Mickey, convinced that Minnie has thrown him over for a rival, spends a week trying (and failing) to commit suicide. He tries shooting, gassing, drowning and hanging himself, before he decides that he's overreacting and gives up on the idea.[8]

1930sEdit

In a 1931 publicity stunt, Mickey -- just crowned boxing champion in the strip -- had his photograph taken, and then encouraged readers to send a stamped, addressed envelope to him care of the newspaper to get a copy. Gottfredson painted a "photo" that was printed on cards and sent out to the readers. According to a Disney press release, they received more than 20,000 requests for the picture, demonstrating the strength of the strip's appeal.[9]

An early 1932 story, "The Great Orphanage Robbery", is seen as a milestone in Gottfredson's increasingly sophisticated storytelling. To raise money for an orphans' home, Mickey and friends stage a production of Uncle Tom's Cabin, but when the play is over, they discover that the money has been stolen. The thieves are Shyster and Pete, returning to the strip after a year and a half, but they manage to place the blame on Mickey's friend Horace Horsecollar, who's thrown in jail. Mickey chases after the villains, but his disappearance puts suspicion onto him as well.[10] In the second volume of the 2011 reprint collection, comics historian Thomas Andrae describes the resulting storyline:

Gottfredson's newfound mastery of the serial format is evident in nearly every strip of "Orphanage Robbery". First we are enticed into the story by following Mickey's attempt each day to increase the running total for the orphans' fund. Then the suspense increases through the use of an exciting chase -- conveniently supplied by [1932 Mickey short] The Klondike Kid -- as well as cross-cutting techniques developed from old movie serials, another influence Gottfredson now learned to mimic with ease. The strip cuts back and forth between the trial, conviction, and near-execution of Horace Horsecollar -- who is falsely accused of the theft -- and Mickey's progress in tracking down the villains.[11]

The first Sunday page appeared on January 10, 1932, and was aimed at a younger audience, as most Sunday comic strips were at the time.[6] In September 1932, Mrs. Fieldmouse saddled Mickey with baby-sitting her two pesky twins, Morty and Ferdie, who kept his house in an uproar for two months' worth of strips. They called him "Unca' Mickey", although they didn't seem to be actual relations, but when they returned in March 1935 for another Sunday continuity, they were indeed Mickey's nephews.[6]

Other memorable early-1930s storylines include 1932-33's "Blaggard Castle", in which Mickey and Horace are captured and hypnotized by the mad scientists Professor Ecks, Professor Doublex and Professor Triplex,[12] and 1933's "The Mail Pilot", where Mickey finds Shyster and Pete once again, ruling a secret zeppelin kingdom in the clouds.[13]

Mickey's best pal Goofy joined the strip in January 1933 -- still using the proto-Goofy moniker "Dippy Dawg"[14] -- and by the end of the year, he went into business with Mickey as detectives in "The Crazy Crime Wave", investigating the mysterious city-wide thefts of hair and red flannel underwear.[15] The character appeared in several stories as Dippy, until January 1936, when he's called "Goofy" for the first time in the strip.[16]

Donald Duck first appeared in the Sunday pages in February 1935, where he got Mickey involved in "The Case of the Missing Coats" and then stuck around to fight with Morty and Ferdie.[17] In March 1935's "Editor-in-Grief", the brash duck was hired as a newsboy, selling Mickey's crusading newspaper, The Daily War-Drum.[18] He returned to the strip in fall 1936 for "The Seven Ghosts", helping Mickey and Goofy investigate a haunted mansion.[19] This would be his last appearance in the Mickey Mouse strip -- starting in August 1936, Donald was the star of a year-long sequence in the Sunday Silly Symphony comic strip, and he got his own comic strip in 1938. Since Mickey and Donald could appear in rival newspapers, the characters weren't allowed to cross over to the other's strip.[20]

Another well-remembered 1930s story is Mickey Mouse Outwits the Phantom Blot, published from May to September 1939.[21] In this story, Chief O'Hara hires Mickey to capture a new criminal who calls himself the Blot. According to O'Hara, he is the smartest thief they've ever met, but Detective Casey calls this new criminal a looney. The only thing he steals is cameras of a special type and he smashes them open on the spot. (The strange crime and the motive behind it resembles closely the Sherlock Holmes story "The Adventure of the Six Napoleons".) The crime appears eccentric, but the villain is deadly serious -- three times during the story, he captures Mickey and leaves him in deadly peril, and the pair engage in a car chase, a boat chase and a battle for control of a crashing airplane. In the end, the Blot is captured and unmasked. The character was dubbed "the Phantom Blot" in 1941, when the strips were reprinted in Dell Comics' Four Color (1st series) issue #16, Mickey Mouse Outwits the Phantom Blot.[22] The name stuck, and the character has been "the Phantom Blot" ever since.[6]

In the Sunday pages from August to November 1938, Mickey performed in an adaptation of the current short cartoon Brave Little Tailor, bookended with segments showing him as an actor, being cast in the film by Walt Disney.[23] This was Gottfredson's last work on the Sunday strip. At that point, Manuel Gonzales took over as the lead artist on the Mickey Sundays, and stayed in the post until 1981 (except for his military service during World War II, from 1942 to 1945). Gonzales and writer Merrill De Maris continued writing the occasional multi-week story, with an especially long four-month continuity from March to July 1940, "The Photographic Exhibition." The final Sunday story, "The Professor's Experiment", ran from November 1943 to March 1944. (This also happened to be the last appearance of Mickey's nephew Ferdie in the strip; from 1944 on, Ferdie's twin Morty always appeared alone.)

1940sEdit

Gottfredson stopped plotting the strip in June 1943, passing it on to Disney press agent Bill Walsh, who wrote the strip for the next twenty years. Walsh's first two stories were about fighting the Axis; the second one, Mickey Mouse on a Secret Mission, enraged Adolf Hitler so much that he demanded Benito Mussolini stop Italians from publishing the Topolino (Mickey Mouse) comic magazine.[6]

Walsh had a taste for science-fiction, mystery and horror, and his stories quickly diverged from the previous decade's. In The 'Lectro Box (Oct 1943-Feb 1944), Mickey and nephew Morty create a powerful and unpredictable machine, which soon attracts the monstrous mad scientist Dr. Grut and his posse of mind-controlled Aberzombies. A few months later, Mickey, Minnie and Pluto visited The World of Tomorrow (July-Nov 1944), where Pegleg Pete ruled the world with his deadly robots, the Mekka Men. The next story, The House of Mystery (Nov 1944-Jan 1945), had the evil scientist Drusilla die in a fire as her mansion burns around her, and her caretaker rushes inside to be with her in the flames. At this point, the threat of death became a real presence in the strip.[6]

In mid-1945, the daily strip moved to a mostly gag-a-day format, with brief two-week continuities through the summer of 1947. In September 1947, the strip returned to long continuities and introduced a new character: Eega Beeva, "the Man of Tomorrow". [24] Eega was a strange creature from five hundred years in the future, a highly evolved human who understood future technology and possessed mysterious powers. He had a strange future accent that added a P to the beginning of most words: "I pdon't pthink so!" He was joined in February by his pet Pflip the Thnuckle-Booh, and became Mickey's sidekick for the next few years, returning to his home in the future in July 1950, at the end of "The Moook Treasure".[6]

On a Sunday page in October 1949, Goofy bought a talkative, self-centered mynah bird named Ellsworth, who was a major focus of the Sunday strip for ten years, sometimes crowding Mickey out of his own strip. Ellsworth also appeared in the daily strip in 1956, once the dailies became gag-focused as well.[25]

1950s and beyondEdit

The daily strip took a darker turn in the early 1950s. Alberto Becattini says, "Especially after Eega Beeva left, Mickey found himself unwillingly mixed up in dangerous adventures whose development and outcome he no longer seemed to be able to control."[6] Goofy, who had been fairly absent from the daily strip during Eega Beeva's tenure, returned to the strip in March 1951 with "Dry Gulch Goofy", a story in which he becomes a Hollywood actor.[6]

In mid-1955, King Features Syndicate asked Gottfredson and Walsh to stop writing continuities and become a gag-a-day strip; they were concerned that TV serials were making the audience lose interest in adventure comic strips.[6] Walsh continued to write the daily strip until 1964.[1]

Notable supporting characters from the gag-a-day strip include Morty's friend Alvin (1956-75), his girlfriend Millie (1962-87), Doctor Proctor (1966-89), and Goofy's girlfriend Glory-Bee (1969-79), who also appeared in Disney comic books in the early 70s.[6]

CreatorsEdit

Gottfredson originally wrote and drew the Mickey Mouse strip by himself, but pulled back in 1932 to plotting the stories and doing the penciling, while the dialogue was mostly done by other hands.[26] The stories were always untitled; titles were usually assigned later, when the strips were reprinted in picture books or comic books.[27] Scripts were written by Webb Smith (1932-33), Ted Osborne (1933–38), Merrill De Maris (1933–42), Dick Shaw (1942–43), Bill Walsh (1943–64), Roy Williams (1962-69) and Del Connell (1968–88).[1] Even so, Gottfredson always worked closely with his writers, and would often suggest changes in the scripts whenever he thought it would improve a story.[28] There were a variety of inkers on the strip through the years; inkers for the Sunday strips included Al Taliaferro (1932-1938)[29] and Ted Thwaites (1932-1940),[30] and Manuel Gonzales until 1981; Taliaferro also inked daily strips.[27] Gottfredson returned to inking daily strips himself in February 1947; Frank Reilly took over as head of the Comic Strip Department, and Gottfredson had more time to devote to the strip.[6]

Gottfredson plotted the continuities until Bill Walsh started writing the strip in 1943.[31] Around that time, Dick Moores inked the strip for two years. Starting in the 1950s, Gottfredson and writer Bill Walsh were instructed to drop the storylines and do only daily gags.[32] Gottfredson continued illustrating the daily strip until his retirement on October 1, 1975.[27]

After Gottfredson retired, the strip was written by Del Connell (1968-1988), Floyd Norman (1984-1992) and Colette Bezio (1991-1995).[1] Contributing artists included Manuel Gonzales (1975-1981), Tony Strobl (1975-1981), Steve Steere (1981-1982), Bill Wright (1982-1984), Roman Arambula (1982-1990), Bill Langley (1984-1987), Jules Coenen (1986-1987), Larry Mayer (1986-1987), Alex Howell, (1990-1995), Rick Hoover (1991-1995) and Thomas Lewis (1994-1995).[1]

The Sunday page went into reprints in February 1992.[1] By 1994, the strip was running in only 30 newspapers, and Disney and King Features decided to discontinue the strip.[33] The daily strip ended on July 29, 1995.[1]

InspirationsEdit

The first two weeks of Mickey Mouse strips in 1930 were loosely based on the 1928 short Plane Crazy, followed by a sequence in the jungle, inspired by the 1929 short Jungle Rhythm.[34] When Floyd Gottfredson took over, he also took inspiration from Disney's animation department, who provided him with storyboards and model sheets for upcoming Mickey Mouse shorts.[35]

  • "The Great Orphanage Robbery" (1932) was partly inspired by Mickey's Mellerdrammer (1933) and The Klondike Kid (1932), but with a more elaborate plot.
  • "Blaggard Castle" (1932-33) was inspired by The Mad Doctor (1933), and by Boris Karloff's character in the 1932 movie The Old Dark House.
  • "Mickey Mouse and His Horse Tanglefoot" (1933) was an adaptation of The Steeple Chase (1933).
  • "Rumplewatt the Giant" (1934) was an adaptation of Giantland (1933).
  • "The Captive Castaways" (1934) was inspired by Shanghaied (1934).
  • "Hoppy the Kangaroo" (1935) was based on Mickey's Kangaroo (1935).
  • "Mickey's Rival" (1936) uses the antagonist Mortimer Mouse from the Mickey's Rival short (1936).
  • "The Robin Hood Adventure" (1936) was partly inspired by Mickey's Garden (1935) and The Worm Turns (1937).
  • "The Seven Ghosts" (1936) was an adaptation of Lonesome Ghosts (1937).
  • "Mighty Whale Hunter" (1938) was based on The Whalers (1938).
  • "The Brave Little Tailor" (1938) is an explicit adaptation of the newly-released short Brave Little Tailor (1938).
  • "Mickey Mouse Meets Robinson Crusoe" (1938-39) makes references to Mickey's Man Friday (1935).
  • "Li'l Davy" (1955) features a diminutive version of Davy Crockett, following the popular Davy Crockett miniseries from the Disneyland TV show (1954-55).

CharactersEdit

Recurring characters in the strip include:

  • Mickey Mouse: A young, bold, optimistic mouse, who loves excitement and adventure.
  • Minnie Mouse: Mickey's girlfriend, a warm-hearted and stubborn mouse. Introduced in the first week of the strip, January 1930.[36]
  • Clarabelle Cow: Mickey and Minnie's talkative and stubborn friend. Introduced in "Mickey Mouse in Death Valley", April 1930.[7]
  • Horace Horsecollar: Mickey and Minnie's cheerful know-it-all friend. Introduced in "Mickey Mouse in Death Valley", April 1930.[7]
  • Pluto: Mickey's faithful dog. Introduced in "Pluto the Pup", July 1931.[37]
  • Goofy: Mickey's loyal, dimwitted best friend. Introduced as "Dippy Dog" in January 1933.[14]
  • Peg-Leg Pete: Mickey Mouse's nemesis, a tough gangster who often works with Sylvester Shyster. Introduced in "Mickey Mouse in Death Valley", April 1930.[7]
  • Sylvester Shyster: A sneaky lawyer behind a number of villainous schemes. Introduced in "Mickey Mouse in Death Valley", April 1930.[7]
  • The Phantom Blot: A nefarious hooded villain who first appeared in "Mickey Mouse Outwits the Phantom Blot" in May 1939.[38] The mysterious Blot never returned in Gottfredson's strip, but the character has resurfaced many times over the years, starting with a 1955 story in the Italian Topolino,[39] a 1964 three-part serial in Walt Disney's Comics and Stories,[40] and then his own comic, published by Gold Key Comics for 7 issues from 1964 to 1966.[41]
  • Butch: A roughneck who started as a gangster in "Mr. Slicker and the Egg Robbers" in November 1930,[42] but stuck around and became Mickey's pal for a year, exiting the strip after "Circus Roustabout" in June 1931.[43] The character was revived in the 1990s as a member of Mickey's supporting cast in European Disney comics.[44]
  • Professors Ecks, Doublex and Triplex: Three terrifying mad scientists who first menaced Mickey Mouse in "Blaggard Castle", November 1932 to February 1933.[12] The professors returned as "reformed" characters in Italian comics in the 1970s,[45] and came back to the Mickey Mouse strip as villains in the June 1990 story "The Time Transmuter".[46]
  • Tanglefoot: Mickey's broken-down but loyal horse. Introduced in "Mickey Mouse and His Horse Tanglefoot", June 1933.[47] The horse character returned in two more stories -- "The Crazy Crime Wave" and "Tanglefoot Pulls His Weight" -- and was so popular that Western Publishing released six Big Little Books in 1934 related to Tanglefoot.[48]

From the beginning, the strips were parts of long continuing stories. These introduced characters such as the Phantom Blot, Eega Beeva, and the Bat Bandit, which Gottfredson created; Disney created Eli Squinch, Mickey's nephews, Morty and Ferdie Fieldmouse, and Sylvester Shyster, which were also introduced in the comic.[27]

StorylinesEdit

Mickey Mouse had adventure storylines from its inception until October 1955, when the syndicate instructed the creators to move to a simpler, gag-a-day format. In 1990, the daily strip returned to the adventure format.[1]

Daily strips (1930-1955)Edit

The headings in the table below refer to the Fantagraphics Books reprint collections, Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse.

Title Dates Writer Pencils Inking
Volume 1: Race to Death Valley
Lost on a Desert Island January 13-March 31, 1930 Walt Disney Ub Iwerks
Win Smith
Win Smith
Mickey Mouse in Death Valley April 1-September 20, 1930 Walt Disney
Floyd Gottfredson
Win Smith
Floyd Gottfredson
Jack King
Win Smith
Floyd Gottfredson
Roy Nelson
Hardie Gramatky
Mr. Slicker and the Egg Robbers September 22-December 29, 1930 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Hardie Gramatky
Earl Duvall
Mickey Mouse Music December 30, 1930-January 3, 1931 Floyd Gottfredson Earl Duvall Earl Duvall
The Picnic January 5-10, 1931 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Earl Duvall
Traffic Troubles January 12-17, 1931 Floyd Gottfredson Earl Duvall
Floyd Gottfredson
Earl Duvall
Mickey Mouse vs. Kat Nipp January 19-February 25, 1931 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Earl Duvall
Earl Duvall
Mickey Mouse, Boxing Champion February 26-April 29, 1931 Floyd Gottfredson Earl Duvall
Floyd Gottfredson
Earl Duvall
Al Taliaferro
High Society April 30-May 30, 1931 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Circus Roustabout June 1-July 7, 1931 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Pluto the Pup July 8-18, 1931 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Mickey Mouse and the Ransom Plot July 20-November 7, 1931 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Fireman Mickey November 9-December 5, 1931 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Clarabelle's Boarding House December 7, 1931-January 9, 1932 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Volume 2: Trapped on Treasure Island
The Great Orphanage Robbery January 11-May 14, 1932 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Mickey Mouse Sails for Treasure Island May 16-November 12, 1932 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Ted Thwaites
Blaggard Castle November 14, 1932-February 10, 1933 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Webb Smith (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Pluto and the Dogcatcher February 11-25, 1933 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
The Mail Pilot February 27-June 10, 1933 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Mickey Mouse and His Horse Tanglefoot June 12-October 7, 1933 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
The Crazy Crime Wave October 9, 1933-January 9, 1934 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Volume 3: High Noon at Inferno Gulch
The Captive Castaways January 10-April 17, 1934 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Pluto's Rival April 18-28, 1934 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
The Bat Bandit of Inferno Gulch April 30-July 28, 1934 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Bobo the Elephant July 30-October 13, 1934 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
The Sacred Jewel October 15-December 29, 1934 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Pluto the Racer December 31, 1934-March 2, 1935 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Editor-in-Grief March 4-June 1, 1935 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Race for Riches June 3-September 28, 1935 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
The Pirate Submarine September 30, 1935-January 4, 1936 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Volume 4: House of the Seven Haunts!
Oscar the Ostrich January 6-March 21, 1936 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Mickey Mouse Joins the Foreign Legion March 23-August 8, 1936 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
The Seven Ghosts August 10-November 28, 1936 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Island in the Sky November 30, 1936-April 3, 1937 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
In Search of Jungle Treasure April 5-August 7, 1937 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Monarch of Medioka August 9, 1937-February 5, 1938 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Ted Thwaites
Volume 5: Mickey Mouse Outwits the Phantom Blot
Mighty Whale Hunter February 7-July 6, 1938 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Bill Wright
The Plumber's Helper July 7-December 10, 1938 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Bill Wright
Mickey Mouse Meets Robinson Crusoe December 12, 1938-April 13, 1939 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Bill Wright
Unhappy Campers April 14-May 20, 1939 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson
Ross Wetzel
Ted Thwaites
Bill Wright
Mickey Mouse Outwits the Phantom Blot May 22-September 9, 1939 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Bill Wright
The Miracle Master September 11, 1939-January 13, 1940 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Bill Wright
An Education for Thursday January 15-April 20, 1940 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Bill Wright
Volume 6: Lost in Lands of Long Ago
The Bar-None Ranch April 22-August 17, 1940 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Manuel Gonzales (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson
Manuel Gonzales
Ted Thwaites
Bill Wright
Bellhop Detective August 19-December 21, 1940 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Bill Wright
Land of Long Ago December 23, 1940-April 12, 1941 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Love Trouble April 14-July 5, 1941 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Mickey Mouse, Supersalesman July 7-October 4, 1941 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Mystery at Hidden River October 6, 1941-January 17, 1942 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
The Gleam January 19-May 2, 1942 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Bill Wright
Volume 7: March of the Zombies
Goofy and Agnes May 4-August 15, 1942 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
The Black Crow Mystery August 17-November 21, 1942 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Merrill de Maris (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Working to Win December 14-23, 1942 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Dick Shaw (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Mickey Mouse's Wild Holiday May 31-June 26, 1943 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Dick Shaw (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Dick Moores
The Nazi Submarine June 28-July 17, 1943 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Dick Moores
Mickey Mouse on a Secret Mission July 19-October 23, 1943 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Dick Moores
The 'Lectro Box October 25, 1943-February 5, 1944 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Dick Moores
Pluto the Spy Catcher February 7-19, 1944 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Dick Moores
The War Orphans March 13-April 15, 1944 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Dick Moores
Volume 8: The Tomorrow Wars
The Pirate Ghostship April 17-July 15, 1944 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Dick Moores
The World of Tomorrow July 31-November 11, 1944 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Dick Moores
The House of Mystery November 13, 1944-January 27, 1945 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson
Paul Murry
Dick Moores
Dick Moores
Billy the Mouse March 5-June 16, 1945 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Dick Moores
Mickey's Great-Grandfather February 25-March 2, 1946 Bill Walsh Manuel Gonzales Bill Wright
Home Made Home March 4-9, 1946 Bill Walsh Paul Murry Bill Wright
The New Girlfriend March 11-23, 1946 Bill Walsh Manuel Gonzales
Paul Murry
Bill Wright
Mickey's Mini-Plane March 25-April 13 1946 Bill Walsh Bill Wright
Manuel Gonzales
Paul Murry
Floyd Gottfredson
Bill Wright
Mystery Next Door April 15-May 4, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson
Manuel Gonzales
Bill Wright
Gangland May 6-18, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Sunken Treasure May 20-June 1, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Trailer Trouble June 3-15, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Aunt Marissa June 17-29, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
The Candidate July 1-13, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
The Little Genius July 15-27, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Volume 9: Rise of the Rhyming Man
Goofy's Boat Race July 29-August 10, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
The Goofy Crooner August 12-24, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Eviction August 26-Seoptember 7, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Goofy's Rocket September 9-21, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Mickey's Menagerie September 23-October 5, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
The Cure for Hiccups October 7-19, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Thanksgiving Dinner October 21-November 2, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
The Search for Geeko November 4-16, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
The Talking Dog November 18-30, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Arctic Adventure December 2-14, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Morty's Escapade December 16-28, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
The Fiendish Cat December 30, 1946-January 11, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Truant Officer Mickey January 13-25, 1946 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Goofy's Inheritance January 27-February 8, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Mickey the Icky February 10-22, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Bill Wright
Pluto's Amnesia February 24-March 8, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Pegleg Pete Reforms March 10-22, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Home Movies March 24-April 5, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Shutterbug Mickey April 7-19, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Boxer April 21-May 3, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Mickey's Strange Flower May 5-17, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Midget Racer May 19-31, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Mickey's Pet Shop June 2-14, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Mickey's Helicopter June 16-28, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Pluto's Trial June 30-July 12, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Spook Specialist July 14-26, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Mickey Writes the Songs July 28-August 9, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Horace's Nerves August 11-23, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Skyscraper Adventure August 25-September 6, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Foundling September 6-20, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Man of Tomorrow September 22-December 27, 1947 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Mickey Makes a Killing December 29, 1947-February 7, 1948 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Pflip the Thnuckle-Booh February 9-28, 1948 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Santa Claus Bandit March 1-April 3, 1948 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Kumquat Question April 5--28, 1948 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Atombrella and the Rhyming Man May 30-October 9, 1948 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Volume 10: Planet of Faceless Foes
An Education for Eega October 11-December 25, 1948 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Pflip's Strange Power December 27, 1948-March 5, 1949 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Planet of the Aints March 7-August 6, 1949 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Itching Gulch August 8-October 22, 1949 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Syndicate of Crime October 24, 1949-January 28, 1950 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Moook Treasure January 30-July 8, 1950 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Mousepotamia July 10-September 30, 1950 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Land Beneath the Sea October 2-December 30, 1950 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Bill Wright
Tzig-Tzag Fever January 1-March 24, 1951 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Volume 11: Mickey vs Mickey
Dry Gulch Goofy March 26-June 23, 1951 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Ghost of Black Brian June 25-October 20, 1951 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Uncle Wombat's Tock-Tock Time Machine October 22, 1951-January 22, 1952 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Midas Ring January 23-April 19, 1952 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Isle of Moola-La April 21-October 2, 1952 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Hoosat from Another Planet October 3, 1952-February 28, 1953 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Mickey's Dangerous Double March 2-June 20, 1953 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Volume 12: The Mysterious Dr. X
The Magic Shoe June 22-October 28, 1953 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson
Bill Wright
Floyd Gottfredson
Bill Wright
Dick Moores
Mickey Takes Umbrage October 29, 1953-January 30, 1954 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
A Fatal Occupation February 1-May 15, 1954 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
The Kid Gang May 17-September 18, 1954 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Uncle Gudger September 20-December 31, 1954 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Dr. X January 1-May 20, 1955 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Pluto's Punctured Romance May 21-June 25, 1955 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson
Manuel Gonzales
Li'l Davy June 27-October 4, 1955 Bill Walsh Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson

Daily strips (1990-1995)Edit

In 1990, writer Floyd Norman convinced King Features Syndicate to allow him to bring back the comic strip's adventure story format.[33] Norman and Colette Bezio shared the scripting, with Rick Hoover, Alex Howell and Thomas Lewis providing art. The 1990-1995 stories have not been reprinted in the US, and only rarely in other countries.

List of storylines:[49]

Sunday stripsEdit

Title Dates Writer Pencils Inking
Volume 1: Call of the Wild
Dan the Dogcatcher July 31-September 4, 1932 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Mickey's Nephews September 18-November 6, 1932 Floyd Gottfredson Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Lair of Wolf Barker January 29-June 18, 1933 Ted Osborne Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Rumplewatt the Giant March 11-April 29, 1934 Ted Osborne Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Tanglefoot Pulls His Weight May 6-June 3, 1934 Ted Osborne Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Al Taliaferro
Dr. Oofgay's Secret Serum June 17-September 9, 1934 Ted Osborne Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Foray to Mt. Fishlake December 9, 1934-January 20, 1935 Ted Osborne Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
The Case of the Vanishing Coats February 17-March 24, 1935 Ted Osborne Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Hoppy the Kangaroo July 28-November 24, 1935 Ted Osborne Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Volume 2: Robin Hood Rides Again
Mickey's Rival January 5-26, 1936 Ted Osborne Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Helpless Helpers March 1-22, 1936 Ted Osborne Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Al Taliaferro
The Robin Hood Adventure April 26-October 4, 1936 Floyd Gottfredson (story)
Ted Osborne (script)
Floyd Gottfredson Ted Thwaites
Al Taliaferro
The Ventriloquist October 11-November 8, 1936 Ted Osborne Floyd Gottfredson Al Taliaferro
Sheriff of Nugget Gulch May 16-October 24, 1937 Ted Osborne Floyd Gottfredson
Al Taliaferro
Al Taliaferro
Service with a Smile March 6-April 10, 1938 Merrill de Maris Floyd Gottfredson
Al Taliaferro
Al Taliaferro
The Brave Little Tailor August 28-November 27, 1938 Merrill de Maris Floyd Gottfredson
Manuel Gonzales
Ted Thwaites

The two volumes of Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse reprint the Sunday pages that Gottfredson worked on. Following the Brave Little Tailor adaptation in 1938, Manuel Gonzales took over as artist for the Sunday pages until 1942, when it passed to Bill Wright. There were seven more Sunday storylines under Gonzales and Wright's tenure:

  • "The Society Dog Show" (January 15-22, 1939), written by Merrill De Maris, pencil by Manuel Gonzales, inks by Ted Thwaites[50]
  • "The Photographic Expedition" (March 17-July 14, 1940), written by Merrill De Maris, pencil by Manuel Gonzales, inks by Ted Thwaites[51]
  • "Purty Clever" (Jan 19-Feb 16, 1941), written by Merrill De Maris, pencil and inks by Manuel Gonzales[52]
  • "Goofy Gets Smart" (May 18-June 22, 1941), written by Merrill De Maris, pencil and inks by Manuel Gonzales[53]
  • "Lucky Mickey" (aka No Charge!) (Sept 7-21, 1941), written by Merrill De Maris, pencil and inks by Manuel Gonzales[54]
  • no title (Sept 19-Nov 14, 1943), written by Hubie Karp, pencil and inks by Bill Wright[55]
  • "The Professor's Experiment" (Nov 21, 1943-March 12, 1944), written by Hubie Karp, pencil and inks by Bill Wright[56]

Following "The Professor's Experiment", the Sunday strip shifted completely to the gag-a-week format.[35]

The Perils of MickeyEdit

In 1993-1994, the Disney Company began a branding campaign called "The Perils of Mickey", evoking the spirit of Gottfredson's early-30s Mickey comics.[57] The campaign involved "remakes" of three classic Gottfredson stories in the daily newspaper strip: "Blaggard Castle" (Jan-Feb 1994), "Mickey Mouse Outwits the Phantom Blot" (March-April) and "The Mail Pilot" (June-July). All three were drawn by Rick Hoover.[35]

Merchandise for the campaign often used the "pie-eyed" Mickey design, and included keychains and storybooks published by Golden Press.[57]

"Perils of Mickey" comics also appeared in the Disney Adventures magazine, including "Return to Blaggard Castle", an adventure featuring Mickey, Minnie, Horace and the Phantom Blot, published in Vol. 3 Nos. 10-11 (1993).[57]

Reprints and collectionsEdit

Big Little BooksEdit

In the 1930s and 40s, Western Publishing published a very popular series of small hardcover books for children known as Big Little Books. These chunky, compact books featured a captioned illustration on one page, with a page of text on the facing page. The stories featured a wide assortment of popular characters, including a number of Disney stars, and Gottfredson's Mickey Mouse strips provided the perfect material for an illustrated adventure story.

The following Big Little Books were published based on Mickey Mouse storylines:[58]

There was also a set of six "Wee Little Books" published in 1934 -- smaller books released in a special box set that told the story of Mickey Mouse and His Horse Tanglefoot. The six titles are Mickey Mouse at the Carnival, Mickey Mouse's Misfortune, Mickey Mouse and Tanglefoot, Mickey Mouse's Uphill Fight, Mickey Mouse Will Not Quit and Mickey Mouse Wins the Race.[59]

Comic booksEdit

Gottfredson's Mickey strips were often collected in the 1930s and 1940s. The monthly Mickey Mouse Magazine began reprinting Mickey Mouse strips in issue #16 (January 1937), which continued after the magazine evolved into Dell Publishing's Walt Disney's Comics and Stories in 1940. The title continued reprinting Mickey Mouse through 1948.[6]

Modern-day American reprints began with "The Bar None Ranch" (1940) which appeared in Walt Disney Comics Digest #40 (1973).[60] The following year "The Bat Bandit" (1934) appeared in a deluxe edition The Best of Walt Disney Comics.[61] Abbeville Press' large size Best Comics anthologies in the late-1970s included two all-Gottfredson volumes (one headlined "Goofy"), though the stories were relettered and sometimes condensed. In 1980, Abbeville issued a small-size Best Comics series that included three all-Gottfredson volumes (again, one headlined "Goofy"), all of which reprinted stories from the earlier large-size editions.

Another Rainbow PublishingEdit

In 1986, Another Rainbow/Gladstone Publishing (and later Gemstone Publishing) began a tradition of serializing Gottfredson stories in regular Disney monthly comic books, which continued on and off until 2008, when they ceased publication. Gladstone also collected a number of Gottfredson's serials in the larger-size "comic albums" it issued during the 1980s;[62], in 1990, Disney Comics issued "Mickey Mouse Outwits the Phantom Blot" (1939) in the same format.[63]

In 1988 a selection of both the daily and Sunday strip were published by Another Rainbow Publishing in the book Mickey Mouse in Color.

Gemstone PublishingEdit

In 2006, Gemstone Publishing published a colored and reformatted version of the story "Mickey Mouse Music" for the Walt Disney Treasures collection Disney Comics: 75 Years of Innovation. Gemstone Publishing announced The Floyd Gottfredson Library, a comprehensive edition of Gottfredson's serialized stories (Mickey 1930-1955, plus later non-Mickey material) with a planned release during 2009. But the series was postponed, then canceled once Gemstone no longer had the Disney license.

Fantagraphics BooksEdit

In 2011, Fantagraphics Books resumed production of the series Gemstone had started, with the same editorial team but with the individual books branded "Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse." The Floyd Gottfredson Library series title appeared on the indicia pages inside the books.

Fantagraphics' Gottfredson Library came into print in 2011 and its publishing run lasted until 2018; in total 14 volumes were released, collecting the Gottfredson Mickey Mouse daily strips originally published from 1930-1955 as well as the various works Gottfredson did for the Mickey Mouse and Walt Disney's Treasury of Classic Tales Sunday strips.[64]

On November 21, 2018, Fantagraphics followed the Gottfredson Library with a one-shot anthology book to celebrate Mickey Mouse's 90th anniversary, titled Mickey Mouse: The Greatest Adventures, ISBN:978-1-68396-122-2. This book featured black-and-white daily strips newly arranged and printed in full color, in a 300-page "best-of" selection that included "Mickey Mouse in Death Valley" and "The Gleam" among others.[65]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Holtz, Allan (2012). American Newspaper Comics: An Encyclopedic Reference Guide. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. pp. 260–264. ISBN 9780472117567.
  2. ^ "The Only Unpaid Movie Star," Harry Carr. American Magazine, March 1931. Reprinted in A Mickey Mouse Reader ed. by Gary Apgar, University Press of Mississippi, 2014.
  3. ^ Kaufman, J.B.; Gerstein, David (2018). Mickey Mouse: The Ultimate History. Cologne: Taschen. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-3836552844.
  4. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 1: Race to Death Valley. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 231–253. ISBN 9781606994412.
  5. ^ Kaufman, J.B.; Gerstein, David (2018). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse: The Ultimate History. Cologne: Taschen. p. 53. ISBN 978-3-8365-5284-4.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Becattini, Alberto (2016). Disney Comics: The Whole Story. Theme Park Press. pp. 1–17. ISBN 978-1683900177.
  7. ^ a b c d e Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 1: Race to Death Valley. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 19–70. ISBN 9781606994412.
  8. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 1: Race to Death Valley. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 71–100. ISBN 9781606994412. The "suicide strips" are dated October 17-24, 1930.
  9. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 1: Race to Death Valley. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 121–150. ISBN 9781606994412.
  10. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 2: Trapped on Treasure Island. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 15–52. ISBN 9781606994955.
  11. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 2: Trapped on Treasure Island. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 9. ISBN 9781606994955.
  12. ^ a b Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 2: Trapped on Treasure Island. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 107–134. ISBN 9781606994955.
  13. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 2: Trapped on Treasure Island. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 139–170. ISBN 9781606994955.
  14. ^ a b Gottfredson, Floyd (2013). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, Color Sundays vol 1: Call of the Wild. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 74. ISBN 978-1606996430.
  15. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 2: Trapped on Treasure Island. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 207–235. ISBN 9781606994955.
  16. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2012). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 4: House of the Seven Haunts!. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 23. ISBN 9781606995754.
  17. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2013). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse Color Sundays, vol 1: Call of the Wild. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 192. ISBN 9781606996430.
  18. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2012). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 3: High Noon at Inferno Gulch. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 147–174. ISBN 978-1606995310.
  19. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2012). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 4: House of the Seven Haunts!. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 23. ISBN 9781606995754.
  20. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2012). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 4: House of the Seven Haunts!. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 256. ISBN 9781606995754.
  21. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2014). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 5: Outwits the Phantom Blot. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 978-1606997369.
  22. ^ "One-Shots (Series 1) #16". Inducks. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  23. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2013). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse Color Sundays, vol 2: Robin Hood Rides Again. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 978-1606996867.
  24. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2016). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 9: Rise of the Rhyming Man. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 978-1606999318.
  25. ^ Becattini, Alberto (2019). "Black-and-White-Faced Multimedia Characters". American Funny Animal Comics in the 20th Century: Volume One. Seattle, WA: Theme Park Press. ISBN 168390186X.
  26. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd; Andrae, Thomas (2011). "Foreword: Of Mouse and Man". In Gerstein, David; Groth, Gary (eds.). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 9781606994412.
  27. ^ a b c d Andrae, Thomas (April 1984). "Floyd Gottfredson's 45 years with Mickey: The Mouse's Other Master". Nemo: The Classics Comics Library (6). Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  28. ^ Peri, Don: Working with Walt: Interviews with Disney Artists (University Press of Mississippi, 2008), pp. 109-118. ISBN 978-1604730234.
  29. ^ Gerstein, David (2011). "Sharing the Spotlight: Al Taliaferro". Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 1: Race to Death Valley. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 275. ISBN 9781606994412.
  30. ^ Becattini, Alberto; Gerstein, David (2011). "Sharing the Spotlight: Ted Thwaites". Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 2: Trapped on Treasure Island. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 243. ISBN 9781606994955.
  31. ^ Peri, Don (2008). Working with Walt Interviews with Disney Artists. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9781604739183.
  32. ^ Andrae, Thomas; Gottfredson, Floyd (1988). "Of Mouse and the Man". Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse in color (1st ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 9780394575193.
  33. ^ a b Floyd Norman (July 20, 2004). "One Mouse, two Floyds". jimhillmedia.com.
  34. ^ Grob, Gijs (2018). "The Barnyard Years (1928-1930)". Mickey's Movies: The Theatrical Films of Mickey Mouse. Theme Park Press. ISBN 978-1683901235.
  35. ^ a b c Becattini, Alberto (2019). "Black-and-White-Faced Multimedia Characters". American Funny Animal Comics in the 20th Century: Volume One. Seattle, WA: Theme Park Press. ISBN 978-1683901860.
  36. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 1: Race to Death Valley. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 232. ISBN 9781606994412.
  37. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 1: Race to Death Valley. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 163–166. ISBN 9781606994412.
  38. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 5: Mickey Mouse Outwits the Phantom Blot. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 159–192. ISBN 9781606994412.
  39. ^ "Topolino e il doppio segreto di Macchia Nera". Inducks. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  40. ^ "Mickey Mouse: The Return of the Phantom Blot". Inducks. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  41. ^ "US: New Adventures of the Phantom Blot". Inducks. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  42. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 1: Race to Death Valley. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 71–106. ISBN 9781606994412.
  43. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 1: Race to Death Valley. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 151–163. ISBN 9781606994412.
  44. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 1: Race to Death Valley. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 274. ISBN 9781606994412.
  45. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 2: Trapped on Treasure Island. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 256. ISBN 9781606994955.
  46. ^ "Mickey Mouse: The Time Transmuter". Inducks. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  47. ^ Gottfredson, Floyd (2011). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 2: Trapped on Treasure Island. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. pp. 171–206. ISBN 9781606994955.
  48. ^ Kaufman, J.B. (November 1988). "The Tanglefoot Chronicles: A Case Study". 3 (8). Animation World Magazine. Retrieved 21 July 2019. The six books are: Mickey Mouse At the Carnival, Mickey Mouse's Misfortune, Mickey Mouse and Tanglefoot, Mickey Mouse's Uphill Fight, Mickey Mouse Will Not Quit, and Mickey Mouse Wins the Race.
  49. ^ "US: Newspapers 1990". Inducks. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  50. ^ "The Society Dog Show". Inducks. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  51. ^ "The Photographic Exhibition". Inducks. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  52. ^ "Purty Clever". Inducks. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  53. ^ "Goofy Gets Smart". Inducks. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  54. ^ "Lucky Mickey". Inducks. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  55. ^ "Mickey Mouse". Inducks. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  56. ^ "The Professor's Experiment". Inducks. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  57. ^ a b c Gerstein, David (2011). "Gottfredson's World: The Perils of Mickey". Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, vol 2: Trapped on Treasure Island. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books. p. 268–278. ISBN 9781606994955.
  58. ^ "The Big Little Book Club: Whitman Publishing". BigLittleBooks.com. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  59. ^ Kaufman, J.B. "The Tanglefoot Chronicles: A Case Study". Animation World Magazine. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  60. ^ "GCD :: Issue :: Walt Disney Comics Digest #40". www.comics.org.
  61. ^ "GCD :: Issue :: The Best of Walt Disney Comics #96171". www.comics.org.
  62. ^ "Gladstone's Series I Comic Albums, Disney comic books, Gladstone comics, Uncle Scrooge comics, Mickey Mouse comics, Donald Duck comics, child books".
  63. ^ "Untitled Document".
  64. ^ https://comicsworthreading.com/2013/12/03/walt-disneys-mickey-mouse-color-sundays-volume-2-robin-hood-rides-again/?relatedposts_hit=1&relatedposts_origin=10467&relatedposts_position=1 Retrieved 2019-01-08
  65. ^ https://www.firstcomicsnews.com/happy-90th-to-mickey-mouse-celebrate-with-a-special-commemorative-collection/ Retrieved 2019-01-08

External linksEdit