# Micah 1

Micah 1 is the first chapter of the Book of Micah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.[1][2] This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Micah, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets.[3][4]

Micah 1
In this Bible from about 1270, an initial V introduces the Old Testament book of Micah. The scene inside the letter illustrates the following text: "The word of the Lord that came to Micah the Morasthite . . ." The illuminator added details not mentioned in the text to his representation of the scene, showing the prophet Micah in bed while an angel, its hand raised in a gesture of speech, delivers the "word of the Lord" represented by a scroll. Although he appears in bed, it is clear that Micah is not dreaming; his eyes are open and he glances toward the angel at the side of the bed.
BookBook of Micah
CategoryNevi'im
Christian Bible partOld Testament
Order in the Christian part33

## Text

The original text was written in the Hebrew language. This chapter is divided into 16 verses.

### Textual versions

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter in Hebrew are of the Masoretic Text tradition, which includes the Codex Cairensis (895), the Petersburg Codex of the Prophets (916), Codex Leningradensis (1008).[5][a]

Fragments containing parts of this chapter were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, including 4Q82 (4QXIIg; 25 BCE) with extant verses 7, 12–15;[7][8][9] and Wadi Murabba'at Minor Prophets (Mur88; MurXIIProph; 75–100 CE) with extant verses 1–16.[8][10]

There is also a translation into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, made in the last few centuries BCE. Extant ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint version include Codex Vaticanus (B; ${\displaystyle {\mathfrak {G}}}$ B; 4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (A; ${\displaystyle {\mathfrak {G}}}$ A; 5th century) and Codex Marchalianus (Q; ${\displaystyle {\mathfrak {G}}}$ Q; 6th century).[11][b] Some fragments containing parts of this chapter in Greek were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, that is, Naḥal Ḥever 8Ḥev1 (8ḤevXIIgr; late 1st century BCE) with extant verses 1–8.[8][13]

## Verse 1

The word of the Lord that came to Micah the Morasthite
in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah,
which he saw concerning Samaria and Jerusalem.[14]
• The inscription, or heading of the book, conveying the prophet's authority. The word of the Lord. The expression applies to the whole contents of the book, as in Hosea 1:1 and Zephaniah 1:1. It is often used for some particular message to a prophet, as Jeremiah 1:4, 11; Jeremiah 2:1; Ezekiel 3:16.[15]
• "Micah the Morasthite"; i.e. Micah of Moresheth-Gath (verse 14), a village in the lowland of Judaea, near Eleutheropolis,[16] some twenty miles southwest of Jerusalem,[15] on the border of the Philistine country; so called to distinguish it from Moresheth of Judah.[17] Micah omits all mention of his father. His great predecessor was known as Micaiah son of Imlah. Micah, a villager, would be known only by the name of his native village.[18]
• "Jotham": It is not stated in what year of Jotham's reign this prophet began his ministry, but it is probable that it was close to the beginning, A.M. 3190 [BCE date needed]. 2 Kings 15:34,35 states that Jotham did right in the eyes of the LORD, yet the high places were not removed. Religion was not wholly corrupted as in Israel, yet was it exceedingly abased with their own mixtures.[17]
• "Kings of Judah": Micah dates his prophetic office from kings of Judah only, as the only kings of the line appointed by God. Kings of Israel are mentioned in addition, only by prophets of Israel. He names Samaria first, because, its iniquity being most nearly full, its punishment was the nearest.[18]
• "Samaria and Jerusalem": in the vision of prophecy; Samaria was the metropolis of the ten tribes of Israel, and is put for them all; as Jerusalem was of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, and is put for them Samaria is mentioned first, because it was the head of the greatest body of people; and as it was the first in transgression, it was the first in punishment.[19]

## Notes

1. ^ Since 1947 the current text of Aleppo Codex is missing Micah 1:1 to 5:1.[6]
2. ^ Book of Micah is missing in the extant Codex Sinaiticus.[12]

## References

1. ^
2. ^
3. ^ Metzger, Bruce M., et al. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
4. ^ Keck, Leander E. 1996. The New Interpreter's Bible: Volume: VII. Nashville: Abingdon.
5. ^ Würthwein 1995, pp. 35-37.
6. ^ P. W. Skehan (2003), "BIBLE (TEXTS)", New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2 (2nd ed.), Gale, pp. 355–362
7. ^ Ulrich 2010, p. 615.
8. ^ a b c Dead sea scrolls - Micah
9. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, p. 39.
10. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 140–141.
11. ^ Würthwein 1995, pp. 73–74.
12. ^ Shepherd, Michael (2018). A Commentary on the Book of the Twelve: The Minor Prophets. Kregel Exegetical Library. Kregel Academic. p. 13. ISBN 978-0825444593.
13. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, p. 127.
14. ^ Micah 1:1
15. ^ a b Joseph S. Exell; Henry Donald Maurice Spence-Jones (Editors). The Pulpit Commentary. 23 volumes. First publication: 1890.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
16. ^ Jerome. Prolog. in Mic.
17. ^ a b Robert Jamieson, Andrew Robert Fausset; David Brown. Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown's Commentary On the Whole Bible. 1871.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
18. ^ a b Barnes, Albert. Notes on the Old Testament. London, Blackie & Son, 1884. Reprint, Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
19. ^ John Gill. John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible. Exposition of the Old and New Testament. Published in 1746-1763.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.