The Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC; French: Service météorologique du Canada – SMC) is a division of Environment and Climate Change Canada, which primarily provides public meteorological information and weather forecasts and warnings of severe weather and other environmental hazards. MSC also monitors and conducts research on climate, atmospheric science, air quality, water quantities, ice and other environmental issues. MSC operates a network of radio stations throughout Canada transmitting weather and environmental information 24 hours per day called Weatheradio Canada.
|Jurisdiction||Government of Canada|
|Parent agency||Environment and Climate Change Canada|
Her Majesty's Magnetic and Meteorological ObservatoryEdit
In 1840, British officials (British Ordnance Department) and the Royal Society established an observatory in Toronto, Canada West, one of a few across the British Empire and likely modeled after the Royal Observatory, Greenwich.
Meteorological Service of the DominionEdit
The Toronto observatory ended in 1853, but the Government of Canada took over the service and continued collecting climate data. On May 1, 1871, the Government of Canada established the Meteorological Service of Canada by providing a $5000 grant to Professor G. T. Kingston of the University of Toronto to establish a network of weather observations. This information was collected and made available to the public from 1877 onwards. The MSC was then assigned under the Department of Marine and Fisheries.
Meteorological Division of the Air Services BranchEdit
Atmospheric Environment Service and Meteorological Service of CanadaEdit
There are currently six public weather forecast offices:
- Storm Prediction Centre (Vancouver) in Vancouver, British Columbia (formerly the Pacific and Yukon Storm Prediction Centre)
- Storm Prediction Centre (Edmonton) in Edmonton, Alberta (formerly a part of the Prairie and Arctic Storm Prediction Centre)
- Storm Prediction Centre (Winnipeg) in Winnipeg, Manitoba (formerly a part of the Prairie and Arctic Storm Prediction Centre)
- Ontario Storm Prediction Centre (Toronto)
- Quebec Storm Prediction Centre (Montreal, Quebec)
- Atlantic Storm Prediction Centre (Dartmouth, Nova Scotia). The Atlantic Storm Prediction Centre also houses the Canadian Hurricane Centre plus manages the Newfoundland and Labrador Weather Office Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador.
There are two centres dedicated to aviation weather forecasting: Canadian Meteorological Aviation Centre-East, located in Montreal, and Canadian Meteorological Aviation Centre-West, located in Edmonton.
MSC also operates the Canadian Meteorological Centre, which is tasked with providing forecast guidance, and the Canadian Ice Service, which provides ice observations and forecasts for mariners. In support of Canada's military, some MSC meteorologists are seconded to the Department of National Defence (Canada).
Heads of the Observatory/MSCEdit
- 1840, Lieutenant C.J.B. Riddell, Royal Artillery
- 1841, Captain J.G. Younghusband
- 1841–1853, Captain Sir John Henry Lefroy
- 1853–1855, Professor John Bradford Cherriman, Provisional Director of the Toronto Observatory
- 1855–1880, Professor G. T. Kingston, Director of the Toronto Observatory, Superintendent of the MSC
- 1880–1894, Charles Carpmael, Director
- 1894–1929, Sir R. Frederick Stupart, Director
- 1929–1946, John Patterson M.A. F.R.C.S., Director
- 1946–1959, Andrew Thomson D.Sc., M.A. OBE, Controller of the Meteorological Division
- 1959–1964, Patrick D. McTaggart-Cowan DSc LLD MBE, Director of the Meteorological Division
- 1964–1971, J.R.H. Noble, Assistant Minister, Atmospheric Environment Service
- 1964–1971, J.R.H. Noble, Administrator, Atmospheric Environment Service
- 1840, Old Fort York (Bathurst Street), Toronto, Upper Canada — housed in unused barracks
- 1840–1853, Kings' College, Toronto, Upper Canada/Canada West — still located at King's College Circle, University of Toronto (see Toronto Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory)
- 1907–1971, Dominion Meteorological Building, 315 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario — now Admissions and Awards Building, University of Toronto
- 1972–present, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario (by architects Boignon & Armstrong)
- Meteorology in Canada
- The Post War Growth 1947–1970
- A Century of Canadian Meteorology
- "Government Electronic Directory Services (GEDS)". October 2017.
- Canadian Ice Service
- "Audit and Evaluation Annual Report 2009–2010". Environment and Climate Change Canada. July 29, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- "University of Toronto Admissions and Awards Building : 315 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario". Glass Steel and Stone. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-01-22.