Mercedes Jijón

María de las Mercedes Jijón de Vivanco y Chiriboga (b. 25 March 1811, Otavalo — d. 4 June 1878, Quito) was the first First Lady of Ecuador, serving in that capacity twice alongside her husband, Juan José Flores.

Mercedes Jijón de Vivanco
Mercedes Jijón de Vivanco y Chiriboga.jpg
Mercedes Jijón circa 1840
First Lady of Ecuador
In office
22 September 1830 – 10 May 1834
PresidentJuan José Flores
Succeeded byBaltazara Calderón de Rocafuerte
In office
1 February 1839 – 6 March 1845
Preceded byBaltazara Calderón de Rocafuerte
Succeeded byMaría Rosa Icaza [es]
Personal details
María de las Mercedes Jijón de Vivanco y Chiriboga

March 25, 1811
Otavalo, Real Audiencia of Quito
DiedJune 4, 1878(1878-06-04) (aged 67)
Quito, Ecuador
Resting placeCathedral of Quito
Nationality Ecuador
Spouse(s)Juan José Flores

Early lifeEdit

Mercedes Jijón was born in Otavalo, Ecuador, then part of the Real Audiencia of Quito, on 25 March 1811 to the landowner and merchant Antonio Jijón Chiriboga and his wife, Mariana Vivanco Calisto.[1][2] Mercedes and her ten older siblings were born into a respected and influential, as well as rich, family.[3] Through her father, Mercedes had noble blood from the County of Jijón [es], which allowed her to launch litigation to claim the title from her cousin, albeit unsuccessfully.[4]


After the Ecuadorian War of Independence and the annexation of the Real Audiencia of Quito into Gran Colombia, the Venezuelan general Juan José Flores was designated Prefect of the Ecuador Department. To legitimize his administration to the people of Ecuador, Flores decide to marry Mercedes,[3] then only 13 years old.

Flores and Jijón were married in the Cathedral of Quito on 21 October 1824 in a ceremony presided over by Archbishop of Quito Nicolás de Arteta y Calisto, their godfather via José Félix Valdivieso [es]. A number of military and political officials were also in attendance, in addition to Jijón's relatives.[4][5][6][7]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Salvador Lara 1996.
  2. ^ Revista de Estudios Históricos, 1993, p. 445.
  3. ^ a b "Abolengo" (in Spanish). La Hora. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  4. ^ a b Larrea 1974, p. 16.
  5. ^ Villalba 1994, pp. 50–55.
  6. ^ Vásconez Hurtado 1981, p. 135.
  7. ^ Revista Cultural, 1984, p. 359.


External linksEdit