Mer Hayrenik

"Mer Hayreniḱ" (Armenian: Մեր Հայրենիք, pronounced [mɛɾ hɑjɾɛˈnikʰ]; "Our Fatherland") is the national anthem of Armenia. It was composed by Barsegh Kanachyan, and the lyrics were written by Mikayel Nalbandian. First adopted in 1918 as the anthem of the short-lived First Republic of Armenia, it was subsequently banned after the country was invaded by then incorporated into the Soviet Union. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the restoration of sovereignty in 1991, the song was re-adopted as the national anthem, albeit with slightly modified lyrics.

Mer Hayreniḱ
English: Our Fatherland
Մեր Հայրենիք
Coat of arms of Armenia.svg

National anthem of Armenia
LyricsMikael Nalbandian, 1861
MusicBarsegh Kanachyan
Adopted1918
Readopted1991
Relinquished1922
Preceded byAnthem of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Audio sample
U.S. Navy Band instrumental version (one verse)

HistoryEdit

Composition and first republic (until 1920)Edit

The lyrics of "Mer Hayreniḱ" were derived from "The Song of an Italian Girl", a poem written by Mikael Nalbandian in 1861.[1][2] (Armenian: Իտալացի աղջկա երգը, romanizedItalats’i aghjka yergy),[3] It is more well known by its incipit, "Mer Hayreniḱ" ("Our Fatherland").[2][4] In the early 20th century,[1] the music was composed by Barsegh Kanachyan.[3] Subsequently, both the lyrics and music were adopted as the national anthem of the First Republic of Armenia, which briefly existed from 1918 to 1920.[3][5]

Soviet era (1920–91)Edit

The Red Army invaded Armenia in November 1920, in spite of the Treaty of Sèvres – which granted the country international recognition as a sovereign state – having been signed only three months earlier.[6] In 1922, it was absorbed into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (TSFSR), together with Azerbaijan and Georgia, and the TSFSR subsequently became part of the Soviet Union at the end of that same year.[7] As an unmistakable symbol of Armenian nationalism, "Mer Hayreniḱ" was outlawed by the Bolshevik authorities.[2][5] In its place, the Anthem of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic was utilized from 1944 onwards.[8][9] Because of this, "Mer Hayreniḱ" took on a new status as a protest song against Soviet rule during this time.[5]

Restoration of sovereignty and beyond (1991–present)Edit

"Mer Hayreniḱ" was reinstated as Armenia's national anthem on 1 July 1991[3] by the constituent republic's Supreme Soviet.[10] The lyrics are not identical to the 1918 version, however, because several of the words have been modified.[1][11] As an intrinsic element of civic education in Armenia, the anthem is one of several national symbols which feature prominently in the classrooms of the country's schools. By dignifying the song in this manner, teachers reckon that this "encourage[s] students to sing the national anthem every day".[12]

A debate of the national anthem was a question in the Armenian Parliament in 2006 and 2019. The new government had called for the restoration of the Soviet era anthem with newer lyrics in its place.[13]

LyricsEdit

The lyrics of "Mer Hayreniḱ" promotes the worthiness of "dying for the freedom" of Armenia.[14] Its discussion of death, however, has led several commentators to complain that the anthem is overly "wimpy" and "gloomy".[5][15] Specifically, some members of the National Assembly are of the opinion that the song – written at the time of the first fight for independence – does not accurately reflect the present era of triumph and success.[16] However, none of the proposals to replace "Mer Hayreniḱ" have come to fruition,[17] as the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutyun) – which were part of the coalition government[5] – have so far resisted efforts to change the national anthem,[5][15] especially proposals to replace it with one based on the music of the anthem of the Armenian SSR.[18][19]

Current textEdit

Armenian original[20][21] Romanization IPA transcription[a] English translation[22]

I
Մեր Հայրենիք, ազատ անկախ,
Որ ապրել է դարեդար
𝄆 Յուր[b] որդիքը արդ կանչում են
Ազատ, անկախ Հայաստան։ 𝄇

II
Ահա եղբայր քեզ մի դրոշ,
Որ իմ ձեռքով գործեցի
𝄆 Գիշերները ես քուն չեղա(յ),
Արտասուքով լվացի։ 𝄇

III
Նայիր նրան՝ երեք գոյնով,
Նուիրական մեր նշան
𝄆 Թող փողփողի թշնամու դեմ
Թող միշտ պանծայ Հայաստան։ 𝄇

IV
Ամենայն տեղ մահը մի է
Մարդ մի անգամ պիտ մեռնի,
𝄆 Բայց երանի՝ որ իւր ազգի
Ազատության կը զոհվի։ 𝄇

I
Mer Hayreniḱ, azat ankakh,
Vor aprel e daredar
𝄆 Yur vordiḱə ard kanchum en
Azat, ankakh Hayastan. 𝄇

II
Aha yeghbayr ḱez mi drosh,
Vor im dzerrḱov gortzetsi
𝄆 Gishernerə yes ḱun chegha(y),
Artasuḱov lvatsi. 𝄇

III
Nayir nran yereḱ guynov,
Nvirakan mer nshan
𝄆 T́ogh ṕoghṕoghi t́shnamu dem
T́ogh misht pantza Hayastan. 𝄇

IV
Amenayn tegh mahə mi e
Mard mi angam pit merrni,
𝄆 Bayts yerani, vor yur azgi
Azatut́yan kzohvi. 𝄇

1
[mɛɾ hɑj.ɾɛ.ˈnikʰ | ɑ.ˈzɑt ɑŋ.ˈkɑχ |]
[vɔɾ ɑ.ˈpɾɛl ɛ dɑ.ɾɛ.ˈdɑɾ ‖]
𝄆 [juɾ vɔɾ.ˈdi.kʰə ɑɾd kɑn.ˈt͡ʃʰum ɛn |]
[ɑ.ˈzɑt ɑŋ.ˈkɑχ hɑ.jɑ.ˈstɑn ‖] 𝄇

2
[ɑ.ˈhɑ jɛʁ.ˈbɑjɾ | kʰɛz mi də.ˈɾɔʃ |]
[vɔɾ im d͡zɛr.ˈkʰɔv gɔɾ.t͡sɛ.ˈt͡sʰi ‖]
𝄆 [gi.ʃɛɾ.ˈnɛ.ɾə jɛs kʰun t͡ʃʰɛ.ˈʁɑ |]
[ɑɾ.tɑ.su.ˈkʰɔv lə.vɑ.ˈt͡sʰi ‖] 𝄇

3
[nɑ.ˈjiɾ nə.ˈɾɑn | jɛ.ˈɾɛkʰ guj.ˈnɔv |]
[nə.vi.ɾɑ.ˈkɑn mɛɾ nə.ˈʃɑn ‖]
𝄆 [tʰɔʁ pʰɔʁ.pʰɔ.ˈʁi tʰəʃ.nɑ.ˈmu dɛm |]
[tʰɔʁ miʃt pɑn.ˈt͡sɑ hɑ.jɑ.ˈstɑn ‖] 𝄇

4
[ɑ.mɛ.ˈnɑjn tɛʁ | ˈmɑ.hə mi ɛ ‖]
[mɑɾd mi ɑŋ.ˈkʰɑm pit mɛr.ˈni |]
𝄆 [bɑjt͡sʰ jɛ.ɾɑ.ˈni | vɔɾ juɾ ɑz.ˈgi]
[ɑ.zɑ.tu.ˈtʰjɑn kə zɔh.ˈvi ‖] 𝄇

I
Our Fatherland, free, independent,
That has lived for centuries,
𝄆 Is now summoning its sons
To the free, independent Armenia. 𝄇

II
Here is a flag for you my brother,
That I have sewed
𝄆 Over the sleepless nights,
And bathed in my tears. 𝄇

III
Look at it, tricoloured,
A valuable symbol for us.
𝄆 Let it shine against the enemy.
Let Armenia be glorious forever. 𝄇

IV
Death is the same everywhere,
A man dies but once,
𝄆 Blessed is the one who dies
For the freedom of his nation. 𝄇

Original textEdit

"Mer Hayreniḱ" is based on the first, third, fourth and sixth stanzas of Nalbandian's poem The Song of an Italian Girl".[24][25]

Armenian original[26] Romanization English translation

Մեր հայրենիք, թշուառ, անտէր,
Մեր թշնամուց ոտնակոխ,
Իւր որդիքը արդ կանչում է
Հանել իւր վրէժ, քէն ու ոխ:

Ահա՛, եղբայր, քեզ մի դրoշ,
Որ իմ ձեռքով գործեցի,
Գիշերները ես քուն չեղայ,
Արտասուքով լուացի։

Նայի՛ր նորան, երեք գոյնով,
Նուիրական մեր նշան,
Թո՛ղ փողփողի թշնամու դէմ,
Թո՛ղ կործանուի Աւստրիան:

Ամենայն տեղ մահը մի է,
Մարդ մի անգամ պիտ մեռնի.
Բայց երանի՜, որ իւր ազգի
Ազատութեան կը զոհուի:

Mer Hayreniḱ, t́shuarr, anter,
Mer t́shnamuts votnakokh,
Iur vordiḱə ard kanchum e
Hanel iur vrezh, ḱen u vokh.

Aha, yeghbayr, ḱez mi drosh,
Vor im dzerrḱov gortzetsi,
Gishernerə yes ḱun cheghay,
Artasuḱov luatsi.

Nayir noran, yereḱ goynov,
Nuirakan mer nshan,
T́ogh ṕoghṕoghi t́shnamu dem,
T́ogh kortzanui Austrian:

Amenayn tegh mahə mi e,
Mard mi angam pit merrni.
Bayts yerani, vor iur azgi
Azatut́ean kzohui.

Our homeland, miserable, abandoned,
Downtrodden by our foes,
Her sons now calleth,
Ready for revenge, spite and grudge.

Behold, brother, a flag for thee,
That I've sewn with my own hands,
During the sleepness nights,
Bathed in my tears.

Look at it, tricolored,
Our symbol cherished,
Let it shine against the foe,
May Austria be destroyed.

Death is the same everywhere,
Man who dieth but even once.
Blessed is the one who dieth
For the freedom of his land.

In popular cultureEdit

The title of the national anthem is used as the name of a television channel for Armenian expatriates residing in Russia. Mer Hayrenik TV is based in the city of Novosibirsk, the administrative centre of both Novosibirsk Oblast as well as the Siberian Federal District.[27]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ See Help:IPA/Armenian and Armenian phonology.
  2. ^ Sometimes written as the modern form իր (ir) instead.[23]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Waters, Bella (1 September 2008). Armenia in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 69. ISBN 9780822585763. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Adalian, Rouben Paul (13 May 2010). Historical Dictionary of Armenia. Scarecrow Press. p. 469. ISBN 9780810874503. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d Ghazanchyan, Siranush (15 June 2016). "June 15 is the day of Armenian state symbols". Public Radio of Armenia. Archived from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  4. ^ Hacikyan, Agop Jack, ed. (2005). The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the eighteenth century to modern times. Vol. 3. Wayne State University Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0814332214. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Parsons, Robert (24 August 2006). "CIS: Armenia Latest To Agonize Over Anthem". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Broadcasting Board of Governors. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  6. ^ "Armenia – History". Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations (12th ed.). Thomson Gale. 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  7. ^ Dowsett, Charles James Frank; Suny, Ronald Grigor (14 March 2017). "Armenia – History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  8. ^ "Aram Khachaturian". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 14 December 2000. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  9. ^ "Aram Khachaturian". BBC Music. BBC. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  10. ^ "About Armenia – General Information". Government of the Republic of Armenia. Archived from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  11. ^ "Armenia". The World Factbook. CIA. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  12. ^ Terzian, Shelley (2016). "International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education". European Journal of Education. 51 (2): 292–293. doi:10.1111/ejed.12143. (registration required)
  13. ^ Mejlumyan, Ani (5 February 2019). "Armenia's new authorities debate changing national anthem". Eurasianet.
  14. ^ McDonnell, Daniel (2 September 2010). "Euro 2012 diary: Armenians' catchy anthem may raise roof". Irish Independent. Dublin. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  15. ^ a b Mkrtchyan, Gayane (4 March 2015). "National Symbols: Artists again raise questions over Armenian anthem, coat of arms". ArmeniaNow. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  16. ^ "National Assembly Debates the Draft on the National Anthem of the Republic of Armenia". National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia. 28 November 2006. Archived from the original on 29 April 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  17. ^ Abrahamyan, Gayane (4 December 2012). "Symbols of Debate: Initiative underway to restore historic Coat of Arms and anthem". ArmeniaNow. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  18. ^ "Government Shelves Plans For New Armenian Anthem". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  19. ^ "Armenia's new authorities debate changing national anthem | Eurasianet". eurasianet.org. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  20. ^ Հայաստանի Հանրապետության պետական խորհրդանիշերը. mfa.am.
  21. ^ admin. "Խօսք Օրհներգի մասին. Զաւէն Խանճեան". ԱՀԱԸ Հայաստան (in Armenian). Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  22. ^ "State symbols of the Republic of Armenia - Library - The President of the Republic of Armenia". President of Armenia.
  23. ^ "ՀՀ պետական օրհներգը". Iravaban.net. 24 May 2013.
  24. ^ "Opinion: Our anthem is pitiable; we are always crying (video)". A1Plus. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  25. ^ Nahapetyan, Haykaram (14 February 2019). "Questing for the Origins of Mer Hayrenik". The Armenian Mirror-Spectator. Retrieved 6 June 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. ^ Kʻnar haykakan. Mikhail Misropovich Miansarov. 1868
  27. ^ Ter-Matevosyan, Vahram; Danielyan, Hamazasp; Sisserian, Serge-Varak; Kankanyan, Nina; Shorjian, Nayiri (2017). "Institutions and identity politics in the Armenian diaspora: the cases of Russia and Lebanon". Diaspora Studies. 10 (1): 78. doi:10.1080/09739572.2016.1239436. S2CID 157417683. (registration required)

External linksEdit