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Current NATO members highlighted in blue
Timeline of countries becoming NATO members. Dark blue marks countries that were already NATO members at the given time. Light blue marks new members.

NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is an international alliance that consists of 29 member states from North America and Europe. It was established at the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. Article Five of the treaty states that if an armed attack occurs against one of the member states, it shall be considered an attack against all members, and other members shall assist the attacked member, with armed forces if necessary.[1]

Of the 29 member countries, two are located in North America (Canada and the United States), 26 are in Europe, and one is in Eurasia (Turkey). All members have militaries, except for Iceland which does not have a typical army (but does, however, have a coast guard and a small unit of civilian specialists for NATO operations). Three of NATO's members are nuclear weapons states: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. NATO has 12 original founding member nation states, and from 18 February 1952 to 6 May 1955, it added three more member nations, and a fourth on 30 May 1982. After the end of the Cold War, NATO added 13 more member nations (10 former Warsaw Pact members and three former Yugoslav republics) from 12 March 1999 to 5 June 2017.

Contents

Founding and changes in membershipEdit

NATO has added new members seven times since its founding in 1949, and since 2017 NATO has had 29 members. Twelve countries were part of the founding of NATO: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1952, Greece and Turkey became members of the Alliance, joined later by West Germany (in 1955) and Spain (in 1982). In 1990, with the reunification of Germany, NATO grew to include the former country of East Germany. Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional cooperation between NATO and its neighbors were set up, including the Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue initiative and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. In 1997, three former Warsaw Pact countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO. After this fourth enlargement in 1999, the Vilnius group of the Baltics and seven East European countries formed in May 2000 to cooperate and lobby for further NATO membership. Seven of these countries joined in the fifth enlargement in 2004. The Adriatic States Albania and Croatia joined in the sixth enlargement in 2009, Montenegro in 2017.

United States President Donald Trump expressed interest in withdrawing from the organization during his 2016 presidential campaign, however he later stated the United States would protect allies in the event that Article V is invoked.[2][3][4]

Member statesEdit

* = Member of the EU[5]
Flag Map English common and formal names
[6][7][8]
Domestic common and formal names
[6][7]
Capital
[8][9][10]
Date of accession[11] Population
[a][12]
Area
[a][13]
Notes
Albania[i]

Republic of Albania
Albanian: Shqipëri / Shqipëria — Republika e Shqipërisë Tirana

Albanian: Tiranë
2009-04-01 2,887,000 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1968.
Belgium*

Kingdom of Belgium
Dutch: België — Koninkrijk België

French: Belgique — Royaume de Belgique

German: Belgien — Königreich Belgien
Brussels

Dutch: Brussel

French: Bruxelles

German: Brüssel
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 11,502,204 30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi)
Bulgaria*

Republic of Bulgaria
Bulgarian: България — Република България (Bǎlgarija — Republika Bǎlgarija) Sofia

Bulgarian: София (Sofia)
2004-03-29 7,050,034 110,879 km2 (42,811 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
Canada English: Canada

French: Canada
Ottawa 1949-08-24 (Founding member) 37,242,571 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,103 sq mi)
Croatia*

Republic of Croatia
Croatian: Hrvatska — Republika Hrvatska Zagreb

Croatian: Zagreb
2009-04-01 4,105,493 56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) Previously part of Yugoslavia 1945–1991 (Non-aligned).
Czech Republic*[j] Czech: Česko — Česká republika Prague

Czech: Praha
1999-03-12 10,625,449 78,867 km2 (30,451 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
Denmark*[f]

Kingdom of Denmark
Danish: Danmark — Kongeriget Danmark Copenhagen

Danish: København
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 5,806,015 2,210,000 km2 (853,286 sq mi) Denmark's NATO membership includes the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
Estonia*

Republic of Estonia
Estonian: Eesti — Eesti Vabariik Tallinn

Estonian: Tallinn
2004-03-29 1,315,000 45,228 km2 (17,463 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
France*

French Republic
French: France — République française Paris

French: Paris
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 67,348,000 643,427 km2 (248,429 sq mi) Membership extended as the Fourth French Republic (including French Algeria until 1962). France withdrew from the integrated military command in 1966 to pursue an independent defense system but returned to full participation in 2009.
Germany*

Federal Republic of Germany
German: Deutschland — Bundesrepublik Deutschland Berlin

German: Berlin
1955-05-8 82,800,000 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi) Commonly known as West Germany when it joined; it later reunited with Saarland in 1957 and with the Berlin territories and East Germany on 3 October 1990. East Germany was a member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1956–1990.
Greece*

Hellenic Republic
Greek: Ελλάς — Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Ellás — Ellinikí Dimokratía) Athens

Greek: Αθήνα (Athína)
1952-02-18 10,816,286 131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi) Membership extended as the Kingdom of Greece. Greece withdrew its forces from NATO's military command structure from 1974 to 1980 as a result of Greco-Turkish tensions following the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
Hungary* Hungarian: Magyarország Budapest

Hungarian: Budapest
1999-03-12 9,771,000 93,028 km2 (35,918 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
Iceland

Republic of Iceland
Icelandic: Ísland — Lýðveldið Ísland Reykjavík

Icelandic: Reykjavík
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 350,710 103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi) Iceland, the sole member that does not have its own standing army, joined on the condition that it would not be expected to establish one. However, its strategic geographic position in the Atlantic made it an invaluable member. It has a Coast Guard and has contributed a voluntary peacekeeping force, trained in Norway for NATO.
Italy*

Italian Republic
Italian: Italia — Repubblica Italiana Rome

Italian: Roma
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 60,494,118 301,340 km2 (116,348 sq mi)
Latvia*

Republic of Latvia
Latvian: Latvija — Latvijas Republika Riga

Latvian: Rīga
2004-03-29 1,934,379 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
Lithuania*

Republic of Lithuania
Lithuanian: Lietuva — Lietuvos Respublika Vilnius

Lithuanian: Vilnius
2004-03-29 2,797,000 65,300 km2 (25,212 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
Luxembourg*

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg

French: Luxembourg — Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

German: Luxemburg — Großherzogtum Luxemburg
Luxembourg

Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg

French: Luxembourg

German: Luxemburg
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 602,000 2,586 km2 (998 sq mi)
Montenegro[i] Montenegrin: Црна Гора, Crna Gora Podgorica

Montenegrin: Подгорица, Podgorica
2017-06-05 642,550 13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi) Previously part of Yugoslavia 1945–1991 (Non-aligned).
Netherlands*[f][g][14]

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Dutch: Nederland — Koninkrijk der Nederlanden

West Frisian: Nederlân — Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen

Papiamento: Hulandu — Reino di Hulanda
Amsterdam (capital)

The Hague (seat of government)

Dutch: Amsterdam

West Frisian: Amsterdam

Papiamento: Amsterdam

Dutch: 's-Gravenhage / Den Haag

West Frisian: De Haach

Papiamento: Den Haag
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 17,272,990 41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi)
Norway

Kingdom of Norway
Bokmål: Norge — Kongeriket Norge

Nynorsk: Noreg — Kongeriket Noreg

Northern Sami: Norga — Norgga gonagasriika
Oslo

Norwegian: Oslo
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 5,323,933 323,802 km2 (125,021 sq mi)
Poland*

Republic of Poland
Polish: Polska — Rzeczpospolita Polska Warsaw

Polish: Warszawa
1999-03-12 38,433,600 312,685 km2 (120,728 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
Portugal*

Portuguese Republic
Portuguese: Portugal — República Portuguesa Lisbon

Portuguese: Lisboa
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 10,291,196 92,090 km2 (35,556 sq mi)
Romania* Romanian: România Bucharest

Romanian: București
2004-03-29 19,622,000 238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
Slovakia*

Slovak Republic
Slovak: Slovensko — Slovenská republika Bratislava

Slovak: Bratislava
2004-03-29 5,445,087 49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
Slovenia*

Republic of Slovenia
Slovene: Slovenija — Republika Slovenija Ljubljana

Slovene: Ljubljana
2004-03-29 2,070,050 20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi) Previously part of Yugoslavia 1945–1991 (Non-aligned).
Spain*

Kingdom of Spain
Spanish: España — Reino de España Madrid

Spanish: Madrid
1982-05-30 47,720,291 505,370 km2 (195,124 sq mi)
Turkey[e][i]

Republic of Turkey
Turkish: Türkiye — Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ankara

Turkish: Ankara
1952-02-18 80,810,525[15] 783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi)
United Kingdom*[h]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
English: United Kingdom — United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Welsh: Deyrnas Unedig — Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
London 1949-08-24 (Founding member) 66,040,229 243,610 km2 (94,058 sq mi)
United States

United States of America
English: United States of America Washington, D.C. 1949-08-24 (Founding member) 327,167,434 3,796,742 km2 (1,465,930 sq mi) United States' NATO membership extends to its territories.

Military personnelEdit

The following list is sourced from the 2018 edition of "The Military Balance" published annually by the International Institute for Strategic Studies.

Country Active military Reserve military Paramilitary Total Per 1000 capita
(total)
Per 1000 capita
(active)
  Albania[16] 8,000 0 500 8,500 2.8 2.6
  Belgium[17] 28,800 5,000 0 33,800 2.9 2.5
  Bulgaria[18] 31,300 3,000 0 34,300 4.8 4.4
  Canada[19] 63,000 30,000 4,500 97,500 2.7 1.8
  Croatia[20] 15,650 0 3,000 18,650 4.3 3.6
  Czech Republic[21] 23,200 2,359 0 25,559 2.4 2.2
  Denmark[22] 16,100 45,700 0 61,800 11 2.9
  Estonia[23] 6,600 12,000 15,800 34,400 27.5 5.3
  France[24] 202,700 72,300 103,400 378,400 5.6 3
  Germany[25] 178,600 27,900 500 207,000 2.6 2.2
  Greece[26] 141,350 220,500 4,000 365,850 34 13.1
  Hungary[27] 27,800 44,000 12,000 83,800 8.5 2.8
  Iceland[28] 200 200 250 650 1.9 0.6
  Italy[29][Note 1] 174,500 18,300 182,350 375,150 6 2.8
  Latvia[30] 5,310 7,850 0 13,160 6.8 2.7
  Lithuania[31] 18,350 6,700 11,300 36,350 12.9 6.5
  Luxembourg[32] 900 0 600 1,500 2.5 1.5
  Montenegro[33] 1,950 0 10,100 12,050 18.8 3
  Netherlands[34] 35,410 4,660 5,900 45,970 2.7 2.1
  Norway[35] 23,950 38,590 0 62,540 11.8 4.5
  Poland[36] 105,000 0 73,400 178,400 4.6 2.7
  Portugal[37] 30,500 211,950 44,000 286,450 26.4 2.8
  Romania[38] 69,300 50,000 79,900 199,200 9.3 3.2
  Slovakia[39] 15,850 0 0 15,850 2.9 2.9
  Slovenia[40] 7,250 1,760 5,950 14,960 7.6 3.7
  Spain[41] 121,200 15,450 76,750 213,400 4.4 2.5
  Turkey[42] 355,200 378,700 156,800 890,700 11 4.4
  United Kingdom[43] 146,650 44,250 0 190,900 2.9 2.3
  United States[44] 1,348,400 857,950 0 2,206,350 6.8 4.2
  1. ^ The paramilitary forces of Italy consists of the Carabinieri and the Guardia di Finanza.

Military expendituresEdit

The United States has a larger defense expenditure than all other members combined.[45] Criticism of the organization by current US President Donald Trump caused various reactions from American and European political figures, ranging from ridicule to panic.[46][47][48] Pew Research Center's 2016 survey among its member states showed that while most countries viewed NATO positively, most NATO members preferred keeping their military spending the same. The response to whether their country should militarily aid another NATO country if it were to get into a serious military conflict with Russia was also mixed. Only in the US and Canada did more than 50% of the people answer that they should.[49][50]

TableEdit

Country Population
(2016 est.)
GDP (nominal)
(2018, US$ millions)
Military expenditures
(2019, US$ millions)[51]
Military expenditures
(2019, % of GDP)[51]
Defence expenditures,
(2018, US$ per capita)[52]
Total military
(2017)[51]
  Albania 3,038,594 15202 198 1.26 59 6,800
  Belgium 11,409,077 533153 4921 0.93 433 28,000
  Bulgaria 7,144,653 64963 1079 1.61 124 25,000
  Canada 35,362,905 1711387 21885 1.27 641 73,000
  Croatia 4,313,707 60688 1072 1.75 269 15,000
  Czech Republic 10,644,842 242052 2969 1.19 260 24,000
  Denmark 5,593,785 350874 4760 1.35 758 17,000
  Estonia 1,258,545 30312 669 2.13 412 6,200
  France 66,836,154 2,775,252 50659 1.84 788 209,000
  Germany 80,722,792 4,000,386 54113 1.36 586 180,000
  Greece 10,773,253 219097 4844 2.24 526 106,000
  Hungary 9,874,784 155703 2080 1.21 190 19,000
  Iceland 335,878 25882 4.5 a 14.2 0a
  Italy 62,007,540 2,072,201 24482 1.22 406 181,000
  Latvia 1,965,686 34881 724 2.01 333 5,700
  Lithuania 2,854,235 53323 1084 1.98 353 13,000
  Luxembourg 582,291 68770 391 0.55 579 800
  Montenegro 623,000 5402 92 1.65 128 1700
  Netherlands 17,016,967 912899 12419 1.35 745 41,000
  Norway 5,265,158 434937 7179 1.70 1,489 20,000
  Poland 38,523,261 586015 11971 2.01 325 111,000
  Portugal 10,833,816 238510 3358 1.41 322 26,000
  Romania 21,599,736 239851 5043 2.04 220 60,000
  Slovakia 5,445,802 106585 1905 1.74 251 12,000
  Slovenia 1,978,029 54242 581 1.04 272 6,800
  Spain 48,563,476 1425865 13156 0.92 310 121,000
  Turkey 80,274,604 766428 13919 1.89 253 387,000
  United Kingdom 64,430,428 2,828,644 60376 2.13 924 135,560
  United States 327,465,000 20,494,050 730149 3.42 1,846 1,320,000
  NATO 932,645,526 36,211,501 1036077 2.51 934 3,163,000

Population data from CIA World Factbook
GDP data from IMF[53]
Expenditure data (except Iceland) from SIPRI Military Expenditure Database,[54] Icelandic data (2013) from Statistics Iceland[55]
Military personnel data from NATO[56]
a Iceland has no armed forces.
b 2015 data.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Area and population numbers include integral areas located outside of Europe. The area and population of states with separatist regions includes that of the separatist regions.
  2. ^ a b c The island of Cyprus is located on the Cyprian arc on the edge of the Anatolian Plate and is physiographically associated with Asia, but it is part of European organisations such as the EU.
  3. ^ a b c Turkey has territory in both Europe (dark green) and Asia (light green).
  4. ^ a b Denmark and the Netherlands are constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark and the Kingdom of the Netherlands respectively. Both are members of the EU; however, the other constituent countries of their kingdoms are not. In international organisations, the terms Denmark and the Netherlands are often used as short names for their respective kingdoms as a whole.
  5. ^ The Netherlands is also known as "Holland", but this name properly refers only to a region of the country. See Netherlands (terminology).
  6. ^ a b c d The United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) consists of the constituent countries of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The UK is responsible for the foreign relations and ultimate good governance of the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey, which are otherwise separate. England, Scotland and Wales make up the island of Great Britain (or simply Britain), which is sometimes used synonymously with the United Kingdom.
  7. ^ a b c d e f EU candidate country.
  8. ^ A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". By 2017, this variant remains uncommon. Nevertheless, this term has been adopted by several companies and organisations, including Google Maps, instead of the term "Czech Republic". See Name of the Czech Republic.

ReferencesEdit

Citations
  1. ^ "The North Atlantic Treaty". North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 1949-04-04. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
  2. ^ "Trump threatens to quit NATO: White House official - France 24". France 24. 2017-05-18. Retrieved 2017-05-31.
  3. ^ Landler, Michael D. Shear, Mark; Kanter, James (2017-05-25). "In NATO Speech, Trump Is Vague About Mutual Defense Pledge". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-31.
  4. ^ Lauter, David (2017-05-26). "A glowing orb and a not-so-glowing review of the GOP healthcare bill: Trump's week was filled with events he didn't control". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-05-31.
  5. ^ "Member States". Europa. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  6. ^ a b "Field Listing :: Names". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  7. ^ a b "UNGEGN List of Country Names" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2007. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  8. ^ a b "List of countries, territories and currencies". Europa. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  9. ^ "Field Listing :: Capital". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  10. ^ "UNGEGN World Geographical Names". United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 13 September 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  11. ^ "North Atlantic Treaty". United States Department of State. 2017-06-05. Retrieved 2019-07-01.
  12. ^ "Country Comparison :: Population". Central Intelligence Agency. July 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  13. ^ "Field Listing :: Area". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  14. ^ "Netherlands". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-17.
  15. ^ "Turkey's population hits 79.81 million people, increasing over one million". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  16. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 82
  17. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 85
  18. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 88
  19. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 43
  20. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 90
  21. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 94
  22. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 96
  23. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 98
  24. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 102
  25. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 107-108
  26. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 111
  27. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 114
  28. ^ IISS 2018, p. 116
  29. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 118
  30. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 122
  31. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 124
  32. ^ IISS 2018, p. 125-126
  33. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 128
  34. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 130
  35. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 132-133
  36. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 135
  37. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 138
  38. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 140
  39. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 145
  40. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 147
  41. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 148
  42. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 156-157
  43. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 160-161
  44. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 46
  45. ^ Where Does The Relationship Between NATO And The U.S. Go From Here?, Huffington Post
  46. ^ NATO allies boost defense spending in the wake of Trump criticism, The Washington Post
  47. ^ Former US ambassador to Nato in withering criticism of Donald Trump, The Independent
  48. ^ Shaken by Trump’s Criticism of NATO, Europe Mulls Building Own Military Force, Voice Of America
  49. ^ Support for NATO is widespread among member nations, Pew Research
  50. ^ U.S. would defend NATO despite Trump's criticism, Europeans believe: study, Reuters
  51. ^ a b c The Secretary General's Annual Report 2019. NATO. Published in 2018. See pages 108 - 112.
  52. ^ https://www.nato.int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/pdf_publications/20190315_sgar2018-en.pdf#page=122
  53. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database April 2016". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. April 2015. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  54. ^ "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database 2015" (XLS). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  55. ^ "Central government total expenditure by function 1998-2013". Statistics Iceland. Statistics Iceland. 2014-09-23. Retrieved 2015-06-08.
  56. ^ "Financial and Economic Data Relating to NATO Defence" (PDF). NATO. NATO. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
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