Megara (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Megara (/ˈmɛɡərə/; Ancient Greek: Μεγάρα) was a Theban princess and the first wife of the hero Heracles.

FamilyEdit

Megara was the eldest daughter of Creon, King of Thebes, who was possibly the brother of Jocasta and uncle of Oedipus.[1] If Creon is the same figure, Megara's mother is like Creon's wife Eurydice, and she would be the sister of Menoeceus (Megareus), Lycomedes, Haemon, and Pyrrha.

Accounts of the names and number of Megara and Heracles children vary based on the author.[2] According to the mythographer Apollodorus, Megara was the mother of three sons by Heracles named Therimachus, Creontiades, and Deicoon.[1] Dinias the Argive included the three children named Apollodorus, however, he also added a fourth named Deion.[3] Theban poet Pindar states that Megara bore Heracles eight sons.[4] Alternatively, the Roman mythographer Hyginus named their sons as Therimachus and Ophites.[5]

MythologyEdit

 
An insane Heracles is depicted killing his son while Megara stands horrified on the right side of the scene (National Archaeological Museum, Madrid, c. 350-320 B.C.E.)

Megara was married to Heracles by her father as a reward for the hero after he lead the defense of Thebes against the Minyans at Orchomenus, and the couple had several sons together.[6] Hera sent Heracles into a fit of temporary madness due to her hatred for him. In his madness, Heracles killed their children either by shooting them with arrows or by throwing them into a fire.[7][8] Whether Megara also died as a result of this attack depended on the author.[9] In some sources, after Heracles completed his Twelve Labours, Megara married Heracles' nephew Iolaus and became the mother of Leipephilene by him.[10][11]

Heracles' desire to atone for the murders of his wife and children is typically cited as the catalyst for becoming a slave to his cousin Eurystheus and performing the the Twelve Labours. Euripides presents an alternative order of events in his tragedy, Heracles, as it was the completion of the twelve labour, retrieving Cerberus from Hades that begun the agon. The play begins with Megara, her children, and Amphitryon as suppliants at an alter seeking refuge from the tyrant Lykos who threats them as Heracles is in the underworld.[12] Heracles returns to save his family, but Iris and the spirit of madness, Lyssa, cause him to go mad and kill Megara and their children since he believes he is attacking Lykos.[12] Roman playwright Seneca the Younger retells a similar story in his play Hercules Furens.

While in the underworld, Odysseus sees Megara, but does not elaborate on her mythology beyond stating she was the daughter of Creon and the former wife of Heracles.[13] The Hellenistic poem Megara by an unknown author presented a dialogue at Tiryns between a mournful Megara and Heracles's mother Alcmene as the former grieves her children and Heracles's absence during his labours.[14]

Cult dedicated to Megara's childrenEdit

The sons of Heracles appear to have been incorporated into Heracles hero cult at Thebes who were celebrated at a festival known as the Herakleia where a feast was prepared in honour of Heracles above the “Elektran Gates” and sacrifices were made.[4] The hero-tombs of the children of Heracles and Megara in Thebes they were venerated as the Chalkoarai.[15]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Apollodorus, Library, 2.4.11, 2.7.8
  2. ^ The number of Megara's sons varies according to the source; the Theban tradition made them eight (Kerényi, pp. 185–186, notes Pindar's Fourth Isthmian Ode) but Euripides' Heracles reduced them to three, possibly, according to Kerényi, p. 186, for the exigencies of his stage tradition.
  3. ^ Frazer, note 3 to 2.7.8, which notes that "other writers gave different lists".
  4. ^ a b Stafford, Emma (2012). Herakles. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 182–183. ISBN 978-0415300681.
  5. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 31, 32, 72.
  6. ^ Apollodorus, Library, 2.4.11
  7. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, 4.11.1
  8. ^ Apollodorus, Library, 2.4.12
  9. ^ Euripides, Heracles 1001; Hyginus, Fabulae 31.8, 241.
  10. ^ Apollodorus, 2.6.1.
  11. ^ Plutarch, Moralia "The Dialogue on Love / Erotikos / Amatoria", Loeb, V. XII, p.339
  12. ^ a b Silk, Michael Stephen (1985). "Heracles and Greek tragedy". Greece & Rome. 32: 1–22 – via JSTOR.
  13. ^ Homer, Odyssey, 11.265
  14. ^ Anonymous, Megara
  15. ^ "Those on whom fell a curse of bronze" (Kerényi, p. 186).

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit


Preceded by
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Wives of Heracles Succeeded by
Omphale