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Mazar-i-Sharif

  (Redirected from Mazari Sharif)

Mazār-i-Sharīf (Dari and Pashto: مزار شریف‎; [ˌmæˈzɒːr ˌi ʃæˈriːf]), also called Mazār-e Sharīf, or just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 UN–Habitat population estimate 427,600.[1] It is the capital of Balkh province and is linked by highways with Kunduz in the east, Kabul in the southeast, Herat in the west and Samarkand in Uzbekistan in the north. It is about 55 km (34 mi) from the Uzbek border. The city also serves as one of the many tourist attractions because of its famous shrines as well as the Islamic and Hellenistic archeological sites. The ancient city of Balkh is also nearby.

Mazar-i-Sharif
Afghan Air Force helicopter flies over Mazar-i-Sharif
View towards the Blue Mosque during Nowruz
The Blue Mosque
Downtown
From top left to right: Afghan Air Force helicopter flies over Mazar-i-Sharif; View towards the Blue Mosque during Nowruz; The Blue Mosque; Downtown.
Mazar-i-Sharif is located in Afghanistan
Mazar-i-Sharif
Location in Afghanistan
Coordinates: 36°42′N 67°07′E / 36.700°N 67.117°E / 36.700; 67.117Coordinates: 36°42′N 67°07′E / 36.700°N 67.117°E / 36.700; 67.117
Country Afghanistan
ProvinceBalkh Province
DistrictMazar-i-Sharif District
Government
 • MayorNasir Ahmad Aini
Area
 • Land83 km2 (32 sq mi)
Elevation
357 m (1,171 ft)
Population
(2015)[1]
 • Total427,600[1]
Time zoneUTC+4:30 (Afghanistan Standard Time)
ClimateBSk

The name Mazar-i-Sharif means "Tomb of the Prince", a reference to the large, blue-tiled sanctuary and mosque in the center of the city known as the Shrine of Ali or the Blue Mosque. Some Hazaras believe that the tomb of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is at this mosque in Mazar-i-Sharif, after Ali's remains were transferred to Mazar-i-Sharif as per request of Ja'far as-Sadiq.[citation needed] This is however rejected by non-Hazara Muslims, as the majority believe he is buried in Najaf, Iraq.

The region around Mazar-i-Sharif has been historically part of Greater Khorasan and was controlled by the Tahirids followed by the Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Ilkhanates, Timurids, and Khanate of Bukhara until the mid-18th century when it became part of the Durrani Empire after a friendship treaty was signed between emirs Murad Beg and Ahmad Shah Durrani. Mazar-i-Sharif is also known for the famous Afghan song Bia ke berem ba Mazar (Come let's go to Mazar) by Sarban.[2]

Mazar-i-Sharif is the regional hub of northern Afghanistan, located in close proximity to both Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. It is also home to an international airport. It has the highest percentage of built-up land (91%)[3] of all the Afghan provincial capitals, and it has additional built-up area extending beyond the municipal boundary but forming a part of the larger urban area. It is also the lowest-lying major city in the country, about 357 metres (1,171 ft) above sea level. The city was spared of the devastation that occurred in the country's other large cities during the Soviet–Afghan War and subsequent civil war, and is today regarded one of the safest cities in the country.[4]

Contents

HistoryEdit

9th century until 1919Edit

The region around Mazar-i-Sharif has been historically part of Greater Khorasan and was controlled by the Tahirids followed by the Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Ilkhanates, Timurids, and Khanate of Bukhara. According to tradition, the city of Mazar-i-Sharif owes its existence to a dream. At the beginning of the 12th century, a local mullah had a dream in which the 7th century Ali bin Abi Talib, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, appeared to reveal that he had been secretly buried near the city of Balkh.

 
Mazar-i-Sharif & surroundings from ISS, 2016

The famous Jalal al-Din Rumi was born in this area but like many historical figures his exact location of birth cannot be confirmed. His father Baha' Walad was descended from the first caliph Abu Bakr and was influenced by the ideas of Ahmad Ghazali, brother of the famous philosopher. Baha' Walad's sermons were published and still exist as Divine Sciences (Ma'arif). Rumi completed six books of mystical poetry and tales called Masnavi before he died in 1273.

After conducting researches in the 12th century, the Seljuk sultan Ahmed Sanjar ordered a city and shrine to be built on the location, where it stood until its destruction by Genghis Khan and his Mongol army in the 13th century. Although later rebuilt, Mazar stood in the shadow of its neighbor Balkh. During the nineteenth century, due to the absence of drainage systems and the weak economy of the region, the excess water of this area flooded many acres of the land in the vicinity of residential areas causing a malaria epidemic in the region. Thus the ruler of North Central Afghanistan decided to shift the capital of the city of Mazar-i-Sharif.[5]

The Mazar-i-Sharif means "the noble shrine". This name represents the Blue Mosque which is widely known to be the grave of Ali (Muhammad's son-in-law).[6]

The city along with the region south of the Amu Darya became part of the Durrani Empire in around 1750 after a treaty of friendship was reached between Mohammad Murad Beg and Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founding father of Afghanistan. In the late 1870s, Emir Sher Ali Khan ruled the area from his Tashkurgan Palace in Mazar-i Sharif. This northern part of Afghanistan was un-visited by the British-led Indian forces during the Anglo-Afghan wars of the 19th century.

Late 20th centuryEdit

During the 1980s Soviet–Afghan War, Mazar-i-Sharif was a strategic base for the Soviet Army as they used its airport to launch air strikes on mujahideen rebels. Mazar-i-Sharif was also the main city that links to Soviet territory in the north, especially the roads leading to the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. As a garrison for the Soviet-backed Afghan Army, the city was under the command of General Abdul Rashid Dostum. Mujahideen militias Hezbe Wahdat and Jamiat-e Islami both attempted to contest the city but were repelled by the Army.

Dostum mutinied against Mohammad Najibullah's government on March 19, 1992, shortly before its collapse, and formed his new party and militia, Junbish-e Milli. The party took over the city the next day. Afterwards Mazar-i-Sharif became the de facto capital of a relatively stable and secular proto-state in northern Afghanistan under the rule of Dostum. The city remained peaceful and prosperous, whilst rest of the nation disintegrated and was slowly taken over by fundamentalist Taliban forces.[7] The city was called at the time a "glittering jewel in Afghanistan's battered crown". Money rolled in from foreign donors Russia, Turkey, newly independent Uzbekistan and others, with whom Dostum had established close relations.[8] He printed his own currency for the region and established his own airline.

This peace was shattered in May 1997 when he was betrayed by one of his generals, warlord Abdul Malik Pahlawan who allied himself with the Taliban, forcing him to flee from Mazar-i-Sharif as the Taliban were getting ready to take the city through Pahlawan. Afterwards Pahlawan himself mutinied the Taliban on the deal and it was reported that between May and July 1997 that Pahlawan executed thousands of Taliban members, that he personally did many of the killings by slaughtering the prisoners as a revenge for the 1995 death of Abdul Ali Mazari. "He is widely believed to have been responsible for the brutal massacre of up to 3,000 Taliban prisoners after inviting them into Mazar-i-Sharif."[9] Several of the Taliban escaped the slaughtering and reported what had happened. Meanwhile, Dostum came back and took the city again from Pahlawan.

However the Taliban retaliated in 1998 attacking the city and killing an estimated 8,000 (see Battles of Mazar-i-Sharif (1997–98)). At 10 am on 8 August 1998, the Taliban entered the city and for the next two days drove their pickup trucks "up and down the narrow streets of Mazar-i-Sharif shooting to the left and right and killing everything that moved—shop owners, cart pullers, women and children shoppers and even goats and donkeys."[10] More than 8000 noncombatants were reported killed in Mazar-i-Sharif and later in Bamiyan.[11] In addition, the Taliban were criticized for forbidding anyone from burying the corpses for the first six days (contrary to the injunctions of Islam, which demands immediate burial) while the remains rotted in the summer heat and were eaten by dogs.[12] The Taliban also reportedly sought out and massacred members of the Hazara, while in control of Mazar.[10]

Since 2001Edit

Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, Mazar-i-Sharif was the first Afghan city to fall to the U.S.-backed Northern Alliance (United Front). The Taliban's defeat in Mazar quickly turned into a rout from the rest of the north and west of Afghanistan. After the Battle of Mazar-i-Sharif in November 2001, the city was officially captured by forces of the Northern Alliance. They were joined by the United States Special Operations Forces and supported by U.S. Air Force aircraft. As many as 3,000 Taliban fighters who surrendered were reportedly massacred by the Northern Alliance after the battle, and reports also place U.S. ground troops at the scene of the massacre.[13] The Irish documentary Afghan Massacre: The Convoy of Death investigated these allegations. Filmmaker Doran claims that mass graves of thousands of victims were found by United Nations investigators.[14] The Bush administration reportedly blocked investigations into the incident.[15]

 
Camp Marmal, located south of the city next to Mazar-i-Sharif Airport

The city slowly came under the control of the Karzai administration after 2002, which is led by President Hamid Karzai. The 209th Corps (Shaheen) of the Afghan National Army is based at Mazar-i-Sharif, which provides military assistance to northern Afghanistan. The Afghan Border Police headquarters for the Northern Zone is also located in the city. Despite all the security put in place, there are reports of Taliban activities and assassinations of tribal elders. Officials in Mazar-i-Sharif reported that between 20 and 30 Afghan tribal elders have been assassinated in Balkh Province in the last several years. There is no conclusive evidence as to who is behind it but majority of the victims are said to have been associated with the Hezb-i Islami political party.[16]

 
A carpet seller in Mazar

Small-scale clashes between militias belonging to different commanders persisted throughout 2002, and were the focus of intensive UN peace-brokering and small arms disarmament programme. After some pressure, an office of the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission opened an office in Mazar in April 2003. There were also reports about northern Pashtun civilians being ethnic cleansed by the other groups, mainly by ethnic Tajiks, Hazaras and Uzbeks.[17]

There are also NATO-led peacekeeping forces in and around the city providing assistance to the Afghan government. ISAF Regional Command North, led by Germany, is stationed at Camp Marmal which lies next to Mazar-i-Sharif Airport. Since 2006, Provincial Reconstruction Team Mazar-i-Sharif had unit commanders from Sweden, on loan to ISAF. The unit is stationed at Camp Northern Lights, located 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) west of Camp Marmal. Camp Nidaros, located within Camp Marmal, has soldiers from Latvia and Norway, and is led by an ISAF-officer from Norway.

In 2006, the discovery of new Hellenistic remains was announced.[18]

On April 1, 2011, as many as ten foreign employees working for United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) were killed by angry demonstrators in the city (see 2011 Mazar-i-Sharif attack). The demonstration was organized in retaliation to pastors Terry Jones and Wayne Sapp's March 21 Qur'an-burning in Florida, United States.[19] Among the dead were five Nepalese, a Norwegian, Romanian and Swedish nationals, two of them were said to be decapitated.[20][21][22] Terry Jones, the American pastor who was going to burn Islam's Holy Book, denied his responsibility for incitement.[23] President Barack Obama strongly condemned both the Quran burning, calling it an act of "extreme intolerance and bigotry", and the "outrageous" attacks by protesters, referring to them as "an affront to human decency and dignity." "No religion tolerates the slaughter and beheading of innocent people, and there is no justification for such a dishonorable and deplorable act."[24] U.S. legislators, including Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, also condemned both the burning and the violence in reaction to it.[25]

By July 2011 violence became at a record high in the insurgency.[26] In late July 2011, NATO troops also handed control of Mazar-i-Sharif to local forces amid rising security fears just days after it was hit by a deadly bombing. Mazar-i-Sharif is the sixth of seven areas to transition to Afghan control, but critics say the timing is political and there is skepticism over Afghan abilities to combat the Taliban insurgency.

On November 10, 2016 a suicide attacker rammed a truck bomb into the wall of the German consulate in Mazar-i-Sharif. At least four people were killed and more than one hundred others were injured.[27][28]

On 21 April 2017, a coordinated Taliban attack killed more than 100 people at Camp Shaheen, the Afghan Army base in Mazar-i-Sharif.[29]

GeographyEdit

ClimateEdit

Mazar-i-Sharif has a cold steppe climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) with hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is low, and mostly falls between December and April. The climate in Mazar-i-Sharif is very hot during the summer with daily temperatures of over 40 °C (104 °F) from June to August. The winters are cold with temperatures falling below freezing; it may snow from November through March.[30]

Climate data for Mazar-i-Sharif
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
28.6
(83.5)
32.4
(90.3)
37.8
(100)
43.0
(109.4)
45.6
(114.1)
48.1
(118.6)
46.0
(114.8)
39.5
(103.1)
37.0
(98.6)
29.8
(85.6)
24.4
(75.9)
48.1
(118.6)
Average high °C (°F) 8.0
(46.4)
10.7
(51.3)
16.3
(61.3)
24.3
(75.7)
31.2
(88.2)
37.0
(98.6)
38.9
(102)
36.9
(98.4)
31.9
(89.4)
24.7
(76.5)
16.4
(61.5)
10.8
(51.4)
23.9
(75.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
5.1
(41.2)
10.8
(51.4)
17.9
(64.2)
24.5
(76.1)
29.9
(85.8)
33.3
(91.9)
29.9
(85.8)
23.9
(75)
16.7
(62.1)
9.1
(48.4)
5.1
(41.2)
17.4
(63.3)
Average low °C (°F) −2.1
(28.2)
0.0
(32)
5.1
(41.2)
11.3
(52.3)
16.6
(61.9)
22.5
(72.5)
25.9
(78.6)
23.8
(74.8)
17.1
(62.8)
9.4
(48.9)
3.2
(37.8)
0.0
(32)
11.1
(51.9)
Record low °C (°F) −22.3
(−8.1)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−6.1
(21)
−0.8
(30.6)
1.0
(33.8)
11.4
(52.5)
11.1
(52)
13.7
(56.7)
2.6
(36.7)
4.5
(40.1)
−8.7
(16.3)
−15.5
(4.1)
−24
(−11.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 28.9
(1.14)
34.8
(1.37)
43.8
(1.72)
28.3
(1.11)
11.2
(0.44)
0.2
(0.01)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.1
(0)
3.9
(0.15)
13.5
(0.53)
21.7
(0.85)
186.4
(7.32)
Average rainy days 4 7 10 9 4 0 0 0 0 2 4 6 46
Average snowy days 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 10
Average relative humidity (%) 79 77 72 64 44 27 25 24 28 41 62 75 52
Mean monthly sunshine hours 122.2 118.4 158.1 193.8 299.9 352.9 364.4 332.7 298.2 223.2 173.6 125.5 2,762.9
Source: NOAA (1959–1983)[31]

Notable placesEdit

The modern city of Mazar-i Sharif is centred around the Shrine of Ali. Much restored, it is one of Afghanistan's most glorious monuments. Outside Mazar-i Sharif lies the ancient city of Balkh. The city is a centre for the traditional buzkashi sport, and the Blue Mosque is the focus of northern Afghanistan's Nowruz celebration. Although most Muslims believe that the real grave of Ali is found within Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf, Iraq, others still come to Mazar-i-Sharif to pay respect.

 
The Blue Mosque is a destination for pilgrims.
 
Governor's Palace
 
Mazar-i-Sharif Gate under construction (July 2012)

SportsEdit

DemographyEdit

 
Locals of Mazar-i-Sharif enjoying rides at a small family amusement park in 2012.

The city of Mazar-i-Sharif has a total population of 693,000 (2015),[1] and is the third largest city of Afghanistan in terms of population.[1] It has a total land area of 8,304 Hectares with 77,615 total number of dwellings.[33]

Mazar-i-Sharif is a multiethnic and multilingual society of around 375,000 people. There is no official government report on the exact ethnic make-over but a map appeared in the November 2003 issue of the National Geographic magazine showing Tajiks 50%, Hazaras 25%, Pashtun 10%, Turkmen 8%, and Uzbeks 7%.[34] Occasional ethnic violence have been reported in the region in the last decades, mainly between Pashtuns and the other groups.[17][35][36][37] Some latest news reports mentioned assassinations taking place in the area but with no evidence as to who is behind it.[16]

The dominant language in Mazar-i-Sharif is Dari, an eastern variety of Persian, followed by Uzbeki and Pashto. Majority of the population of Mazar-i Sharif practice Sunni Islam[citation needed].

Economy and infrastructureEdit

 
Store in Mazar-i-Sharif with Russian name in Cyrillic

Mazar-i-Sharif serves as the major trading center in northern Afghanistan. The local economy is dominated by trade, agriculture and Karakul sheep farming. Small-scale oil and gas exploitation have also boosted the city's prospects. It is also the location of consulates of India and Pakistan for trading and political links.

TransportationEdit

RailEdit

 
Railway terminal

It became the first city in Afghanistan to connect itself by rail with a neighboring country. Rail service from Mazar-i-Sharif to Uzbekistan began in December 2011 and cargo on freight trains arrive at a station near Mazar-i-Sharif Airport,[38] where the goods are reloaded onto trucks or airplanes and sent to their last destinations across Afghanistan.

AirEdit

As of June 2016 Mazar-i-Sharif Airport had direct air connections to Kabul, Mashad, Tehran, and Istanbul.

RoadEdit

Highway AH76 links Mazar-i-Sharif to Sheberghan in the west, and Pul-e Khomri and Kabul to the south-east. Roads to the east link it to Kunduz. Roads to the north link it to the Uzbek border town Termez, where it becomes highway M39 going north to Samarkand and Tashkent. Roads to the south link it to Bamiyan Province and the mountainous range of central Afghanistan.

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e "The State of Afghan Cities Report 2015". Archived from the original on 31 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  2. ^ "On Tour in Afghanistan, Part 1: On the Highway from Kabul to Mazar-i-Sharif - Qantara.de". qantara.de. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  3. ^ "The State of Afghan Cities Report 2015". Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  4. ^ Boone, Jon (2 April 2011). "Afghanistan: when gentle Mazar-e-Sharif erupted in violence". the Guardian. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  5. ^ host, just. "Welcome afghanmagazine.com - Justhost.com". www.afghanmagazine.com. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  6. ^ [1] Archived January 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ The Last Warlord: The Life and Legend of Dostum, the Afghan Warrior Who Led US Special Forces to Topple the Taliban Regime by Brian Glyn Williams, 2013
  8. ^ Qala, Chris Stephen in Dashti (20 October 2001). "Fighters to repay Taliban cruelty". the Guardian. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  9. ^ "Afghan powerbrokers: Who's who". BBC News. November 19, 2001. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
  10. ^ a b Rashid,Taliban (2000), p.73.
  11. ^ Goodson, Afghanistan's Endless War, (2001), p.79.
  12. ^ THE MASSACRE IN MAZAR-I SHARIF, THE FIRST DAY OF THE TAKEOVER.
  13. ^ Harding, Luke (2002-09-14). "Afghan Massacre Haunts Pentagon". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
  14. ^ "As possible Afghan war-crimes evidence removed, U.S. silent". McClatchy Newspapers. 12-11-2008. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  15. ^ "US blocked probes into Afghan prisoner killings". AFP. 10-07-2009. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  16. ^ a b Ehsas, Zabiullah (March 31, 2011). "Tribal elders in Balkh worry about assassinations". Afghanistan: Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
  17. ^ a b "Pashtuns say they're being brutalized". United States: USA Today. 05/12/2002. Retrieved 2011-04-01. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  18. ^ "Balkh Monument". BBC Persian. 6 July 2006. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
  19. ^ "AFP: Koran burnt in Florida church". google.com. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  20. ^ "UN staff killed during protest in northern Afghanistan". BBC News. April 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
  21. ^ "10 UN workers killed, beheaded in Mazar attack". Pajhwok Afghan News. April 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
  22. ^ Boone, Jon (April 1, 2011). "UN staff killed in Afghanistan amid protests over Qur'an burning". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
  23. ^ "Pastor Terry Jones: 'We are not responsible'". BBC News. April 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
  24. ^ "Obama condemns Quran burning 'bigotry'", Dawn, 3 April 2011 Archived April 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ US Legislators Condemn Quran Burning, Violent Reaction, Voice of America, 3 April 2011
  26. ^ Enayat Najafizada (July 23, 2011). "NATO hands control of Mazar-i-Sharif to Afghans". AFP. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
  27. ^ "German consulate in Afghanistan". Fox News. Associated Press. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
  28. ^ Fahim, Hamid. "Taliban attack German consulate in Afghanistan's Mazar-i-Sharif". yahoo.com. Agence France-Presse (AFP). Retrieved November 10, 2016.
  29. ^ "Afghan casualties in Taliban Mazar-e Sharif attack pass 100". BBC News. 22 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  30. ^ "First snow of this winter covered North Afghanistan". Mazar-i-Sharif. Ariana News. 9 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-01-25. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  31. ^ "Mazar-i-Sharif Climate Normals 1959-1983". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
  32. ^ پارک تفریحی شهرک خالد ابن ولید |رسانه Archived 2014-02-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ "The State of Afghan Cities Report 2015". Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  34. ^ "2003 National Geographic Population Map" (PDF). Thomas Gouttierre, Center For Afghanistan Studies, University of Nebraska at Omaha; Matthew S. Baker, Stratfor. National Geographic Society. November 2003. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
  35. ^ Recknagel, Charles (March 14, 2002). "UN Condemns Attacks On Ethnic Pashtuns". hewad.com. Prague: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
  36. ^ "Pashtuns attacked in brutal raids by rival ethnic groups". Guardian News. buzzle.com. 2008. Retrieved 2011-04-01.[dead link]
  37. ^ "Afghanistan: Situation in, or around, Aqcha (Jawzjan province) including predominant tribal/ethnic group and who is currently in control". Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada/UNHCR. February 1, 1999. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
  38. ^ "Afghan railway: First train runs on new line in north". BBC News. December 21, 2011.

Further readingEdit

  • 'The Massacre in Mazar-i Sharif'. Report of Human Rights Watch, November 1998, Vol. 10, No. 7 (C). Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  • "Mazar-i-Sharif". The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). New York: Encyclopædia Britannica. 1910. OCLC 14782424.
  • Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977): An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. 1st Edition: 1970. 2nd Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Afghan Tourist Organization.

External linksEdit

  •   Mazar-e Sharif travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • "Mezar-i Sharif". Islamic Cultural Heritage Database. Istanbul: Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013.