"Maybellene" is one of the first rock and roll songs. It was written and recorded in 1955 by Chuck Berry, and inspired/adapted from the Western Swing fiddle tune "Ida Red", which was recorded in 1938 by Bob Wills and his Texas Playboys. Berry's song tells the story of a hot rod race and a broken romance. It was released in July 1955 as a single by Chess Records, of Chicago, Illinois. It was Berry's first single and his first hit. "Maybellene" is considered one of the pioneering rock songs: Rolling Stone magazine wrote, "Rock & roll guitar starts here." The record is an early instance of the complete rock-and-roll package: youthful subject matter; a small, guitar-driven combo; clear diction; and an atmosphere of unrelenting excitement. The lyrics describe a man driving a V8 Ford chasing his unfaithful girlfriend in her Cadillac Coupe DeVille.
|Single by Chuck Berry|
|from the album Chuck Berry Is on Top|
|B-side||"Wee Wee Hours"|
|Format||7" 45-RPM, 10" 78-RPM|
|Recorded||May 21, 1955, Universal Recording Studios, Chicago, Illinois|
|Genre||Rock and roll, rockabilly|
|Songwriter(s)||Chuck Berry, Russ Fratto, Alan Freed|
|Producer(s)||Leonard Chess, Phil Chess|
|Chuck Berry singles chronology|
The song was a major hit with both black and white audiences. It has received numerous honors and awards. Soon after its initial release, cover versions were recorded by several other artists. The title is misspelled "Maybelline" on several releases.
Origins and writingEdit
"Maybellene" has been described as an adaptation of the Western Swing song "Ida Red", as recorded by Bob Wills and his Texas Playboys in 1938. According to Berry, Wills's version, an uptempo dance number, was his favorite song to sing at racially integrated clubs ("salt and pepper clubs", as he called them). Encouraged by Muddy Waters, in 1955 Berry brought to Chess Records a recording of his version of Wills's song, which he had renamed "Ida May", and a blues song he wrote, "Wee Wee Hours", which he said was inspired by Big Joe Turner's "Wee Baby Blue". To Berry's surprise, Leonard Chess showed little interest in the blues material but was enthusiastic about the commercial possibilities in a "hillbilly song sung by a black man". Chess wanted a bigger beat for the song and added a bass and a maracas player to Berry's trio at the recording session. He also thought the titles "Ida Red" and "Ida May" were "too rural". Spotting a mascara box on the floor of the studio, according to Berry's pianist Johnnie Johnson, Chess said, "Well, hell, let's name the damn thing Maybellene" altering the spelling to avoid a suit by the cosmetic company. The lyrics were rewritten, also at the direction of Chess. "The kids wanted the big beat, cars and young love," Chess recalled. "It was the trend and we jumped on it."
It has been asserted that it was a common practice in the 1950s to alter the instrumental parts and lyrics of old songs and represent them as new songs. With such changes the original songs were often not identifiable, particularly if the melody was modified. This practice took place because copyrights on older recordings were rarely asserted.
As Chess had predicted, the lyrics appealed to teenagers fascinated by cars, speed and sexuality. "Maybellene" was one of the first records to be a hit on the rhythm and blues, country and western, and pop charts. Featuring some inimitable Chuck Berry riffs, some blues-style picking on a guitar and Johnson's piano, which added a hummable rhythm to the steady backbeat, "Maybellene" was a pivotal song in the emergence of rock and roll. This exciting fusion of a rhythm-and-blues beat with a rural country style was the catalyst for the emergence of rock and roll in the mid-1950s.
Recorded May 21, 1955
In the 1950s, some record companies assigned publishing credits to disc jockeys and others who helped to promote a record, a form of payola by means of composer royalties. For this reason, the disc jockey Alan Freed received credit as a co-writer of "Maybellene". Russ Fratto, who had loaned money to Chess, also received credit. (Some Chess insiders have said that Chess owed money to Fratto, a printer and stationer, for producing record labels.) The Freed and Fratto credits, which do not appear on the original Chess single (see the photograph above), were withdrawn in 1986. However, as of 2014, these credits still appear on some reissues of Berry's recordings.
In 1955, the song, a 12-bar blues, peaked at number five on the Billboard pop chart and was number one on the R&B chart. Billboard's year-end charts in 1955 ranked "Maybellene" number 3 on the Top R&B Records Retail Sales and Juke Box Plays charts.
The record sold one million copies by the end of 1955.
Honors and awardsEdit
In 1988, "Maybellene" was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame for its influence as a rock-and-roll record. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame included "Maybellene" in its list of the "500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll" (also included are Berry's recordings of "Rock and Roll Music" and "Johnny B. Goode"). In 1999, National Public Radio included it in the "NPR 100", the one hundred most important American musical works of the 20th century, chosen by NPR music editors. "Maybellene" is currently ranked as the 98th greatest song of all time, as well as the second best song of 1955, by Acclaimed Music. The song is ranked number 18 on Rolling Stone's list of 500 Greatest Songs of All Time.
Columbia records released a version by Marty Robbins (21351) by the end of August 1955. His version was the number 13 "Most Played by Jockeys" in the country-and-western market by mid-October. and soon Columbia was touting it as one of its "Best Selling Folk Records". By November, it was noted that the record had "won considerable pop play". Other versions available in mid-October 1955 were by J. Long (Coral 61478), J. Lowe (Dot 15407), and R. Marterie (Mercury 70682) with the song listed as number 14 top selling in the nation.
Allmusic lists cover versions by more than 70 performers, including Elvis Presley, the Everly Brothers, Paul Simon (in a medley with "Kodachrome"), George Jones, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash, Bubba Sparks, Foghat, Gerry and the Pacemakers, Johnny Rivers and Chubby Checker.
- Leonard Chess interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969)
- Arc Music
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- Guralnick, Peter (1999). Feel Like Going Home: Portraits in Blues and Rock 'n' Roll. Back Bay Books. Boston: Little, Brown. p. 234. ISBN 0-316-33272-0.
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- American Historical Review, characterizing the fusion of genres in the mid-1950s as a new American music.
- Palmer, Robert (1995). Rock & Roll: An Unruly History. pp. 137–138.
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- Billboard Aug 27, 1955. page 47
- Billboard, Oct. 15, 1955. p. 46.
- Billboard, Oct. 29, 1955. p. 32.
- Billboard, Nov, 12, 1955. p. 36.
- Billboard, Oct. 15, 1955. p. 5.
- "Maybellene". Allmusic. Archived from the original on June 3, 2009. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
- Whitburn, Joel (2010). "Section 2: The Songs". The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits (9th ed.). Billboard Books. p. 802. ISBN 978-0-8230-8554-5.
- "Top Singles — Volume 2, No. 5, September 28, 1964" (PHP). RPM. Canada: Library and Archives Canada. October 1, 2004 [March 31, 2004].