Maya rulers

Maya kings were the centers of power for the Maya civilization. Each Maya city-state was controlled by a dynasty of kings. The position of king was usually inherited by the oldest son.

Symbols of powerEdit

Maya kings felt the need to legitimize their claim to power. One of the ways to do this was to build a temple or pyramid. Tikal Temple I is a good example. This temple was built during the reign of Yikʼin Chan Kʼawiil. Another king named Kʼinich Janaabʼ Pakal would later carry out this same show of power when building the Temple of Inscriptions at Palenque. The Temple of Inscriptions still towers today amid the ruins of Palenque, as the supreme symbol of influence and power in Palenque.

SuccessionEdit

Maya kings cultivated godlike personas. When a ruler died and left no heir to the throne, the result was usually war and bloodshed. King Pacal's precursor, Pacal I, died upon the battlefield. However, instead of the kingdom erupting into chaos, the city of Palenque, a Maya capital city in southern Mexico, invited in a young prince from a different city-state. The prince was only twelve years old.

ExpansionEdit

Pacal and his predecessors not only built elaborate temples and pyramids. They expanded their city-state into a thriving empire. Under Yikʼin Chan Kʼawiil, Tikal conquered Calakmul and the other cities around Tikal, forming what could be referred to as a super city-state. Pacal achieved in creating a major center for power and development.

ResponsibilitiesEdit

A Maya king was expected to be an excellent military leader. He would often carry out raids against rival city-states. The Maya kings also offered their own blood to the gods. The rulers were also expected to have a good mind to solve problems that the city might be facing, including war and food crises.

Maya kings were expected to ensure the gods received the prayers, praise and attention they deserved and to reinforce their divine lineage.[1] They did this by displaying public rituals such as processions through the streets of their cities. A more private ritual was that of blood sacrifice, which was done by Lords and their wives.[2]

Known rulers of Mayan city-statesEdit

Notes:

  • All dates AD; if otherwise, it is stated.
  • The lists may not be completed. However, take in consideration that some lists are more completed than others in different aspects.
  • English language names are provisional nicknames based on their identifying glyphs, where rulers' Maya language names have not yet been definitively deciphered phonetically.

AguatecaEdit

La AmeliaEdit

Name/Glyph Other names Image Born Reigned from Reigned until Death Consort (s) Monuments Notes
Lachan Kʼawiil Ajaw Bot   25 June 760 1 May 802 After 804 After 804 ?
  • Panels 1[4] and 2[5]
  • Hieroglyphic Stairway 1[6]
In 802, conducted a ritual supervised by king Tan Teʼ Kʼinich of Aguateca.

Calakmul  Edit

Name (or nickname)[7] Ruled Alternative Names
Yuknoom Ch'een I ?
Tuun K'ab' Hix -520-546+ Cu Ix, Ku Ix
Sky Witness -561-572+
Yax Yopaat 572-579 First Axewielder
Scroll Serpent 579-611+
Yuknoom Ti' Chan –619+ Chan
Tajoom Uk'ab K'ahk' 622-630 Ta Batz'
Yuknoom Head 630-636 Cauac Head
Yuknoom Ch'een II 636–686 Yuknom Ch'en, Yuknoom the Great
Yuknoom Yich'aak K'ahk' 686–c. 695 Jaguar Paw Smoke, Jaguar Paw
Split Earth c. 695+
Yuknoom Took' K'awiil -702–731+ Ruler 5, Ruler 6, Ruler 7
Wamaw K'awiil c. 736
Ruler Y c. 741 Ruler 8, B'olon K'awiil I
Great Serpent c. 751 Ruler 8, Ruler Z
B'olon K'awiil -771-c. 789+ Ruler 9, B'olon K'awiil II
Chan Pet c. 849
Aj Took' c. 909

CancuénEdit

Name Ruled Notes
Tajal Chan Ahk 757 - c. 799 Built the city palace in 770.
Kan Maax c.800

Caracol  Edit

  • 331–349: Te' K'ab Chaak
  • circa 470: K'ak' Ujol K'inich I
  • 484–514: Yajaw Te' K'inich I
  • 531–534: K'an I
  • 553–593: Yajaw Te' K'inich II (Lord Water)
  • 599–613: Knot Ajaw
  • 618–658: K'an II
  • 658–680: K'ak' Ujol K'inich II
  • circa 700: Ruler VII
  • mid 8th century: name unknown
  • 793: Tum Yohl K'inich
  • 798: K'inich Joy K'awiil
  • 810–830: K'inich Toob'il Yoaat
  • 835–849: K'an III
  • 859: Ruler XIII

Chichen ItzáEdit

  • Kʼakʼupakal, possibly ruler or an high-ranked official in the first half of 9th-century.

Cocom dynastyEdit

  • Hunac Ceel, general who conquered the city in the 12th-13th century, and founded a new ruling family.

Copán  Edit

# Name Reign Alternative names
1 K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' 426 – c. 437 Great-Sun First Quetzal Macaw
2 K'inich Popol Hol c. 437 Great-Sun
3 name unknown c. 455 Ruler 3
4 Ku Ix c. 465 K'altuun Hix, Tuun K'ab' Hix
5 name unknown c. 476 Ruler 5
6 Muyal Jol c. 485 Ruler 6
7 B'alam Nehn 504–544 Jaguar Mirror; Waterlily-Jaguar
8 Wil Ohl K'inich[8] 532–551 Ruler 8; Head on Earth
9 Sak-Lu 551–553 Ruler 9
10 Tzi-B'alam 553–578 Moon Jaguar
11 K'ak' Chan Yopaat[9] 578–628 B'utz' Chan; Smoke Serpent
12 Chan Imix K'awiil 628–695 Smoke Jaguar; Smoke Imix
13 Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil 695–738 18 Rabbit
14 Ajaw K'ak' Joplaj Chan K'awiil 738–749 Smoke Monkey
15 Ajaw K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil 749–763 Smoke Shell; Smoke Squirrel
16 Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat 763 – after 810 Yax Pac
17? Ukit Took 822

Dos Pilas  Edit

Name (or nickname)[10] Ruled Alternative Names
B'alaj Chan K'awiil c. 648–695 Ruler 1, Flint Sky, Flint Sky God K, Lightning Sky, Malah Chan K'awil
Itzamnaaj B'alam c. 695 Shield Jaguar
Itzamnaaj K'awiil 24 March 698 – 22 October 726 Ruler 2, Shield God K
Ucha'an K'in B'alam 6 January 727 – 28 May 741 Master of Sun Jaguar, Ruler 3, Scroll-head God K, Spangle-head, Jewelled Head
K'awiil Chan K'inich 23 June 741 – 761 Ruler 4, God K Sky, Mahk'ina

Ek' Balam  Edit

IximcheEdit

Ahpo Sotzʼil[11] Ahpo Xahil[12] Kʼalel Achi Ahuchan
Wuqu-Batzʼ Hun-Toh Chuluk Xitamel-Keh
Oxlahuh-Tzʼiʼ Lahuh-Ah
Kablahuh-Tihax
Hun-Iqʼ Lahuh-Noh
Cahi Imox Belehe Qat

IxkunEdit

Nickname Ruled
Eight Skull[13] –c. 790
Rabbit God K[14] c. 790–800

IxtutzEdit

IzamalEdit

La MarEdit

Mixco ViejoEdit

Name Ruled Alternative names
Lajuj No'j c.1450–c.1480[16] Ichalkan Chi Kumkwat, Ychal Amollac Chicumcuat
Achi Q'alel early 16th century[17]

Moral ReformaEdit

  • 662-after 690: Muwaan Jol, ascended under king Yuknoom of Calakmul; however, in 690, ascended once again under the king of Palenque.

Motul de San JoséEdit

Naranjo  Edit

Name/Glyph Other names Image Born Reigned from Reigned until Death Consort (s) Monuments Notes
Tzik'in Bahlam ? ? ? ? First known ruler.
? ? c.475 ? ?
  • Stela 41
Naatz Chan Ahk ? ? ? ?
K'inich Tajal Chaak ? ? ? ?
Aj Wosal Double Comb[19] ? 5 May 546[19] 615 615
Naranjo
?
  • Stela 41
? ? c.626 ? ? Defeated by Caracol
K'uxaj ? c.631 ? ? Defeated by Calakmul
K'ahk' Xiiw Chan Chaahk ? c.644 c.680 c.680
Naranjo
? 37th ruler of Naranjo, according to the inscriptions on the site. His rule, however, didn't produce any surviving monuments[20]. He was victorious against Caracol.
Kʼakʼ Tiliw Chan Chaak
(Under regency of Lady Wak Chanil of Dos Pilas until 26 March 706[19])
Smoking Squirrel[19] 4 January 688
Naranjo
Son of K'ak' U ? Chan Chaak and Lady Wak Chanil of Dos Pilas
31 May 693 c.720 c.720
(or after[21][19])
Naranjo
(aged around 31/32)
Lady Unen Bahlam
21 March 710[19]
no children?
  • Stelae 1, 2, 3, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 30 and 31
His father was probably a cousin of K'ahk' Xiiw Chan Chaahk. Shortly after his accesson, Naranjo fought and won a series of victories against polities, some of whom may have been rebelling against K'ak' Tiliw's mother. It's possible that was his mother the organizer of many of Naranjo campaigns that, early in his reign, defeated Yaxha, Tikal, and Ucanal.
Wak Chanil of Dos Pilas

 
Lady Six Sky   15 July 669 (or after[22][19])
Dos Pilas
Daughter of Bʼalaj Chan Kʼawiil, King of Dos Pilas and Lady Bulu'
11 October 721 11 February 741 11 February 741
Naranjo
(aged around 72)
K'ak' U ? Chan Chaak of Naranjo
at least one child
  • Stelae 3, 18, 24, 29, 31
Mother of her predecessor. Previously regent on her son's behalf, from 721 assumed the reins of the kingdom herself as queen regnant.
Yax Mayuy Chan Chaak ?
Naranjo
Son of K'ak' U ? Chan Chaak and Lady Wak Chanil of Dos Pilas
c.741 4 February 744 4 February 744
Naranjo or Tikal?
?
  • Stelae 18 and 46
Defeated by Tikal and sacrificed.
K'ak' Yipiiy Chan Chaak ? 746 748 748
Naranjo
?
K'ak' Ukalaw Chan Chaak ? 755 780 780
Naranjo
?
  • Stelae 6, 13, 19, 33, 36
Bat K'awiil ? ? ? ?
Itzamnaaj K'awiil ? 784 810 810
Naranjo
  • Stelae 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 35
He was victorious against Yaxha.
Waaklajuun Ub'aah K'awiil ? c.814 ? ?

Palenque  Edit

Mythological and legendary rulersEdit

Palenque dynastyEdit

Name/Glyph Other names Image Born Reigned from Reigned until Death Consort (s) Monuments Notes
Kʼukʼ Bahlam I

 
Kuk,
Bahlum K'uk'
30 March 397
Palenque
10 March 431[23] 435 435
Palenque
(aged 37/38)
?
  • One stone censer
Founder of the dynasty.
Casper

 
11 Rabbit 8 August 422
Palenque
Son of Kʼukʼ Bahlam I?
9 August 435 c.487 c.487
Palenque
(aged 64/65)
?
Bʼutz Aj Sak Chiik

 
Manik 15 November 459
Palenque
Son of Casper?
28 July 487 c.501 c.501
Palenque
(aged 41/42)
? His successor, Ahkal Moʼ Nahb, was probably his brother[23].
Ahkal Moʼ Nahb I

 
Chaacal I,
Akul Anab I
5 July 465
Palenque
Son of Casper?[23]
3 June 501 29 November 524 29 November 524
Palenque
(aged 59)
? The list of ancestors made by his descendant Pakal the Great starts with him[23].
Interregnum: 524-529
Kʼan Joy Chitam I

 
Hok,
Kan Xul I,
K'an Hok' Chitam
5 May 490
Palenque
Son of Ahkal Moʼ Nahb I?
6 February 529 6 February 565 6 February 565
Palenque
(aged 74)
?
two children
Ahkal Moʼ Nahb II

 
Chaacal II,
Akul Anab II
3 September 523
Palenque
Son of Kʼan Joy Chitam I
2 May 565 21 July 570 21 July 570
Palenque
(aged 46)
?
no children
Kan Bahlam I

 
Chan Bahlum I 18 September 524
Palenque
Son of Kʼan Joy Chitam I
6 April 572 1 February 583 1 February 583
Palenque
(aged 58)
?
one child?
Yohl Ikʼnal

 
Lady Kan Ik,
Lady K'anal Ik'nal
?
Palenque
Daughter of Kʼan Joy Chitam I or Kan Bahlam I
21 December 583 5 November 604 5 November 604
Palenque
?
two children
Ajen Yohl Mat

 
Aj Ne' Ohl Mat,
Ac Kan,
Ahl Lawal Mat
?
Palenque
Son of Yohl Ikʼnal?
1 January 605 8 or 11 August 612 8 or 11 August 612
Palenque
?
two children
During his reign (4 April 611), Palenque was invaded by Calakmul.
Janahb Pakal Janaab Pakal,
Pakal I
?
Palenque
Son of Yohl Ikʼnal?
c.612 c.612
Palenque
Yohl Ikʼnal?
at least one child
Position uncertain.
Sak K'uk'

 
Muwaan Mat,
Lady Beastie
  ?
Palenque
Daughter of Janahb Pakal I and Yohl Ikʼnal?
20 October 612[19] 27 July 615[19] 10 September 640
Palenque
Kʼan Moʼ Hix
one or two children
Abdicated to her son.
Kʼinich Janaabʼ Pakal I the Great

 
Pacal,
8 Ahau,
Sun Shield
  21 March 603
Palenque
Son of Kʼan Moʼ Hix and Sak K'uk'
27 July 615[19] 26 August 683 26 August 683
Palenque
aged 80
Tzʼakbu
three children
  • Temple El Olvidado
  • Additions to the Palace of Palenque
  • Building E (Sak Nuk Naah, "White Skin House")
  • Houses A, B and C[24]
He was responsible for the construction or extension of some of Palenque's most notable surviving inscriptions and monumental architecture.
K'inich Kan Bahlam II

 
Chan Bahlum II   May 635
Palenque
Son of Kʼinich Janaabʼ Pakal I and Tzʼakbu
January 684 February 702 February 702
Palenque
aged 66
?
no children
He continued the ambitious project of adorning Palenque with fine art and architecture begun by his father.
K'inich K'an Joy Chitam II

 
Kan Xul II,
K'an Hok' Chitam On II
  31 October 644
Palenque
Son of Kʼinich Janaabʼ Pakal I and Tzʼakbu
28 May 702 c.721 721
Palenque
aged 76/77
?
no children
He was captured by Toniná in 711. He was possibly restored to kingship, however. He was captured by Toniná in 711, but possibly restored to kingship.
Kʼinich Ahkal Moʼ Nahb III

 
Chaacal III,
Akul Anab III
  23 September 678
Palenque
Son of Tiwol Chan Mat and Kinuw
30 December 721 c.736 c.736
Palenque
aged 57/58
Men Nik
one child
  • Temple XVIII texts
  • Temple XIX bench and texts
  • Temple XXI texts
  • Tablets of the Orator and Scribe
  • Bundle Panel
  • House E Painted text?[25][29]
Grandson of Kʼinich Janaab Pakal I. His construction program rivaled that of his predecessors, and contributed enormously to the surviving records of Palenque history.
Kʼinich Janaab Pakal II

 
Upakal K'inich   ?
Palenque
Son of Tiwol Chan Mat and Kinuw
c.742 ? ?
one child
Probable brother of the predecessor.
K'inich Kan Bahlam III

 
? c.751 ? ? A text at Pomona, the only source of his existence, suggests that his reign was short or troubled.[29]
K'inich K'uk' Bahlam II

 
Bahlum K'uk' II,
Mahk'ina K'uk'
?
Palenque
Son of Kʼinich Ahkal Moʼ Nahb III and Men Nik
4 March 764 c.783 c.783
Palenque
?
  • Tablet of the 96 glyphs
  • Creation Tablet
  • House B Mural?
  • Bodega no. 218[29]
Janaab Pakal III

 
6 Cimi Pakal ? 13 November 799 ? ?

El PerúEdit

Piedras Negras  Edit

Name/Glyph Other names Image Born Reigned from Reigned until Death Consort (s) Monuments Notes
K'an Ahk I

 
Ruler A
Turtleshell
? c.297[30] ? ? Ruler A was later captured by Moon Skull of Yaxchilan[30]
K'an Ahk II

 
Ruler B ? c.478[30] ? ?
Yat Ahk I

 
Ah Cauac Ah K'in
Turtletooth
? c.510[31] ? ?
Ruler C ? June 30, 514[30] c.520[31] c.520
Piedras Negras
?
K'inich Yo'nal Ahk I

 
Ruler 1 ? 14 November 603[32] 3 February 639[32] 3 February 639[32]
Piedras Negras
Bird Headdress
at least one child
Some scholars have argued that K'inich Yo'nal Ahk I refounded the ruling dynasty at Piedras Negras.[20]
Itzam K'an Ahk I

 
Ruler 2 22 May 626
Piedras Negras
Son of K'inich Yo'nal Ahk I and Bird Headress
12 April 639[33] 15 November 686[33] 15 November 686
Piedras Negras
[33]
(aged 50)
White Bird
at least one child
K'inich Yo'nal Ahk II

 
Ruler 3 29 November 664
Piedras Negras
Son of Itzam K'an Ahk I and White Bird
2 January 687[35] c. 729[33][36] c. 729[33][37]
Piedras Negras
(aged 64/65)
K'atun of Namaan
(5 July 674 - after 28 June 729)
686
one child
Itzam K'an Ahk II

 
Ruler 4 18 November 701
Piedras Negras
9 November 729[38] 26 November 757[38] 26 November 757
Piedras Negras
(aged 56)
?
possibly three children
There is evidence that Itzam K'an Ahk II started a new patriline at Piedras Negras.[39]
Yo'nal Ahk III

 
Ruler 5 ?
Piedras Negras
Son of Itzam K'an Ahk II
10 March 758[40] c. 767[40] c. 767[40]
Piedras Negras
?
Ha' K'in Xook

 
Ruler 6 ?
Piedras Negras
Son of Itzam K'an Ahk II
14 February 767[40] 24 March 780[40] 24 March 780[40]or
after 780[41]
Piedras Negras
? Appears to have either died or abdicated.[40] Scholars are unsure if March 24, 780 AD refers to Ha' K'in Xook's death date, or rather the date of his burial.[20][40]
K'inich Yat Ahk II

 
Ruler 7 ?
Piedras Negras
Son of Itzam K'an Ahk II
31 May 781[42] c. 808[43] c. 808[44]
Piedras Negras
? Took the throne almost a year following the death of Ha' K'in Xook. Despite this time gap, there is no evidence anyone was ruling Piedras Negras in the interim.[45] He was later captured by K'inich Tatbu Skull IV of Yaxchilan.[46]

Quiriguá  Edit

Name (or nickname) Ruled Dynastic
succession no.[47]
"Tok Casper" 426–?[48] 1
Tutuum Yohl K'inich c. 455[48] ?
"Ruler 3" ("Turtle Shell") c. 480[48][49] ?
"Ruler 4" ("Basket Skull") ?–?[49] 3?
Mih Toh 493–[49] 4?
K'awiil Yopaat ("Ruler 5") c. 653[49] ?
K'ak' Tiliw Chan Yopaat ("Cauac Sky" or "Kawak Sky") 724–785[50] 14
"Sky Xul" 785 – c. 795[50] 15
"Jade Sky" c. 800 – c. 810[50] 17?

Q'umarkajEdit

  • c.1225-1250: Bahlam Kitze
  • c.1250-1275: Kʼokʼoja
  • c.1275-1300: E Tzʼikin
  • c.1300-1325: Ajkan
  • c.1325-1350: Kʼokaibʼ
  • c.1350-1375: Kʼonache
  • c.1375-1400: Kʼotuja
  • c.1400-1435: Quqʼkumatz
  • c.1435-1475: Kʼiqʼabʼ
  • c.1475-1500: Vahxakʼ i-Kaam
  • c.1500-1524: Oxib Keh

Río AzulEdit

  • Ruler X, not yet satisfactorily deciphered.

Sacul  Edit

Sak tz'iEdit

Name Dates
U K'ab'[52] c. 564
K'ab Chan Te' I c. 594–641
K'ab Chan Te' II? c.653–693
Aj Sak Maax c.754–772
Yeht' K'inich c. 787
Jats' Tokal Ek' Hiix c.796?
K'ab' Chan Te' III c. 864

SeibalEdit

Name Title or nickname Ruled
Yich'aak B'alam "Jaguar Claw" c.735–747+[53]
Ajaw B'ot Ruler D, Ah-Bolon-Abta[54] 771–?[55]
Wat'ul Chatel[56] Aj B'olon Haab'tal[57] 830–889+[58]

TamarinditoEdit

Name Ruled
Ruler 1 ca. 513
Wakoh K'inich ca. 534 – ca. 554
Ruler 3 ca. 573
Ruler 4 – 613
Wakoh Chan K'inich a. 613 –
Aj Ajan Nah ca. 660
Aj Ihk' Wolok ca. 660 – ca. 702
Ruler 8 ca. 705
Ruler 9 – ca. 711
Ruler 10 – 712
Chak Bin Ahk a. 712 – ca. 731
Chanal Balam a. 760 – ca. 764

Tikal  Edit

Name/Glyph[59][60] Other names Image Born Reigned from Reigned until Death Consort (s) Monuments Notes
Yax Ehb' Xok

 
Yax Moch Xok,
Yax Chakte'l Xok,
First Scaffold Shark
[61]
? c.90 ? ? Founder of Tikal lineage
? Bahlam[62]

 
Foliated Jaguar
Decorated Jaguar[62]
Scroll Ahau Jaguar
? c.292 ? ?
  • Stelae 29 and 31[62]
K'inich Ehb'[63]

 
Animal Headdress ? ? ? Lady Skull
at least one child
  • Stela 1 of El Encanto[62]
Sihyaj Chan Kʼawiil I

 
?
Tikal
Son of K'inich Ehb' and Lady Skull
c.307 ? ?
Unen Bahlam

 
Lady Une' B'alam ?
c.317 ? ?
  • Stela 31 (twice)
  • Small sherd (fragment of a vase)
Assumed to be female, the sex of this ruler is in fact unclear.
Kʼinich Muwaan Jol

 
Mahk'ina Bird Skull,
Feather Skull
? ? 23 May 359 23 May 359
Tikal
Bahlam Way
at least one child
  • Stelae 28 and 39
  • Dynastic vase
  • Stela from Corozal
  • Sculpture named Man of Tikal
Chak Tok Ichʼaak I

 
Great Paw,
Great Jaguar Paw,
Toh Chak Ichʼak
?
Tikal
Son of Kʼinich Muwaan Jol and Bahlam Way
7 August 360 14 January 378 14 January 378
Tikal
?
  • Stelae 26, 31 and 39
  • Stela from Corozal
  • Sculpture named Man of Tikal
In the day he died, Tikal was invaded by troops leaded by Siyaj Kʼakʼ, who overthrew the reigning family.
Yax Nuun Ayiin I

 
Curl Snout
Curl Nose
  ?
Teotihuacan
Son of Spearthrower Owl
12 September 379 17 June 404 17 June 404
Tikal
Lady K'inich
at least one child
  • Stelae 4, 18 and 31
  • Sculpture named Man of Tikal
  • Burial 10 of Temple 34
Probably son of the king of Teotihuacan, founded a new line of rulers in Tikal.
Sihyaj Chan Kʼawiil II

 
Storm Sky
Manikin Cleft Sky
  ?
Tikal
Son of Yax Nuun Ayiin I and Lady K'inich
26 November 411 3 February 456 3 February 456
Tikal
Lady Ayiin
at least one child
  • Stelae 1, 28, 31 and 40
  • Burial 48 of Temple 33
Kʼan Chitam

 
Kan Boar
K'an Ak
  26 November 415
Tikal
Son of Sihyaj Chan Kʼawiil II and Lady Ayiin
8 August 458 486 486
Tikal
(aged 70/71)
Lady Tzutz Nik
at least one child
  • Stelae 2, 9, 13 and 40[64]
Chak Tok Ichʼaak II

 
Jaguar Paw II
Jaguar Paw Skull
?
Tikal
Son of Kʼan Chitam and Lady Tzutz Nik
486 24 July 508 24 July 508
Tikal
Lady Hand
Probably two children
  • Stelae 3, 7, 15, 21, and possibly 26.[65][66]
Yo K'in[62]

 
Lady of Tikal 1 September 504
Tikal
Daughter of Chak Tok Ichʼaak II and Lady Hand?
19 April 511 527 After 527
Tikal
?
  • Stelae 6, 12 and 23
Ruled jointly. Possibly married?
Kaloomteʼ Bahlam

 
Curl Head   ? c.511
Tikal
527 After 527
Tikal
?
  • Stelae 10, 12 and 25
Bird Claw

 
Animal Skull ? ? ? ?
  • Stela 8
Ruled after Yo K'in. He carried a high-ranking name but no Tikal emblem.[67]. Possibly an interin ruler, or usurper?
Wak Chan Kʼawiil

 
Double Bird January 508
Tikal
Son of Chak Tok Ichʼaak II and Lady Hand
27 December 537 562 562
Tikal
(aged 53/54)
?
  • Stela 17
  • Altar 21 of Caracol
K'inich Waaw[62]

 
Animal Skull
Lizard Head,
Ete II
?
Tikal
Son of Fire Cross and Lady Hand Sky of Bahlam
562? or 593[62] 628[62] 628
Tikal
?
K'inich Wayaan?[62] 23rd Ruler? ? c. 635
(if he is the 23rd Ruler)
or c.628-650
? ?
  • Ceramics
Probably identifiable with 23rd Ruler?
K'inich Muwaan Jol II[62] 24th Ruler? ? c. 645
(if he is the 24th Ruler)
or c.628-650
? ?
at least one child
Probably identifiable with 24th Ruler?
Nuun Ujol Chaak[62]

 
Shield Skull
Nun Ban Chak
?
Tikal
Son of K'inich Muwaan Jol II
657 679 679
Tikal
Lady Jaguar Seat
at least one child
  • Lintel 3 of Temple 1
Jasaw Chan Kʼawiil I[62]

 
Ruler A
Ah Cacao
Sky Rain
  ?
Tikal
Son of Nuun Ujol Chaak and Lady Jaguar Seat
3 May 682 734 734
Tikal
Lady Lahan Unen Moʼ
at least one child
His defeat of the rival Maya city of Calakmul in 695 is seen to represent a resurgence in the strength and influence of Tikal.
Yikʼin Chan Kʼawiil

 
Ruler B
Yaxkin Caan Chac
Sun Sky Rain
  ?
Tikal
Son of Jasaw Chan Kʼawiil I and Lady Lahan Unen Moʼ
8 December 734 766? 766?
Tikal
?
at least two children
  • Stelae 5, 20 and 21
He was one of Tikal's most successful and expansionary rulers, consolidating the political gains won by his father.
28th Ruler ?
Tikal
Son of Yikʼin Chan Kʼawiil
c.766 c.768 c.768?
Tikal
? Little is known about this ruler.
Yax Nuun Ayiin II

 
Ruler C
Chitam
?
Tikal
Son of Yikʼin Chan Kʼawiil
25 December 768 c.794 c.794
Tikal
?
  • Stelae 19 and 21
  • Altars 6 and 10
Nuun Ujol Kʼinich

 
? Between 794 and 810 ? ?
at least one child
  • Lintel of Temple 3
Dark Sun

 
?
Tikal
Son of Nuun Ujol Kʼinich
c.849 ? ?
  • Stela 24
  • Altar 7
  • Lintel 2 of Temple 3
Jasaw Chan Kʼawiil II

 
Stella 11 Ruler   ? c.869 c.889 c.889?
Tikal
?

Toniná  Edit

Name (or nickname) Ruled Alternative names
Ruler 1[68] ? Cabeza de Reptil ("Reptile's Head")
B'alam Ya Acal[68] 6th century Jaguar Bird Peccary; Zots Choj
Chac B'olon Chaak[68] ?
K'inich Hix Chapat[68] c. 595–665 Personage 2
Ruler 2[69] 668–687 Jaguar Casper
K'inich B'aaknal Chaak[70] 688–715 Ruler 3; Personage 3; Kuk; Craneo de Serpiente ("Snake Skull")
Ruler 4[69] 708–723 Dios Jaguar ("Jaguar God")
K'inich Ich'aak Chapat[71] 723–739+ Ruler 5; Garra de Jaguar ("Jaguar Claw")
K'inich Tuun Chapat[71] to 762 Ruler 6; Ruler 8
Ruler 7[72] ?
Ruler 8[73] c. 787–806+
Uh Chapat[73] c. 837 Ruler 9
Ruler 10[73] c. 901

UcanalEdit

UxmalEdit

XultunEdit

Yaxchilan  Edit

Name/Glyph[74][75] Other names Image Born Reigned from Reigned until Death Consort (s) Monuments[76] Notes
Yopaat Bahlam I ? 23 July 359 ?[77] ? ? Founder of Yaxchilan lineage.
Itzamnaaj Bahlam I Shield Jaguar I ? ? ? ?
Yaxun Bahlam I Bird Jaguar I ? 378 389 389
Yaxchilan
?
Yax Deer-Antler Skull ? 389 402 402
Yaxchilan
?
Ruler 5 ? 402 ? ? ?
K'inich Tatb'u Skull I ? ? ? ?
Moon Skull ? 454 467 467
Yaxchilan
? His name is not an actual reference to the moon but is rather the Maya word for a spear-thrower.
Yaxun Bahlam II Bird Jaguar II ? 467 ? ? ?
at least two children
Joy Bahlam I Knot-eye Jaguar I ?
Yaxchilan
Son of Yaxun Bahlam II
508 518 518
Yaxchilan
?
at least two children
  • Stela 27
K'inich Tatb'u Skull II ?
Yaxchilan
Son of Yaxun Bahlam II
526 537 537
Yaxchilan
?
at least two children
  • Temple 12
  • Lintel 35
Joy Bahlam II Knot-eye Jaguar II ? c.560 c.570 c.570
Yaxchilan
?
Itzamnaaj Bahlam II[77] Shield Jaguar II ? ? ? ?
K'inich Tatb'u Skull III ? ? ? ?
at least one child
Yaxun Bahlam III 6-Tun-Bird Jaguar
Bird Jaguar III
?
Yaxchilan
Son of K'inich Tatb'u Skull III
631 681 681
Yaxchilan
Lady Pacal
(c.607?-705)
at least one child
  • Stela 6
Itzamnaaj Bahlam III [77][78] Shield Jaguar III   647
Yaxchilan
Son of Yaxun Bahlam III and Lady Pacal
23 October 681 15 June 742 15 June 742
Yaxchilan
(aged 94/95)
Lady Xoc

Lady Eveningstar of Calakmul
(1 September 704-751)
at least one child

Lady Sak B'iyaan
  • Temple 23
  • Lintels 24, 25, 26
  • Stelae 5, 11, 18, 35
Yaxun Bahlam IV Bird Jaguar IV   709
Yaxchilan
Son of Itzamnaaj Bahlam III and Lady Eveningstar of Calakmul
742 768 768
Yaxchilan
(aged 56/57)
Lady Great Skull
at least one child

Lady Wak Tuun of Motul de San José

Lady Wak Jalam Chan of Motul de San José

Lady Mut Bahlam of Hix Witz[79]
  • Lintels 1, 2, 3, 15, 17, 29, 41
  • Stela 11
Itzamnaaj Bahlam IV[77][80] Shield Jaguar IV 18 February 752
Yaxchilan
Son of Yaxun Bahlam IV and Lady Great Skull
769 c.800 c.800
Yaxchilan
(aged around 47/48)
Lady Chab-Ahab
at least one child
  • Lintel 2
K'inich Tatb'u Skull IV ?
Son of Itzamnaaj Bahlam IV and Lady Chab-Ahab
c.808 ? ?
  • Lintel 10
Last known ruler of the city.

YaxhaEdit

  • K'inich Lakamtuun (r.c.799[81])

Yo'okopEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ L., Tignor, Robert. Worlds together, worlds apart: a history of the world from the beginnings of humankind to the present (Fourth ed.). New York. ISBN 9780393123760. OCLC 854609153.
  2. ^ Tignor, Adelman, Brown, Elman, Liu, Pittman, Shaw, Robert, Jeremy, Peter, Benjamin, Xinru, Holly, Brent (2014). Worlds Together, Worlds Apart (V1). New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. pp. 311–313. ISBN 9780393922080.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p. 409.
  4. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, p. 65
  5. ^ Martin & Grube 2000; Zender 2004
  6. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, p. 65
  7. ^ Martin & Grube 2000 pp.102-115. Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp.360-361.
  8. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p. 336.
  9. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p. 337.
  10. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp.384-5. Martin & Grube 2000 pp.56-60.
  11. ^ Schele & Mathews 1999, pp.296-297, 307. Polo Sifontes 1986, p.94.
  12. ^ Schele & Mathews 1999, pp.296-297. Guillemin 1967, p.34. Polo Sifontes 1986, p.94.
  13. ^ Laporte et al 2005, p.159.
  14. ^ Laporte 2005, pp. 224-225.
  15. ^ Zender, p.4.
  16. ^ Carmack 2001, p.153. Hill 1996, p.67. Hill 1998, p.237.
  17. ^ Carmack 2001, p.155.
  18. ^ Tokovinine, Alexandre; Fialko, Vilma (2007). "Stela 45 of Naranjo and the Early Classic Lords of Sa'aal". The PARI Journal.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Dynastic History of Naranjo
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Martin, Simon. Chronicle of the Maya kings and queens : deciphering the dynasties of the ancient Maya. Grube, Nikolai (Second ed.). London. ISBN 978-0-500-28726-2. OCLC 191753193. Cite error: The named reference ":0" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  21. ^ Last monument of him in 26 October 716; in 721 he was already dead.
  22. ^ Wak Chanil's father was 14 years old in this date; it is the earliest date of her birth, which could also have happened later)
  23. ^ a b c d Skidmore, Joel (2010). The Rulers of Palenque (PDF) (Fifth ed.). Mesoweb Publications. p. 6. Retrieved 12 October 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  24. ^ Martin & Grube 2008, pp. 162-268.
  25. ^ a b Skidmore 2010, p. 74.
  26. ^ Martin & Grube 2008, pp. 168-170.
  27. ^ Skidmore 2010, p. 74.
  28. ^ Martin & Grube 2008, pp. 168-170.
  29. ^ a b c d Martin, Simon; Nikolai Grube (2008). Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens: Deciphering the Dynasties of the Ancient Maya (2nd ed.). London and New York: Thames & Hudson. p. 175. ISBN 9780500287262. OCLC 191753193. Cite error: The named reference "Simon1" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  30. ^ a b c d e Martin & Grube 2000, p. 140.
  31. ^ a b Martin & Grube 2000, p. 141.
  32. ^ a b c d e Martin & Grube 2000, p. 142.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h Martin & Grube 2000, p. 143.
  34. ^ a b c Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp. 422–423.
  35. ^ a b c d Martin & Grube 2000, p. 145.
  36. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, p. 147.
  37. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, p. 147.
  38. ^ a b c d e Martin & Grube 2000, p. 148.
  39. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, p. 150.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Martin & Grube 2000, p. 151.
  41. ^ Clancy (2009), pp. 140–141.
  42. ^ a b c d e Martin & Grube 2000, p. 152.
  43. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, p. 149.
  44. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, p. 149.
  45. ^ O'Neil 2014, p. 142.
  46. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, pp. 152–153.
  47. ^ The numbers given here follow those noted in Looper 2003, p.205.
  48. ^ a b c Martin & Grube 2000, p.216.
  49. ^ a b c d Looper 2003, pp. 205–209.
  50. ^ a b c Martin & Grube 2000, p.218.
  51. ^ Laporte et al 2006, p.222.
  52. ^ Biro 2005, p. 31
  53. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, pp. 61, 63.
  54. ^ Tourtellot & González 2005, p. 68.
  55. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.409. Tourtellot & González 2005, p. 68.
  56. ^ Tourtellot & González 2005, pp. 68-9.
  57. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p. 524.
  58. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p. 524.
  59. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp.310-2
  60. ^ Martin & Grube 2000 pp.26-52.
  61. ^ Drew 1999, p.187.
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Tikal's Dynastic Rulers
  63. ^ Martin & Grube 2008, p.26.
  64. ^ Martin & Grube 2008, p.37.
  65. ^ Martin & Grube 2008, p.37.
  66. ^ Guenter, Stanley Paul (2014). "Dating Stela 26 of Tikal". The PARI Journal. Ancient Cultures Institute. 14 (3): 13–17.
  67. ^ Martin & Grube 2008, p.39.
  68. ^ a b c d Martin & Grube 2000, p.178.
  69. ^ a b Martin & Grube 2000, p.180. Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.473.
  70. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, p.180.
  71. ^ a b Martin & Grube 2000, p.186.
  72. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.475.
  73. ^ a b c Martin & Grube 2000, p.186. Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.476.
  74. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp.310-2
  75. ^ Martin & Grube 2000 pp.26-52.
  76. ^ Kelly 2001
  77. ^ a b c d Martin & Grube 2000, p. 118
  78. ^ He was probably the third and not the second ruler of that name in Yaxchilan.
  79. ^ Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens by Simon Martin and Nikolai Grube
  80. ^ He was probably the fourth and not the third ruler of that name in Yaxchilan.
  81. ^ Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 688.

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Tiesler, Vera and Andrea Cucina (2006). Janaabʼ Pakal of Palenque: Reconstructing the Life and Death of a Maya Ruler. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-2510-2. OCLC 62593473.