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Maximiliano Korstanje

Maximiliano E Korstanje is a cultural theorist dedicated to the study of mobilities and terrorism born in Buenos Aires, Argentina on 29 October 1976. His development is framed within the subfield of critical terrorism studies. He serves as Senior Lecturer at Department Economics, University of Palermo, Argentina.[1] Korstanje was Visiting Fellow at CERS University of Leeds, United Kingdom and Visiting Lecturer at University of la Habana, Cuba. Formally he is part of Tourism Crisis Management Institute University of Florida US,[2] Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies - University of Leeds,[3] Hospitality Social Network,[4] Critical Tourism Studies Asia-Pacific,[5] Red de Investigación Turística RIT,[6] and The International Society for Philosopher, hosted in Sheffield, England. While considered as a prolific writer in his field, Korstanje has published more than 950 pieces regarding mobilities, tourism, risk perception, globalization, and terrorism. Hence his biography is included in the index Marquis Who is Who in the World since 2009.[7] In 2017, AMIT (Mexican Academy for this study of Tourism), which is the most salient academic institution in tourism research of Mexico, awards Korstanje as Foreign Faculty Member.[8] Due to his contributions and several publications to the fields of terrorism and virtual terrorism from the position of editor in chief of International Journal of CyberWarfare and Terrorism, he is awarded as Editor-in-Chief Emeritus of the journal, which is hosted by IGI Global in Hershey Pennsylvania, US.[9]

Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje
Born (1976-10-29)October 29, 1976
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Occupation Professor
at University of Palermo, Argentina
Spouse Maria Rosa Troncoso de Korstanje

Contents

LifeEdit

Maximiliano E. Korstanje was born on 29 October 1976 in a middle-class family in Buenos Aires, Argentina. He is the son of Carlos Alberto Korstanje Luna and Ana Maria Abaca. On 7 December 2006 he married with Maria Rosa Troncoso. Now the couple has 3 children Benjamin, Olivia and Ciro. Though Korstanje earned a degree in Cultural Tourism at the University of Moron, Argentina (2003), he took countless courses in the fields of linguistic, anthropology, psychology, sociology and philosophy. Because of his prolific performance, he was nominated to five honorary doctorates worldwide. Nowadays Korstanje resides in the borough of Villa Crespo, Buenos Aires, Argentina. He served as keynote speaker as well as member of scientic committee in a great variety of conferences and academic events in his scope around the globe.

Most Important Editorial positionsEdit

From 2013 he works as the editor in chief and associate editor of Int. Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism. Hershey IGI Global; International Journal of Safety and Security in Tourism - Hospitality and International Journal of Risk and Contingency. IGI global Hershey, Pennsylvania & SUNY at Plattsburgh, US. In 2017 he is awarded as Associate editor for the well-read journal Estudios y Perspectivas en Turismo (Studies and Perspectives in Tourism)

Korstanje serves as advisory board member in the following important journals.

These are only a part of 40 specialized journals where Korstanje makes his contributions daily.

Selected Special Issues as Guest EditorEdit

This represents a portion of special issues Korstanje organized as Guest editor in this prestigious journals.

  • “Narratives of Risk, Security and Disaster issues in Tourism and Hospitality”. International. Journal of Tourism Anthropology.[29]
  • “Consideraciones en Torno al Terrorismo, el 11 de Septiembre y sus Efectos Colaterales”. Economía Autónoma.[30]
  • “Tourism in the XXIth Century: Approaches, Limitations and Challenges for the New Millennium”. Palermo Business Review-[31]
  • “To What a extent might sustainable tourism mitigate the impact of Global Warming?”. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes (WHATT).[32]
  • “The Dialectics of Borders, Empires and Limens”. Rosa Dos Ventos.[33]
  • “Image, Aesthetic and tourism in post-modern times”. Pasos, revista de turismo y Patrimonio Cultural.[34]
  • “Cyber Terrorism and dark side of the Information society”. International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism.[35]
  • “Why Tourists are important to terrorism?”. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage.[36]
  • “Antropología del Turismo para el siglo XXI”. Revista de Antropología Experimental.[37]
  • “Turismo y Sociedad Global”. Aposta Digital.[38]

AwardsEdit

  • Awards for Excellence. Outstanding Reviewer. Given by International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment. University of Salford, UK & Emerald Group Publishing.[39]
  • Most Prolific author of Tourism Scholar in Argentina and Chile per Paper. P Picazo Peral y S. Moreno-Gil. Gestión Turística. Julio-Diciembre. 2012, Número 18, pp. 9–45.[40]
  • Most Prolific author for Iberoamerica in Tourism research. Per the study of Difusión de la investigación Científica Iberoamericana en Turismo entre 2006-2011. P. Picazo-Peral y S. Moreno Gil. Estudios y Perspectivas en Turismo. 2013, Volumen 22, pp. 828–853.[41]
  • In 2015 he is awarded as "founding member of Academic and Research Council" UDET. Universidad de Especialidades Turisticas. Quito Ecuador.[42]
  • Certificate of Appreciation issued by Jamba, journal of Disaster Risk Studies.[43]
  • Elected Foreign Faculty Member of AMIT (Mexican Academy for the study of tourism), Mexico.[44]
  • Korstanje is elected member of Working Group on ICT Uses in Peace and War which is part of the Technical committee 9 on ICT and Society. This well-known committee is hosted by International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) under the auspices of UNESCO since 1960.[45]

Theory and workEdit

Originally Korstanje studied widely the connection of terrorism and mobilities. His thesis is that far from being economically affected by terrorism, modern tourism is inevitably entwined to terrorism. The first anarchist immigrants who arrived at US struggled against capital-owners inasmuch they were labeled as real terrorists and many of them were exiled, jailed or killed. However, other less radical waves opted for organizing the worker unions.[46] The process of unionization which facilitated the rise and expansion of tourism industry was disciplined by capitalist nation-state, and in so doing, the ideological core of anarchism was adopted.[47] While state accepted the claims of work-force in order for terrorism to be faded away, its discursive core was introduced in the heart of the capitalist system. Therefore, Korstanje argues that tourism is terrorism by other means.[48][49][50]

Further, Korstanje started a discussion with Marc Auge respecting to the theory of non-places. At a second stage, he says "airports" far from being non-places represent spaces of discipline craved by terrorists to cause political instability.[51][52] Third, the term Thana Capitalism is used to refer to a new stage of capitalism where risk sets the pace to death. Since terrorism has become in the commodity of media, it created a spectacle which is oriented to maximize profits. In Thana-capitalism consumers maximize their pleasure by consuming the Others` death which ranges movies, tours, and others cultural consumptions.[53][54] This acts as an ideological mechanism for the audience to reaffirm the proper status creating a new class dubbed as death-seekers. Thana Capitalism results from an old dormant climate of social darwinism enrooted in American society where few rules the destiny of the rest.[55][56][57]

Though Korstanje adopted different positions according to each theme, three main facets can be clearly identified. The first combines the legacy of two contrasting theories, the materialism proper of Marxism and Cultural Theory to explain further on the construction and operation of risk in modern society. Per his view, risk would be an ideological discourse in order for elite to be legitimated, which suggests that risk and economy are inevitably entwined.[58] Secondly, Korstanje conducted an ethnography in The Sanctuary of Cromañon Republic a well-famous nightclub where 194 youth lost their life in a made-man accident. The fieldwork, which took more than 3 years in this site, influenced Korstanje to see how the notion of the death constructs culture. Polemically, he says that death does not affect culture, but the latter derives from the needs of disciplining death [59][60] The cultural ramifications of death derives not only from the platform of contingency but also in the way risk is politically manipulated. Last but not least, Korstanje develops the notion of Thana-Capitalism to denote the current obsession for consuming the other death in the cultural industries.[61] After 9/11, the society of risk passed to a new facet of production, where death situates as the main commodity. As a result of this, the labor class is replaced by a new one, death-seekers. Modern citizens appeal to consume tragedies and disasters in order to reaffirm the own ego.[62] Terrorism offers a fertile ground to reproduce Thana-Capitalism because of two main reasons. The global audience scares for bad news or disturbing images disseminated by mass media whereas they are obsessed for consuming them. In consequence, media enhances more profits covering terrorism-containing news while paradoxically giving further credibility and visibility to terrorists.[63] This causes a vicious circle, where the disaster is commoditized.[64]

Travels, Mobilities and TourismEdit

Conquest of AmericasEdit

Citing the contributions of Anthony Pagden who have unraveled the intersection of mobilities (Homo Viatores) and politics, Korstanje discusses to what extent Spanish conquistadors appealed to cruelty only in those places where they found precious metals while in others cases they peacefully coexisted with natives. Even, the fact is that the conquest of Americas was efficiently achieved simply because some aborigines exploited others, which facilitated the cooperation of some ethnicities with Spanish military forces. The idealized image of aboriginals as victims of hatred-filled Spanish colonizers rests on shaky foundations in some cases. Korstanje argues convincingly that Americas is essentially walled by two worlds, Anglo-Saxons and Latin Americans. While Anglo-World colonized the other in basis of exclusion pushing the natives towards the borders of civilization, the Spanish incorporated them to conform a racial pyramid which resulted in extractive institutions. This point suggests that cultural matrixes determine the different paths conquest followed[65][66][67]

TourismEdit

Korstanje has developed a system to understand tourism as a rite of passage, which consists in three facets, breaking with ordinary rules, renovation, and re-introduction to the routine. In tourism, citizens not only renovate their trust with nation-state but also emulate to be "another different person" than daily lives.[68] As dream-like nature, tourism corresponds with a mechanism of escapement which helps society to keep united. In so doing physical movement is of paramount importance in order for the subject to emulate a new role in the liminoid space tourism offers. The needs of reconciling the metaphor of lost-paradise (prosperity) with suffering seems to be the alma matter of tourism.[69][70][71][72] The significance of tourism for society explains why terrorists select tourists as main targets to cause political instability.[73] Cantallops & Cardona continued this discussion arguing that the allegory of lost-paradise not only is foundational for modern tourism but also was developed by modern marketing to produce a collective imaginary proper of Western Capitalism[74]

HeritageEdit

Conceiving a radical view respecting to heritage, Korstanje explores the dilemma of modern capitalism as the force that imposes an idealized image of the other through the consumption of heritage. The fact is that heritage alludes what is dead, which is stable and prefigured by the external forces of the market in order to forge standardized experiences whereas citizens renovate their loyalty to nationhood comparing their values with others. Multiculturalism reinforces ethnocentrism because tourists compare capitalist societies as the best possible respecting to the third world.[75] This ritualized consumption leads to adopting the policies drawn by status quo. While first world citizens are in quest of individual experiences, third world natives are coopted to offer their bodies as commodities.[76] Heritage plays a vital role in order for lay-people to accept what Schumpeter dubbed creative destruction which means the needs of gazing something news at the same time, the precaritization in the conditions of work are ideologically legitimated. Heritage hides the needs of accepting values as instability, destruction, and change as positive in a global liberal market where few have accumulated further wealth at the costs of work-force.[77][78][79]

Social Conflict, Tourism and ReligiosityEdit

Over recent years, tourism was defined as a leisure activity that ignites an state of conflict when host and guest cultural values are at odds.[80][81][82] This academic wave studies the intersection of religious conflicts in tourism industry. The best example of this is terrorism in Middle East.[83] Jointly to Cuban researchers, Lourdes Mustellier Cisneros and Maite Echarri Chavez from the University of La Habana Cuba, Korstanje publishes two seminal works where tourism is discussed as a rite of passage that integrates religiosity and secularization within society. Based on the study of Cuba, they explore not only the limitations and dichotomies of authenticity, but also the roots of religion, tourism and politics. While during years, social scientists agree that religiosity derives from politics, Cuba shows the opposite, which means how religiosity remains dormant cemented in the root of heritage. The disociation between secularization and sacradness should be revisited. The main thesis is that tourism acts as a rite of escapement encapsulated in the religiosity of society. Far from being a mere industry, tourism introduces holiday-makers in process of renovation and recreation of the same nature of baptism or any other rite of passage.[84] The parallel between hospitality and religion centres on the belief, present in many non-western cultures, that death is the start of a “last-travel”, which should be accomplished following carefully some steps to overcome the obstacles in here-after. Besides, more philosophical interrogations are needed to inquiry on the nature of tourism. Korstanje, Mustellier Cisneros and Echarri Chavez conclude that faith plays a leading role constructing the borders between us and them, but in so doing, it does not impede a frank dialogue with others. If religious tourism leads to conflict, this does not happen by religion, but only because some radicalized minds use “the difference” as a precondition to instill its regime of terror and violence. This moot-point suggests that religion does not pave the ways for the rise of conflict or rivalry.[85][86]

Dean MacCannell, Tourism and StructuralismEdit

Dean MacCannell is an American anthropologist who pivoted in the theory of tourism. He innovatively combines ideas of structuralism with Marxism and Goffmanian dramaturgy. Maccannell understands that tourism serves to mediate between citizens and their institutions in the same way totem acts in primitive organizations. In secularized societies where religion declined, totem sets the pace to tourism.[87] Maccannell was internationally recognized and awarded by his contribution in the fields of tourism, consumption, and globalization, even being one of the most cited scholars of the field.[88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98]

Korstanje criticizes Dean MacCannell because his argument escapes to the conceptual basis of structuralism, applying an out-of-context method. Per Korstanje´s viewpoint, structuralism is limited to explain the difference between the myth and structure which resulted in the belief that Europe is an evolved civilization situated at the upper of the pyramid while others aboriginal organizations are at the bottom. This conception, which is enrooted in the founding parents of anthropology not only paved the ways for European ethnocentrism but also remains open today through the theory of development, where developed nations believe they are morally obliged to assist others non-aligned under-developed economies. Methodologically speaking, Levi Strauss´ thought structuralism to be applied only to aboriginal cultures, not to capitalist societies, as Maccannell insisted. Korstanje stresses that the chief goal of Claude Levi Strauss was the articulation of a periodic table with all cultures showing the commonalities between urban and primitive minds. Unlike Levi Strauss, MacCannell adamantly emphasizes on the divergence of totem and tourism which leads to a great misunderstanding. Last but not least, he ignores other forms of ancient tourism as practiced by Romans, Sumerians and Babylonians among many others. This happens because Maccannell trivializes tourism as a post-industrial form of alienation instead of focusing into its nature as cross-cultural rite of passage.[99][100][101]

Sociology and PoliticsEdit

Falkland IslandsEdit

The 1982 war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) resonated in the politics of the former instead of the latter. Former president Leopoldo Galtieri left the power as a result of the military disaster of the Falklands and Argentina's defeat hastened the transition towards democracy. Korstanje argues that paradoxically though Argentinians developed a negative image of Britons, this is not reciprocate in the United Kingdom.[102] Instead, a strong rivalry between Argentina and the Falkland Islanders persisted. Korstanje explains that far from the degree of hostility, both sides allude to conflict as a form of social cohesion. Equally important, the sense of nationhood is formed by the articulation of sacred-profane with sacred-sacred. This means, Korstanje adds, that our neighbors express the sacred-profane, which is repelled in order to achieve a common identity, but the sacred-sacred which remains remote for our understanding and grasp is an object of cult.[103] The notion of sacred-sacred remains out of our control though exerting influence over us, while the sacred-profane is envisaged as a looming threat which should be surveilled. Although they are British citizens, the Falkland Islanders are geographically distant from their exemplary center in London whereas Argentinians see in the Falkland Island a reminder of how cruel a dictatorship may be. Despite the public interests in Argentina for the Falklands, few tourists have visited the islands. Korstanje says this suggests that -unlike Maccannell noted - the concept of sacred-sacred avoids any type of massification. Mystified as the exemplary temple of democracy, Falklands is far from being a tourist destination and for this is paradoxically so important for Argentinians.[104]

Mobilities and CapitalismEdit

In the fields of mobilities, Korstanje brings the figure of Max Weber to the forefront. He cites Weber`s contribution on the role played by predestination in the formation of capitalism, but observing that both capitalism and mobilities come from Norse Mythology instead of Protestantism. At a first glance, Odin-Wodan-Voden was a traveling God who traversed across the World to know further about cultures and customs. This belief not only paved the ways for the rise of Grand Tour but forged a mobile culture as Anglo-Saxons which centuries later colonized the World. Secondly, since Valkyrias know beforehand who were the warriors who will die in the battlefront, unlike other mythologies where the destiny remains open, predestination is essential for English speaking countries and for Capitalist societies. Those critical voices, who pointed Weber was in the incorrect side because Holland kept a majority of Catholics in the population, should reconsider that Weber did a correct diagnosis but he left behind that it was not Protestant Reform the key reason behind capitalism. Instead, Korstanje argues that it is necessary to see the influence of an illiterate society as Norse culture as the symbolic and cultural background of capitalism.[105][106]

The theory of Non-PlacesEdit

The theory of non-places was originally coined by French ethnographer Marc Augé who argues that modernity is producing spaces of anonymity where tradition declines. Per his viewpoint, examples of non-places are everywhere, as airports, Train Station and Malls. Korstanje has exerted a radical criticism on this theory for the following reasons. First and foremost, airports, far from being non-places, represent spaces of discipline where travellers are socialized into the cultural values of society, which means trade (customs), mobilities (migration) and security (police).[107] Once travelers are tested and validated, they are channeled to a hedonic bubble of consumption. Secondly, airports are real meetings charged with high emotional arousal. This is the example of expatriates meeting with their relatives, celebrations to welcome the favorite teams or celebrities, or even zones of the dispute between workers of air-companies and air-carriers. Therefore, the idea of considering airports as symptoms of non-places cannot be validated from the empirical fieldwork. The sense of place is individually constructed by the meaning conferred on the soil.[108][109][110] In the recent days, terrorism has attacked international airports because these examplary centres represent symbolic platforms for the formation of state´s ideology. By vulnerating these types of spaces, the credibility of nation-state undermines. Therefore, Korstanje suggests that Auge´s ethnography on airports should at least reconsidered.[111][112]

The IslandEdit

Korstanje alludes to the plot of the film The Island to explain how modern mobilities work. This well known movie is directed by Michael Bay, and starred by Scarlett Johansson and Ewan MacGregor. The veil of fear, which is represented by a climate of risk inflation, prevents our real contact with reality while we retreat into the security of home abandoning our freedom to decide.[113] In the Island, Dr. Bernard Merrick manages a complex of clones which are created only to serve as organ donors to the originals. In this futurist world, clones are educated to live within the borders of the complex due to a so-called apocalyptic nuclear war that contaminated the earth. Some residents are chosen to leave to go to an island, which is a utopian paradise where all human needs are met. Those who get to go are selected through a lottery.[114] In fact, they are sent for organ harvesting, surrogate motherhood, or other biological uses. As a projected paradise, the figure of island plays a crucial role not only controlling the clones undermining the possibilities of potential revolts but also delineates the borders between first class citizens and an underclass formed by sub-humans. Likewise, the modern sense of mobilities, which work as an ideological instrument by generating in minds a false needs of movement while at the bottom we are subject to a real immobility, is culturally imposed by nation-state in order for citizens to be indoctrinated. Korstanje adheres to the thesis that in the contemporary world we are not really moving because only our minds do it!.[115]

Peace and DemocracyEdit

Though Korstanje acknowledges that today democracy is the best of feasible systems, he cites the contributions of Oswald Spengler who defined democracy as the dictatorship of money. This suggests, following Korstanje´s assertions, that there is a clear dissociation between Hellenic Democracy and Modern democracy.[116] Based on Cornelius Castoriadis` insight, Korstanje argues that while the former allowed the demos, which means the possibility for lay-people in assembly to reverse a law if unjust, the latter has cemented a corporative democracy which created a gap between citizens and their institutions. This gap not only is fulfilled by a professional corporativism of politicians, but also escapes from citizen`s scrutiny.[117] He exerts a radical criticism on the book The Better of our Angel Nature authored by Steven Pinker who envisages the world is experiencing a peaceful climate of cooperation and liberty as never before. For Pinker, such an atmosphere of stability results from the cultivation of liberal cultural values, democracy and trade.[118] Starting from the premise that we live in a society where a global elite concentrates a great portion of wealth while the rest lives debarred to secondary positions, Korstanje says that a more peaceful world is not equaled to a more just world. Democracy ideologically imposes a wider sense of a false liberty in the citizenry, who is rechanneled towards consumption. The conflict should be understood as a human activity, which is the centerpiece of culture. In the conquest of Americas, the example of aborigines who were banned by Spanish Conquistadors to yield war against their neighbours exhibits that cultures withered away when the social conflict disappears.[119][120] Over recent decades, capitalism has irreversibly advanced to reduce conflicts into a simulacra where all citizens become in slaves of capital.[121] Therefore, violence and warfare were notably curbed to a minimum expression. As a symbolic barrier, the psychological fear, which is daily instilled by the media, impedes from citizens to confront with the status quo. While the sense of terror accelerates changes and economic policies which otherwise would be rejected, it certainly serves as a cultural entertainment platform for global audiences.[122][123][124][125][126]

Violence and the War on TerrorEdit

Terrorism and 9/11Edit

One of the events that shocked Korstanje in his career was doubtless 9/11. It certainly operated within two contrasting spheres. While, on one hand, terrorism instilled fear in order to accelerate substantial changes in the way geopolitics was articulated worldwide, on another, symbolically 9/11 triggered new forms of imagining the otherness.[127] Not only, the borderlands tightened but also the other situated as a dangerous element which needs to be surveilled.[128] Korstanje clarified that though classic terrorism in 60 and 70s decades targeted important politicians, celebrities, and chief officers, now global tourists, travelers, and journalists occupied such a position.[129] This means that 9/11 was the first success attempt Muslim terrorism used mobile transport means as real weapons criminally-directed against civilian targets. This caused a great panic not only in the US but in the world because the international audience surmised that the same would happen anytime and anywhere.[130] In this respect, 9/11 showed that it is possible to vulnerate the most powerful nation in its symbolic core exploiting public transport to cause political instability. Terrorism can be explained following the zero-sum game. Terrorists achieve their goals looking for lowering their costs. They are the success in maximizing a degree of panic, amplified by the media coverage whereas leisure-spots, tourist-destinations, transport means and public space offer a fertile ground for next terrorist hits because of the flexibility in the surveillance. In fact, as Korstanje puts it, how orchestrating security in public spaces with entertainment for citizens represent a major challenge for experts in terrorism in the years to come.[131][132]

Still further, the recent advances of more radical terrorist cells as ISIS as well as the change of paradigm in how the targets are selected reveal two important things. On one hand, terrorism affects the credibility of authorities and the legitimacy of nation-state emphasizing in the citizen´s vulnerability as a reminder of state´s impotence.[133] On another, terrorists operate within a horizon of uncertainness and speculation which seriously threaten the well-functioning of democratic institutions.[134] Korstanje argues that while Europe in former centuries colonized the world imposing a restricted and ethnocentric view of the alterity, which was forged by a conditioned version of hospitality for strangers, today it sets the pace to new forms where the enemy is operating from inside.[135] Particularly, this opens the doors for the rise of the ever-increasing sentiment of paranoia and fear which are conducive to the terrorist´s goals. One of the most chief objectives of ISIS seems to accelerate the end of hospitality as the symbolic touchstone of Western civilization. Further solutions to understand this are enrooted in the nature of colonialism of former centuries. This means -Korstanje adds- that while European nations employed hospitality as a discourse to expand their imperialism over former centuries, now terrorism ignites a climate of anti-hospitality to weaken the social trust. Doubtless, mobilities and terrorism are inevitably entwined.[136][137][138]

Fear and ExceptionalismEdit

Based on the legacy of Geoffrey Skoll Professor Emeritus at SUNY Buffalo, who asserted the United States was culturally cemented under a strong sentiment of exceptionalism which remains to date and even was exported to the world,[139][140][141] Korstanje discusses to what extent the puritan spirit and the archetype of uphill city pivoted in the configuration of a special character that forged how Americans see the World. From its inception, Americans feel special, outstanding and very sensitive to any token of grandiloquence that validates the idea they are the chosen people.[142] Such a discourse not only feeds ethnocentrism but forged historically a culture of fear and mistrust for everything and everyone who come beyond American borders. This mindset is particularly functional to the spirit of terrorism. Paradoxically, more interested are Americans to proof themselves and the world how special they are, more frightening they turn.[143][144][145]

In sharp contrast with Giorgio Agamben[146] who held the thesis that exceptionalism comes from the implementation of law making, Korstanje argues that exceptionalism stems from narcissism. Following Christopher Lasch,[147] Korstanje explains that narcissist personalities need to feel special and being in contact with like-special others to conform a superior race or privileged class. While discursively speaking the sentiment of exceptionalism was coined by the social Darwinism and its derived pathological form Nazism,[148] a mitigated form remained in the United States. The sentiment of exceptionalism paves the ways for the rise of a new culture, which is based on individualism and competence. The arising psychological fear contours the borders of the system impeding social agents to cooperate to defy the status quo.[149]

Populism and TerrorismEdit

In the field of populism, Korstanje conducted extensive research in how populism evolved and consolidated in Argentina. With basis on Kirchnerism and Kirchnerites, his outcomes reveal that at some extent populism allows a fairer wealth distribution but it runs higher costs for economies. Populist governments fail to gain the necessary trust in international market while wealth is repatriated abroad by local elite. Populists are forced to intervene in all democratic institutions to prevent disinvestment. As a result of this, populism paves the ways for the rise of totalitarian governments. Depending on the ideological radicalism of the movement, as in the case of Kirchnerites, some elements in the militancy impede a permeation with reality. Unless regulated, populism and kirchnersim may very well lead to terrorism. Under some conditions, kirchnerism advanced while rechanneling frustrated personalities into a coherent paranoid message where militants believed they were part of something important, a historic revolution that would change the World. It suggests that psychological frustration and populism are inevitably entwined.[150][151]

Culture and DeathEdit

Cromañón Nightclub FireEdit

The República de Cromañón nightclub fire is well known for a tragedy that occurred on 30 December 2004. Geographically located in Once neighborhood Buenos Aires, Argentina, it was operated in hands of Omar Chaban when a blaze started when a pyrotechnic flare was set on the ceiling. The materials used in the building caused a great fire which killed 194 people. Further investigations revealed that accident was provoked by a set of omissions by authorities and police officers. Days after this event, survivors, and neighbors constructed a sanctuary to honor the memory of victims as well as reminding how the nefarious consequences of corruption. This event not only placed Anibal Ibarra, former Mayor in a trial, but also jailed great part of the Band Callejeros, and Omar Chaban among others. This event was considered one of worst made-man disaster in Buenos Aires city in its history. Based on the contribution of Bronislaw Malinowski,[152] Korstanje investigated this tragedy combining different sources though ethnography was his primary option. He alerts that what happened in Cromañón was something else than an accident, but the convergence of contingency and culture. Korstanje suggests that Cromañón should be understood as a case of popular religiosity because of two main motives. On a closer look, victims not only were not prepared to die but they accidentally died in an incorrect date, days before the celebrations of new years. Death interrogates and neglects the sense of transcendence for survivors, in which case, its effects resonated more than expected in society. Secondly, public opinion was shocked because of the high probabilities a disaster of this caliber to be repeated again. This sentiment of impotence caused high levels of anxiety, which produced political instability.[153] Cromañón symbolizes the human attempt not only to control death, but blame others for those forces which remain out of control. The process of demonization is necessary in order for social ties not to be disagregated.[154] The lack of clear answers respecting to who threw the flare led towards much deeper processes of demonization which blamed Omar Chaban and Anibal Ibarra. Korstanje adheres to the idea that Cromañon exhibits the genesis, evolution, and maturation of culture, which is a counter-response to disasters. Since death will take room again anytime at a later day, survivors need from durable reminding of the potential effects of tragedy. Culture derives from the needs of making disasters more comprehensible.[155][156][157][158][159] Korstanje`s ethnographies in Republica de Cromañón were vital to understanding his work respecting to disasters and the culture of Thana-Capitalism. At this stage, he received a great influence of French philosophers Jean Baudrillard and Paul Virilio who are widely recognized in his texts.[160][161][162][163]

Thana-CapitalismEdit

Sociologists such as Ulrich Beck envisioned the society of risk as a new cultural value which saw risk as a commodity to be exchanged in globalized economies. This theory suggested that disasters and capitalist economy were inevitably entwined. Disasters allow the introduction of economic programs which otherwise would be rejected, as well as decentralizing the class structure in production.[164] However, Korstanje coined the term Thana-Capitalism to refer to a climate of social Darwinism aimed at fostering the Survival of the Strongest. In this climate of struggle, only a few wins and takes everything while the rest loses. Social Darwinism is seen as a metaphor explaining our obsession with consumer news and with images related to terrorism attacks, trauma-scapes, and disasters. Korstanje writes that the society of risk has gradually set the pace to a new society of Thana-Capitalism, where the main commodity is death. Not only do we consume death everywhere in the entertainment industry, newspapers, and media but in so doing we reinforce our superiority by witnessing the suffering of others. In Thana Capitalism the myth of Noah's Ark situates as a vital allegory which explains the genesis of suffering. In this mythical event, God divided the world into two parts, the victims, and the witnesses. This logic of the supremacy of those who live over those who die is reinforced by Christ´s crucifixion. Today, new emergent segments in the tourist industry are oriented to travel to places where mass deaths or traumatic event have occurred. Korstanje suggests that in secularized societies death is a sign of weakness, and consuming the deaths of others revitalizes the hopes of visitors to enter in "the hall of chosen peoples".[165][166]

Others ThemesEdit

Cyber-Terrorism and TerrorismEdit

During his role as editor in chief of the Int. Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism, Korstanje was in touch with the theory concerning cyber-terrorism from different parts of the world. He edited a book entitled Threat Mitigation and Detection of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism Activities where two important assumptions are placed.[167] On a first look, English Speaking Countries are prone to develop a precautionary platform to understand the future risks because these cultures have limitations to bear uncertainness. The role played by predestination in English speaking societies paved the ways for the technological breakthrough in order for humans to control the future. Secondly, Cyber-Terrorism is not pretty different than terrorism in the extent that both are operating from future.[168] A climate of hyper-surveillance to anticipate the next terrorist attack, adjoined to an obsession for security, undermines the institutions of check-and-balances and separations of powers. At this point, Korstanje exerts a radical criticism on liberal scholar Michael Ignatieff in view of his theory of lesser evil.[169] Since citizens´ rights are vulnerated by the same states which are originally designed to protect them, this means that the preservation of human rights evokes the intervention of a third state. If this happens, the autonomy of states is violated which paradoxically means the transformation of international alliances in the dictatorship of human rights. The problem lies in the paradox of democracy which endorses to nation-state the monopoly of violence while authorities are cyclically renovated by-elections. Under some conditions as given by terrorism today, elected democratic governments may very well pass laws to violate human rights. Korstanje criticized Ignatieff glossed over that democracy does not impede human rights are vulnerated.[170]

Criticism and discussionEdit

Korstanje`s work was widely cited worldwide in the fields of risk perception and terrorism.[171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178] Fieldworkers are interested in the intersection of tourism and terrorism.[179][180][181][182][183] Originally, he held the thesis that far from affecting tourism, terrorism duplicates tourist attraction commoditing death through media engagement.[184] However, in some cases Korstanje was criticized because his theoretical approaches cannot be empirically validated in applied-research or by using a strained form of communication which is hard to follow.[185][186][187] In this vein, Muñoz de Escalona exerted a radical criticism on Korstanje because his conception of tourism as a universal social institution which is based on a need of escapement to accommodate daily frustration. de Escalona indicates that tourism, far from being an ancient institution as Korstanje precludes, stems from the industrial revolution.[188] This point escalated a discussion that today remains open.[189] In the fields of dark tourism Korstanje has provided with a viewpoint that sheds light on specialized literature[190][191][192][193] though some critiques point out he is not giving empirical evidence of his assertions of dark tourism. Some studies validate that visitors of dark sites develop an interest to know further for historic events and constructing a symbolic bridge with victims.[194][195][196] These outcomes were obtained by applying questionnaires and interviews at the sites. This leads Korstanje to answer that fieldworkers misjudge methodologically the difference between what people think and finally do. It is often clear how the application of open or closed-led questionnaires contrast with daily behaviours in the extent to there is a gap between what people say and finally accomplish. This happens because fieldworkers rest on the prejudice that asking is the only way of reaching the truth.[197] In dark tourism fields what current applied research revealed is what interviewees believe but sometimes they are unaware of their inner-worlds, or simply they lie to protect their interests.[198] This suggests that the epistemology of dark tourism should be revisited.[199][200][201]

Economy and theory of DevelopmentEdit

Korstanje is a critical voice of the theory of development which is considered by him as an ideological dispositif aimed at legitimating aborigines` dispossessions. The theory of development postulates mistakenly that there are nations which are economically active or developed whereas others are underdeveloped. This dissociation not only is far from being objective but connotes to values created by Europe in order for imagining the rest of the world as a backward place. In a profesional book review on the book Why the Nations Fail,[202] Korstanje stipulates that the success of capitalism rested on its ability to expand particular values and beliefs as universal. The authors of this book, Acemoglu and Robinson, Korstanje adds, fail in recognizing that there are a lot of many cultural organizations beyond capitalism, which of course are free to choose to live in another way; since there is no there is no imperative stating that all nations should be democratic to enjoy the “benefits” of modern life and a capitalist economy, at the time democracy and prosperity are enthralled as universal values this paves the ways for the rise for the European paternalism. From his viewpoint, modern ethnocentrism consists in thinking democracy and globalization as the best of possible worlds.[203]

The evilness and the end of HospitalityEdit

HospitalityEdit

Well-famous philosopher Jacques Derrida offers a model to understand hospitality dissociating unconditional from conditional subtypes. Over the centuries, philosophers have devoted considerable attention to the problem of hospitality.[204] However, it creates a paradoxical situation since strangers often are rejected by nation-states.[205] Korstanje received the influence of Anthony Pagden who described how hospitality was politically manipulated to legitimate the conquest of Americas.[206] Korstanje argues that hospitality is an intertribal pact in which groups agree on self-defense in times of war and an exchange of goods and merchandise in peacetime. Since the inception of the nation-state, the western concept of hospitality has been proposed as the main criteria for the free circulation and mobility of people and the main cultural value of modern capitalism. Hospitality depends on the giving-while-receiving process which is the touchstone of social bonds. Hospitality and religion are also inextricably entwined. In the same way that the soul is protected by gods of the hereafter, strangers should be assisted while traveling. Failure to care for strangers is punished by the gods, who send calamities, earthquakes and other types of disaster. A lack of hospitality may be seen to predict the triumph of evil. In legends, myths, and horror movies, rogues often violate their guests, concealing their real intentions and then seizing them when sleeping. The guest-host meeting necessarily engenders high levels of vulnerability and risk, which are mitigated by the sacred law of hospitality where both agree not to attack the other while under the same roof. In view of the advance of secularization, the practice of unconditional hospitality has given way to a new sort of hospitality only for those who can pay for it.[207][208][209] The action of terrorism is undermining the Western ratioality where hospitality lies. This happens because hospitality is the symbolic touchstone of Western civilization. As a result of this, terrorism poses a real threat for Occident in the long term.[210][211][212]

The Archetype of Lucifer and EvilnessEdit

One of the most polemic works of Korstanje, doubtless, was his examination of evilness and its real effects in medieval and modern economy. He delves in the figure of Lucifer as the archetype constructed by West to understand evilness. Confronting with Slavoj Zizek, he contends that the rise of Lucifer as rebel derives from the impossibility of God to kill him.[213] Unlike other mythologies, where Gods (or fathers) attempted to assassinate their offspring if political disputes emerged, in Abrahamic tradition God is hand-tied to efface Lucifer who is his first son. Instead, he is disciplined and exiled outside heaven in which case God renovates his trust with humankind. In Judaic tradition exile replaced “other capital punishments” which characterized the Mediterranean World.[214] In this way, cultures that come from Abrahamic tradition developed a particular fear for the death of children. In fact, the presence of witchcraft in the Middle East alludes to problems of fertility which impede the correct good-circulation. Those women who were trialed and executed not only had not offspring, many of them were rich or inherited a fortune which cannot be passed to sons. In a patriarchal order, these types of economic glitches were often corrected by the use of violence, disciplining some women who were opposite to status quo or had amassed a considerable portion of wealth. Korstanje polemically writes that there is substantial evidence in different ethnographies respecting to the belief that economy and evilness are inextricably intertwined.[215] Not only Slavoj Zizek misunderstands the roots of evilness in Abrahamic tradition but also glosses over the figure of Lucifer to expand his understanding of the issue. Though Christianity has particular traits which were widely discussed in Zizekian studies, the figure of Paul seems not to be relevant to the study of modern capitalism. The sense of evilness is activated at the time children`s integrity is vulnerated or serious disasters hit. Furthermore, two additional myths (unnoticed in Zizek`s argument) should be seriously examined: the rebellion of Lucifer and the Noah`s Ark. One of the aspects of Capitalism, which stems from Abrahamic tradition depends on the neglect of death and the needs to live forever. Both discourses operated historically in the acceleration of secularization.[216] The rise of Thana-Capitalism resulted finally from the combination of fear to death, and the adoption of social darwinism which is proper from puritanism.[217][218]

PublicationsEdit

Most important papersEdit

  • Korstanje M. E. “La Búsqueda. (La inmigración holandesa en Argentina 1880-1930)”, Revista de Antropología Experimental. Volumen 18, 2006.
  • Korstanje M. E. “El Viaje: una crítica al concepto de “no lugares” en Marc Augè”, Athenea Digital. Volumen 09, 2006.
  • Korstanje M. E. “Re visiting the risk perception theory in the Context of Travels”, ERTR: e-Review of Tourism Research. Volumen 7. Issue 4., Volumen 7, issue 4, 2009.
  • Korstanje M. E. “El Mal y La Posesión Diabólica: un análisis crítico sobre los conceptos de contaminación y tabú ”, Revista de Antropología Experimental. Volumen 9. Issue 9., 2009.
  • Korstanje M. E. “La Isla y El Viaje Turístico: una interpretación del Filme de Michael Bay, desde el psicoánalisis y el pensamiento filosófico moderno y contemporáneo”, Revista Turismo y Sociedad (Anuario). Volumen 9, 2009.
  • Korstanje M and Busby G, “Understanding the Bible as the Roots of Physical Displacement: The Origin of Tourism”, ERTR: e-Review of Tourism Research. Volumen 8, issue 3, 2010.
  • Korstanje M. E. “The Legacy of Huntington in Terrorist Studies afterwards 11/9”, Crossroads: the Asa Journal. Volumen 9, Issue 2, 2011.
  • Korstanje M. E. “Una Introducción al Pensamiento de Cass Sunstein : Riesgo y Racionalidad aplicable a la realidad Latinoamericana”, A Contracorriente: una revista de Historia Social y literatura en América Latina. Volumen 9, Issue 3, 2012.
  • Korstanje M. E. and Tarlow P. “Being Lost: risk and vulnerability in the post 9/11 Entertainment industry””, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. Volumen 10, Issue 1, pp. 22-33, 2012.
  • Korstanje M and George B, “Falkland Malvinas: a re-examination of the Relationship between Sacralization and Tourism Development”, Current Issues in Tourism. Volumen 14, issue 5, 2011.
  • Korstanje M and Olsen D, “The Discourse of Risk in Horror Movies post 9/11: hospitality and hostility in Perspective”, International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. Volumen 1, issue 3-4, 2011.
  • Korstanje M and Clayton, A “Tourism and Terrorism, Conflicts and Commonalities”. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes”, Volumen 4, issue 1, 2012.
  • Korstanje M. E. “Reconsidering Cultural Tourism: an Anthropologist’s Perspective”, Journal of Heritage Tourism. Volumen 7. Issue 2, 2012.
  • Korstanje M. E. “Preemption & Terrorism. When the future governs”, Cultura: International Journal of Philosophy of culture and Axiology. Volumen 10. Issue 1, pp. 167-184, 2013.
  • Korstanje M. E. “Chile helps Chile; Exploring the effects of Earthquake Chile 2010”, International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment. Volumen 5. Issue 4, 2014
  • Korstanje M. E. “Why risk Research is more prominent in English speaking countries in the digital societies.”, International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism. Volumen 4. Issue 1, pp. 09-20, 2014
  • Korstanje M. E. Tarlow, P and Skoll G “Disasters in postmodern times. The quake of Japan 2011”, International Journal of Baudrillard Studies. Volumen 11. Issue 3, Department of Sociology and Antrhopology. Bishop´s University, Montreal, Canada, 2014
  • Korstanje M. E. “Towards an Index of Fear: the role of capital in risk´s reconstruction”, International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism. Volumen 4. Issue 1, pp. 21-29, 2014
  • Korstanje M. E. “El Miedo Político bajo el prisma de Hannah Arendt.”, Revista SAAP. Volumen 8. Issue 1, pp. 99–126, Sociedad Argentina de Análisis Político. Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2014
  • Korstanje M. E. “Review Counterfeits Politics. Secret Plots and conspiracy narratives in the Americas”, The Sociological Review. Volumen 62. Issue 1, pp. 423-425,2014
  • Korstanje M. E. “The Spirit of Terrorism: tourism, unionization and terrorism”, Pasos: revista de turismo y patrimonio cultural. Volumen 13. Issue 1, pp. 239–250, 2015
  • Korstanje M. E. “Evolución Conceptual de la Literatura Turística sobre el Terrorismo: una exploración inicial”, Estudios y Perspectivas En Turismo. Volumen 24. Issue 3, pp. 683-695, 2015
  • Skoll G & Korstanje, M. “Urban Heritage, gentrification and tourism in Riverwest and el Abasto”, Journal of Heritage Tourism. Volumen 9. Issue 4, 2014
  • Korstanje, M and George B. “What does Insurance purchase behaviour say about risks?. A study in the Argentine context with special focus on Travel Insurance”, International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment. Volumen 6. Issue 3, 2015
  • Tzanelli R and Korstanje M. “Tourism in the European Economic Crisis: mediatized worldmaking and new tourist imaginaries in Greece”, Tourist Studies. Volumen 16. Issue 3, 2016
  • Korstanje, M. Babu G and Amorin E. “Chile Decime que se siente: sports, conflicts and Chronicles of Miscarried Hospitality”, Event Management. Volumen 20. Issue 3, 2016
  • Korstanje, M. Timmermann F. “Miedo, Trascendencia y Política: El Proceso de Reorganización Nacional Argentina, 1976”, Revista Historia 396. Volumen 6. Issue 1, 2016
  • Korstanje M. E. “Review: [The Great Terror]. El Gran Terror. Miedo, Emoción y Discurso. Chile 1973-1980. ”, The Sociological Review. Volumen 63. Issue 1, 2016
  • Korstanje M. E. “Terrorism led Investigation: modern tourism is terrorism by other means. ”, Terrorism and Political Hot Spots. Volumen 11. Issue 1, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2016
  • Korstanje M. E. “Drácula y el Principio de Hospitalidad. Una revisión conceptual”, Bajo Palabra: revista de Filosofía. Segunda Época. Volumen 12, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, España, 2017.
  • Korstanje M. E. “The Cultural Roots of Risks: how mobilities and risk work in underdeveloped Countries”, International Journal of Risk and Contingency Management (IJRCM). Volumen 6. Issue 1, SUNY at Plattsburgh, & IGI Global, Hershey, Pennsylvania, 2017.
  • Korstanje M. E. “La búsqueda del Paraíso Perdido: narrativas del turismo”, Pasos: revista de turismo y patrimonio cultural. Volumen 15. Issue 1, Universidad de la Laguna, España, 2017.
  • Korstanje M. E & Tzanelli, R. “Filosofía del Pasaporte, y reciprocidad en tiempos de movilidad. Una construcción alternativa a la tesis de los no-lugares”. Estudios y Perspectivas En Turismo. Volumen 26, Nùmero 2. Abril 2017. (pp 478–492).

Most important chapters in booksEdit

  • Korstanje M. E. Foreword “El Miedo político”. En El Gran Terror: Miedo, Emoción y Discurso: Chile 1973-1980. Perpectivas comparadas proceso de Reogranización Nacional, Argentina 1973-1977. Freddy Timmermann. Editorial Copygraph, Santiago, 2014
  • Korstanje M. E. Interpretando Chile ayuda a Chile: el discurso nacional en la tragedia”. Archivos de Frontera: el Gobierno de las Emociones en Argentina y Chile del Presente. Ivan Pincheira, Editor. Santiago de Chile, Editorial Escaparate, pp. 127–160, 2014.
  • Korstanje M. E. Preface “Best practices in Tourism, Risk Management, Safety and Security”. (2014) En Tourism Security, strategies for Effictively Managing Travel Risk and Safety. Peter Tarlow, New York, Elsevier. 2014
  • Korstanje, M. Herrera S & Mustelier C. L “Methodological Problems in Tourism Research: a radical critique”. Global Dynamic in Travel, Tourism & Hospitality. Edited by Bregoli Ilenia (University of Lincoln, UK), & Papas Nikolaos (University of West London, UK). IGI-Global, Pennsylvania, US, 2016
  • Schroeder, A Lori Pennington-Gray, M Korstanje & G. Skoll. “Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences: extending the travel risk perception literature to adress Affective risk perception”. Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences: issues, challenges & approaches. Chapter 19. (pp. 379–396). Editors Marios Satioriadis & Dogan Gursoy. Emerald, UK, 2016.
  • Korstanje M. E. Preface Comprendiendo el devenir del paisaje Urbano. Una Ciudad Marítima: Donostia- San Sebastían: aproximiación urbanística, antropológico-signitiva y estético-iconográfica a la configuración contemporánea de sus espacios fluviales y frente de agua. Isusko Vivas Ciarrusta y Amaia Lekerikabeaskoa Gaztaña. Cuadernos de Bellas Artes, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, 2016.
  • Skoll G & Korstanje M. “From Disaster to Religiosity: Republica de Cromañón: Buenos Aires, Argentina”. (2015). Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage Management: an international perspective. 2nd Edition. Edited Razaj Raj & Kevin Griffin. (pp. 268–278). Wallingord, UK, CABI, 2016
  • Korstanje M. E. Introduction to Tourism Security: tourism in the Age of Terror". Holistic Optimization Techniques in the Hospitality, Tourism and Travel Industry. Chapter 9. (pp. 208–226). Pandian Vasant & Kalaivanthan M. Hershey, IGI Global, 2016
  • Korstanje M. E. Risk, Terrorism and Tourism Consumption: the end of tourism". Holistic Optimization Techniques in the Hospitality, Tourism and Travel Industry. Chapter 12. (pp. 263–285) Pandian Vasant & Kalaivanthan M. Hershey, IGI Global, 2016
  • Korstanje M E & Mansfield, C. “Critical Notes on the use of Heritage in Tourism Studies”. Literature and Society: Critical Perspectives. Chapter 23. (pp. 373–395). Editor Dr. Prayer Elmo Raj. New Delhi, Authorspress, 2017.
  • Korstanje M E. Conflictive touring, the roots of Terrorism. In Violence and Society: breakthroughs in Research and Practice. Edited by Information Resources Management Association, USA. Chapter 27 (477-492) Hershey, Pennsylvania, IGI Global, 2017
  • Korstanje M. E & Seraphin H. "Revisiting the Sociology of Consumption in tourism". Chapter 2. The Routledge Handbook of Consumer Behaviours in Hospitality and Tourism. Abingdon, Routledge. 2017
  • Korstanje M. E. A paradoxical World: the role of Technology in Thana Capitalism” Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, 4 th ed. Editor. Mehdi Khosrow-Pour. Chapter 413. IGI Global, Hershey, Pennsylvania US, 2017
  • Timmermann F & Korstanje M. Constructing the internal enemy: terrorism and violence in Latin America during 70s decade. In International Journal of Terrorism and Political hot spots. Volumen 11, issue 3-4, New York, Nova Science Publishers, 2017.
  • Korstanje M. E. “The industry of Cruises: neglecting hospitality”. In Cruise Tourism: a multidisplinary and systemic approach. Claudia Soares, Ericka Amorin, Fabia Trentin, Leira, Portugal Textiverso, pp 119–142, 2017
  • Korstanje M. E. “The Roots of Evilness and Biblical Literature: the revolt of Lucifer”. In Ideological Messaging and the role of Political Literature. Chapter 5. Onder Cakirtas. Hershey, IGI Global. 2017.
  • Korstanje M. E. The Allegory of Hollocaust: The Rise of Thana Capitalism”. In Ideological Messaging and the role of Political Literature. Chapter 10. Onder Cakirtas. Hershey, IGI Global. 2017.
  • Korstanje M. Baker D. "Politics of Dark Tourism: the case of Cromañón and ESMA, Buenos Aires, Argentina". Peter Stone (eds). Chapter 22. Palgrave Handbook of Dark Tourism Studies. Basingstoke, Palgrave-Macmillan, 2017
  • Handayani, B. Ivanov, S. & Korstanje M. “Smart tourism for dark sites, the sacred sites of the deads” Chapter 2. Towards a new Horizons of Dark Tourism. In Korstanje M. & Handayani, B Gazing at Death: dark tourism as an emergent horizon of Research. (Korstanje M. & Handayani, B). New York, Nova Science Publishers, 2017.
  • Korstanje ME. England and the Culture of Achievement: the roots of dark Tourism. In Korstanje M. & Handayani, B Gazing at Death: dark tourism as an emergent horizon of Research. (Korstanje M. & Handayani, B). New York, Nova Science Publishers, 2017
  • Echarri Chavez, M. Mustelier-Cisneros L, & Korstanje M. “CUBA and its roots to Christianity: an study case for understanding religious tourism”.Chapter 9. Conflicts, Religion and Culture in Tourism. Razaq Raj & Griffin K. Wallingford, CABI, UK, 2017
  • Korstanje M E, Echarri-Chavez M & Mustellier-Cisneros, L. “Imagining the Contours of Culture: is religious tourism a precondition to conflict?. ”. Chapter 4.Conflicts, Religion and Culture in Tourism. Razaq Raj & Griffin K. Wallingford, CABI, UK, 2017

Most important booksEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  51. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2015). Etnografía del aeropuerto: movilidad, turismo y estado de naturaleza. Aposta: Revista de ciencias sociales, (65), 4-32.
  52. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2014). The conflicts in non places, the artisans of Florida street. International Journal of Safety and Security in Tourism/Hospitality, 1(9), 1-16.
  53. ^ Korstanje M (2016) The Rise of Thana Capitalism and Tourism, Abingdon Routledge
  54. ^ Korstanje M & Handayani B (2016) Gazing at death, Dark Tourism as an emergent horizon of research. New York, Nova
  55. ^ Korstanje M (2016) the Rise of Thana Capitalism and Tourism. Routledge, Abingdon, England
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  58. ^ Korstanje M E (2015) A Difficult World: examining the roots of Capitalism. New York, Nova Science.
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  63. ^ Korstanje M E (2016) Terrorism in a global Village: how terrorism affects our daily lives?. New York, Nova Science.
  64. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2016). The Rise of Thana-Capitalism and Tourism. Routledge.
  65. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2006). Identidad y Cultura: un aporte para comprender la Conquista de América. Iberia: Revista de la Antigüedad, (9), 191-212.
  66. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2010). El arquetipo latino en la construcción española del viaje durante la conquista de América. Nómadas. Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas, 27(3), 141-172.
  67. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2011). LA MATRIZ DE ALTERIDAD: la mito-poiesis como forma de construcción identitaria. Revista de Antropología Experimental, (11), 261-280.
  68. ^ Korstanje M E (2017) La búsqueda del Paraiso Perdido: narrativas del turismo. Pasos: revista de turismo y patrimonio cultural. Volume 15 Issue 1 April 2017 (pp. 477-486).
  69. ^ Korstanje, M., & Busby, G. (2010). Understanding the Bible as the roots of physical displacement: the origin of tourism. E-Review of Tourism Research, 8(3), 95-111.
  70. ^ Thirkettle, A., & Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Creating a new epistemology for tourism and hospitality disciplines. International Journal of Qualitative Research in Services, 1(1), 13-34.
  71. ^ Korstanje, M. (2010). La Isla y El Viaje Turístico–Una Interpretación del Filme de Michael Bay, Desde El Psicoanálisis y El Pensamiento Filosófico Moderno y Contemporáneo (The Island and the Journey Tour–An Interpretation of Film Michael Bay, from Psychoanalysis and Philosophical Thought Modern and Contemporary)(in Spanish). Anuario Turismo y Sociedad, 11, 155-174.
  72. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2016). Discutiendo la metafora del paraiso perdido. RITUR-Revista Iberoamericana de Turismo, 6(1), 203-211.
  73. ^ Korstanje, M. E., Tzanelli, R., & Clayton, A. (2014). Brazilian World cup 2014: Terrorism, tourism, and social conflict. Event Management, 18(4), 487-491.
  74. ^ Cantallops, A. S., & Cardona, J. R. (2015). Holiday destinations: The myth of the lost paradise?. Annals of Tourism Research, 55, 171-173.
  75. ^ Korstanje Exploring the Connection between Anthropology and Tourism: Patrimony and Heritage Tourism in perspective. Event Management Journal. Volume 14, Issue 2. Octubre de 2010. (pp. 251-256)
  76. ^ Korstanje M E (2016) Reconsidering Cultural Tourism: an Anthropologist’s Perspective. Journal of Heritage Tourism. Volume 7, Issue 2. May 2012 (pp. 179-184)
  77. ^ Skoll, G & Korstanje, M. “Urban Heritage, gentrification and tourism in Riverwest and el Abasto”. Journal of Heritage Tourism. Volume 9, Issue 4. December 2014. (pp. 349-359)
  78. ^ Korstanje M E & Mansfield, C. “Critical Notes on the use of Heritage in Tourism Studies”. Literature and Society: Critical Perspectives. Chapter 23. (pp. 373-395). Editor Dr. Prayer Elmo Raj. 2017. New Dehli, Authorspress.
  79. ^ Korstanje M, Echarri Chavez, M, Cisneros Mustelier, L & George B (2016) "Creative tourism: paradoxes and promises in the struggle to find creatity in tourism". JOT, Journal of Tourism, 8 (2): 41-52
  80. ^ Scott, N., & Jafari, J. (Eds.). (2010). Tourism in the Muslim world. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  81. ^ Jafari, J. (1989). Tourism and peace. Annals of Tourism Research, 16(3), 439-443.
  82. ^ Henderson, J. C. (2003). Managing tourism and Islam in peninsular Malaysia. Tourism Management, 24(4), 447-456.
  83. ^ Vukonić, B. (2010). Chapter 3 Do we always understand each other?. In Tourism in the Muslim world (pp. 31-45). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  84. ^ Echarri Chavez, M. Mustelier-Cisneros L, & Korstanje M. “CUBA and its roots to Christianity: an study case for understanding religious tourism”.Chapter 9. Conflicts, Religion and Culture in Tourism. Razaq Raj & Griffin K. Wallingford, CABI, UK, 2017
  85. ^ Korstanje, M., & Busby, G. (2010). “Understanding the Bible as the roots of physical displacement: the origin of tourism”. E-Review of Tourism Research, 8(3), 95-111.
  86. ^ Korstanje M E, Echarri-Chavez M & Mustellier-Cisneros, L. “Imagining the Contours of Culture: is religious tourism a precondition to conflict?. ”. Chapter 4.Conflicts, Religion and Culture in Tourism. Razaq Raj & Griffin K. Wallingford, CABI, UK, 2017
  87. ^ MacCannell, D. (1976). The tourist: A new theory of the leisure class. Univ of California Press.
  88. ^ Bruner, E. M. (1994). Abraham Lincoln as authentic reproduction: A critique of postmodernism. American Anthropologist, 96(2), 397-415.
  89. ^ Urry, J. (2002). The tourist gaze. Sage.
  90. ^ Cresswell, T. (2006). On the move: Mobility in the modern western world. Taylor & Francis.
  91. ^ Dann, G. M. (1981). Tourist motivation an appraisal. Annals of tourism research, 8(2), 187-219.
  92. ^ Rojek, C. (1997). Touring cultures: Transformations of travel and theory. Psychology Press.
  93. ^ Culler, J. (1981). Semiotics of tourism. The American Journal of Semiotics, 1(1/2), 127-140.
  94. ^ Appadurai, A. (1988). The social life of things: Commodities in cultural perspective. Cambridge University Press.
  95. ^ Edensor, T. (2008). Tourists at the Taj: Performance and meaning at a symbolic site. Routledge.
  96. ^ Richards, G. (1996). Production and consumption of European cultural tourism. Annals of tourism research, 23(2), 261-283.
  97. ^ Decrop, A. (1999). Triangulation in qualitative tourism research. Tourism management, 20(1), 157-161.
  98. ^ Hall, C. M., Sharples, L., Cambourne, B., & Macionis, N. (2009). Wine tourism around the world. Routledge.
  99. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2009). MacCannell em perspectiva: análise crítica sobre a obra El turista. Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa em Turismo, 3(3).
  100. ^ Korstanje M. (2015). A portrait of Jost Krippendorf. Anatolia, 26(1), 158-164.
  101. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2016). The portrait of Dean MacCannell–towards an understanding of capitalism. Anatolia, 27(2), 298-304.
  102. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Deconstruyendo la personalidad kirchnerista. BIBLIOTEQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE.
  103. ^ Korstanje, M., George, B. P., & Amorin, E. (2016). Chile Decime Que Se Siente: Sports, Conflicts, and Chronicles of Miscarried Hospitality. Event Management, 20(3), 457-462.
  104. ^ Korstanje, M. E., & George, B. P. (2012). Falklands/Malvinas: a re-examination of the relationship between sacralization and tourism development. Current Issues in Tourism, 15(3), 153-165.
  105. ^ Korstanje M E (2015) A Difficult World, examining the roots of Capitalism, New York, Nova Science.
  106. ^ Korstanje, M. "Examining the Norse Mythology and the Archetype of Odin: The inception of Grand-Tour." Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal. Volume 60, Issue 4. December 2012 (pp. 369-384).
  107. ^ Korstanje M. E & Tzanelli, R. “Filosofía del Pasaporte, y reciprocidad en tiempos de movilidad. Una construcción alternativa a la tesis de los no-lugares”. Estudios y Perspectivas En Turismo. Volume 26, Nùmero 2. Abril 2017. (pp 478-492).
  108. ^ Korstanje M. E (2015) A difficult World, examining the roots of Capitalism, New York, Nova Science
  109. ^ Korstanje, M. (2006). El Viaje: una crítica al concepto de no lugares en Marc Augé. Athenea Digital, 9, 211-238.
  110. ^ Korstanje M. E 2015. Philosophical Problems in the theory of non-places, Marc Augé. International Journal of Qualitative Research in Services. Volume 2, Issue 2. December 2015 (pp. 85-98) Disponible en http://www.inderscience.com/jhome.php?jcode=ijqrs. Inderscience Publishing, Reino Unido. ISSN 2051-0519
  111. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2015). Etnografía del aeropuerto: movilidad, turismo y estado de naturaleza. Aposta: Revista de ciencias sociales, (65), 4-32.
  112. ^ Korstanje M. E & Tzanelli, R. “Filosofía del Pasaporte, y reciprocidad en tiempos de movilidad. Una construcción alternativa a la tesis de los no-lugares”. Estudios y Perspectivas En Turismo. Volume 26, Nùmero 2. Abril 2017. (pp 478-492).
  113. ^ Korstanje, M. (2011). La Isla y El Viaje Turístico–Una Interpretación del Filme de Michael Bay, Desde El Psicoanálisis y El Pensamiento Filosófico Moderno y Contemporáneo (The Island and the Journey Tour–An Interpretation of Film Michael Bay, from Psychoanalysis and Philosophical Thought Modern and Contemporary)(in Spanish).
  114. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2011). Deconstruyendo el sentido de Lost: tragedia, viaje y turismo. IJSSTH, 1(1), 16-23.
  115. ^ Korstanje M (2018) The Mobilities Paradox: A Critical Analysis. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar
  116. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Empire and Democracy. A critical reading of Michael Ignatieff. Nómadas, 38(2), 1-10.
  117. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2012). Ley y democracia en la era del terrorismo. Nómadas, 35(3), 1
  118. ^ Pinker, S. (2011). The better angels of our nature: The decline of violence in history and its causes. Penguin UK.
  119. ^ Korstanje M (2017) Terrorism, tourism and the end of hospitality in the west, New York, Palgrave-Macmillan
  120. ^ Korstanje M (2016) The rise of thana capitalism and tourism, Abingdon, Routledge.
  121. ^ Korstanje M E 2016 "Review A Review of Steven Pinker: The Better Angels of our Nature: Why Violence has Declined (New York, Penguin, 2011).". Int Journal of Baudrillard Studies, N. 13 (1)
  122. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Preemption and terrorism. When the future governs. Cultura, 10(1), 167-184.
  123. ^ Skoll, G. R., & Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Constructing an American fear culture from red scares to terrorism. International Journal of Human Rights and Constitutional Studies, 1(4), 341-364.
  124. ^ Korstanje, M. (2010). Commentaries on our new ways of perceiving disasters. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 1(2), 241-248.
  125. ^ Korstanje, M. (2014). Chile helps Chile: exploring the effects of earthquake Chile 2010. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 5(4), 380-390.
  126. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2017). The Allegory of Holocaust: The Rise of Thana Capitalism. In Ideological Messaging and the Role of Political Literature (pp. 177-199). IGI Global.
  127. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Preemption and terrorism. When the future governs. Cultura, 10(1), 167-184.
  128. ^ Korstanje, M. E., & Clayton, A. (2012). Tourism and terrorism: conflicts and commonalities. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 4(1), 8-25.
  129. ^ Skoll, G. R., & Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Constructing an American fear culture from red scares to terrorism. International Journal of Human Rights and Constitutional Studies, 1(4), 341-364.
  130. ^ Korstanje, M. E., Tzanelli, R., & Clayton, A. (2014). Brazilian World cup 2014: Terrorism, tourism, and social conflict. Event Management, 18(4), 487-491.
  131. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2016). The Roots of Terror: The Lesser Evil Doctrine. Threat Mitigation and Detection of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism Activities, 254.
  132. ^ Korstanje M (2015) A Difficult World, examining the roots of Capitalism, New York, Nova Science Pubs.
  133. ^ Korstanje M E (2017) "Introduction to Tourism Security: tourism in the Age of Terror". Holistic Optimization Techniques in the Hospitality, Tourism and Travel Industry. Chapter 9. (pp. 208-226). Pandian Vasant & Kalaivanthan M. Hershey, IGI Global
  134. ^ Tzanelli, R., & Korstanje, M. E. (2016). Tourism in the European economic crisis: Mediatised worldmaking and new tourist imaginaries in Greece. Tourist Studies, 16(3), 296-314.
  135. ^ Korstanje, M. E., Tzanelli, R., & Clayton, A. (2014). Brazilian World cup 2014: Terrorism, tourism, and social conflict. Event Management, 18(4), 487-491.
  136. ^ Korstanje M (2017) Terrorism, tourism and the end of hospitality in the West. New York, Palgrave Macmillan.
  137. ^ Korstanje M (2016) Ed. Terrorism in the Global Village, how terrorism affects our daily lives?. New York, Nova Science Pubs.
  138. ^ Korstanje M E (2017) "Risk, Terrorism and Tourism Consumption: the end of tourism". Holistic Optimization Techniques in the Hospitality, Tourism and Travel Industry. Chapter 12. (pp. 263-285) Pandian Vasant & Kalaivanthan M. eds. Hershey, IGI Global
  139. ^ Skoll, G. R., & Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Constructing an American fear culture from red scares to terrorism. International Journal of Human Rights and Constitutional Studies, 1(4), 341-364.
  140. ^ Skoll, G. (2010). Social Theory of Fear. Palgrave Macmillan.
  141. ^ Skoll, G. R. (2016). Globalization of American Fear Culture: the empire in the Twenty-First Century. Springer.
  142. ^ Skoll, G. R., & Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Constructing an American fear culture from red scares to terrorism. International Journal of Human Rights and Constitutional Studies, 1(4), 341-364.
  143. ^ Maximiliano, E. (2014). Guest Editorial: Americans Post 9/11: From Pride to Terror. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 2(1), 3.
  144. ^ Korstanje, M. E., & Skoll, G. (2015). Estados Unidos y el principio de extraordinariedad. Cuadernos de historia (Santiago), (43), 133-156.
  145. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2010). Ironman. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology, 7(2), 188-203.
  146. ^ Agamben, G. (1999). Remnants of Auschwitz: The witness and the archive. Zone Books.
  147. ^ Lasch, C. (1991). The culture of narcissism: American life in an age of diminishing expectations. WW Norton & Company.
  148. ^ Korstanje M (2017) The rise of Thana Capitalism and Tourism, Abingdon, Routledge.
  149. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2017). The Allegory of Holocaust: The Rise of Thana Capitalism. In Ideological Messaging and the Role of Political Literature (pp. 177-199). IGI Global.
  150. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2016). Tergiversation of Human Rights, Deciphering the Core of Kirchnerismo. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research, 2, 60–67.
  151. ^ Korstanje, M. (2014). Duda y realidad: El uso político de los Derechos Humanos. Revista Mad, (31), 73-92.
  152. ^ Malinowski, B., & Redfield, R. (1948). Magic, science and religion and other essays (Vol. 23). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
  153. ^ Korstanje, M. (2007). Formas urbanas de religiosidad Popular. El caso Cromañón en Buenos Aires. Revista Mad, (16), 79-92.
  154. ^ Korstanje, M. (2013). Crisis institucional y ciudadanía en Argentina. Reseña de Colonizar el Dolor: la interpelación ideológica del Banco Mundial en América Latina: el caso argentino desde Blumberg a Cromañón de Susana Murillo (Buenos Aires: CLACSO, 2008). A Contracorriente, 11(1), 366-374.
  155. ^ Korstanje, M. E., Skoll, G., Raj, R., & Griffin, K. (2015). From disaster to religiosity: República de Cromañón, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Religious tourism and pilgrimage management: an international perspective, (Ed. 2), 267-278.
  156. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2012). Reseña: Callejeros en Primera Persona. Revista Electrónica de Psicología Política, 10(29).
  157. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2011). Detaching the elementary forms of dark tourism. Anatolia, 22(3), 424-427.
  158. ^ KORSTANJE, M. E. Que se vayan todos que no quede ni uno solo. ENCRUCIJADAS. Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales., 150.
  159. ^ Korstanje, M. (2014). Chile helps Chile: exploring the effects of earthquake Chile 2010. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 5(4), 380-390.
  160. ^ Korstanje, M. (2010). Commentaries on our new ways of perceiving disasters. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 1(2), 241-248.
  161. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2014). Why Risk-Research is More Prominent in English Speaking Countries in the Digital Society. International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism (IJCWT), 4(1), 8-18.
  162. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Coulter, Gerry: Jean Baudrillard: from the Ocean to the desert or the Poetics of Radicality, New Smyrna Beach, Florida, Intertheory Press, 2012, 190 pp. Historia Actual Online, (31), 209-211.
  163. ^ Korstanje, M. (2011). El enemigo en casa: Una lectura de Paul Virilio, Norbert Elías y Corey Robin. HYBRIS, Revista de Filosofía, 3(1), 39-51.
  164. ^ Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity (Vol. 17). Sage.
  165. ^ Korstanje M. E. (2017) The Allegory of Hollocaust: The Rise of Thana Capitalism”. In Ideological Messaging and the role of Political Literature. Chapter 10. Onder Cakirtas. Hershey, IGI Global.
  166. ^ Korstanje M & George B. (2017) “Death and Culture: is Thanatourism symptomatic of the end of Capitalism?”. In Virtual Traumascape and exploring the roots of Dark Tourism. Korstanje M & George B. (eds) Hershey, IGI Global. 2017
  167. ^ Korstanje M (2016) Threat Mitigation and Detection of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism Activities. Hershey, IGI Global
  168. ^ Korstanje M (2016) "English Speaking Countries and the cultures of Fear". Threat Mitigation and Detection of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism Activities. IGI Global, Hershey.
  169. ^ Korstanje M (2016) The Roots of Terror and Lesser Evil. Threat Mitigation and Detection of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism Activities. Hershey, IGI Global
  170. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Empire and Democracy. A critical reading of Michael Ignatieff. Nómadas, 38(2), 1.
  171. ^ Saha, S., & Yap, G. (2013). The moderation effects of political instability and terrorism on tourism development: a cross-country panel analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 0047287513496472.
  172. ^ Morakabati, Y., Fletcher, J., & Prideaux, B. (2012). Tourism development in a difficult environment: a study of consumer attitudes travel risk perceptions and the termination of demand. Tourism Economics, 18(5), 953–969.
  173. ^ Blazquez-Resino, J. J., Molina, A., & Esteban-Talaya, A. (2015). Service-Dominant Logic in tourism: the way to loyalty. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(8), 706-724.
  174. ^ Raine, R. (2013). A dark tourist spectrum. International Journal of Culture, tourism and hospitality Research, 7(3), 242-256.
  175. ^ Blazquez-Resino, J. J., Molina, A., & Esteban-Talaya, A. (2015). Service-Dominant Logic in tourism: the way to loyalty. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(8), 706-724.
  176. ^ Yan, B. J., Zhang, J., Zhang, H. L., Lu, S. J., & Guo, Y. R. (2016). Investigating the motivation–experience relationship in a dark tourism space: A case study of the Beichuan earthquake relics, China. Tourism Management, 53, 108-121.
  177. ^ Bassil, C. (2014). The effect of terrorism on tourism demand in the Middle East. Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, 20(4), 669-684.
  178. ^ Tzanelli, R. (2016). Thanatourism and Cinematic Representations of Risk: Screening the End of Tourism (Vol. 176). Routledge.
  179. ^ Buultjens, J. W., Ratnayake, I., & Gnanapala, W. A. C. (2016). Post-Conflict tourism development in Sri Lanka: implications for building resilience. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(4), 355-372.
  180. ^ Haq, F., & Medhekar, A. (2015). Spiritual Tourism between India and Pakistan: A Framework for Business Opportunities and Threats. World, 5(2).
  181. ^ Hristov, D., & Petrova, P. (2013). Public sector alliances in marketing urban heritage tourism: A post-communist perspective. Tourismos, 8(3), 59-76.
  182. ^ Bac, D. P., Bugnar, N. G., & Mester, L. E. (2015). Terrorism and its Impacts on the Tourism Industry. Revista Romana de Geografie Politica, 17(1), 5-11.
  183. ^ Adam, I., & Adongo, C. A. (2016). Do backpackers suffer crime? An empirical investigation of crime perpetrated against backpackers in Ghana. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 27, 60-67.
  184. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2015). The spirit of Terrorism: Tourism, Unionization and Terrorism. Pasos: revista de turismo y patrimonio cultural, 13(1).
  185. ^ Saha, S., & Yap, G. (2013). The moderation effects of political instability and terrorism on tourism development: a cross-country panel analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 0047287513496472.
  186. ^ Bauzon K (2016) Review: A difficult World. Journal of International and Global Studies Volume 8, Number 1 : 123-126
  187. ^ Pelaez M (2013) Revista europea de Historia de las ideas políticas y de las instituciones públicas. Revista de estudios histórico-jurídicos versión impresa ISSN 0716-5455 Rev. estud. hist.-juríd. no.35 Valparaíso nov. 2013
  188. ^ de Escalona, F. M. (2010). Epistemología del turismo. Un estudio múltiple. Turismo y Desarrollo Local, (7).
  189. ^ Korstanje, M., & Muñoz de Escalona, F. (2011). ¿ Ciencia del turismo o cínico pasatiempo académico?: Crítica a la idea de patrimonio y desarrollo. TURyDES, Revista de investigación en turismo y desarrollo local, 4(9).
  190. ^ Gnoth, J., & Matteucci, X. (2014). A phenomenological view of the behavioural tourism research literature. International journal of culture, tourism and hospitality research, 8(1), 3-21.
  191. ^ Verma, S., & Jain, R. (2013). Exploiting Tragedy for Tourism. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(8), 9-13.
  192. ^ Tzanelli, R. (2015). Mobility, Modernity and the Slum: The Real and Virtual Journeys of 'Slumdog Millionaire' (Vol. 155). Routledge.
  193. ^ Gaye, S. O., & Adetunde, I. (2016). An Alluring Paradise for Tourism: Cape Palmas a reference point in Liberia. American Journal of Research Communication, 4(10), 76–90.
  194. ^ Cohen, E. H. (2011). Educational dark tourism at an in populo site: The Holocaust Museum in Jerusalem. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(1), 193–209.
  195. ^ Stone, P. R. (2012). Dark tourism and significant other death: Towards a model of mortality mediation. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(3), 1565–1587.
  196. ^ Kidron, C. A. (2013). Being there together: Dark family tourism and the emotive experience of co-presence in the holocaust past. Annals of Tourism Research, 41, 175–194.
  197. ^ Korstanje M & George, B (2017). “Concluding Chapter: dark tourism and society”. In Virtual Traumascape and exploring the roots of Dark Tourism. Korstanje M & George B. (eds) Hershey, IGI Global. 2017
  198. ^ Korstanje M (2017). Towards a new Horizons of Dark Tourism. In Korstanje M. & Handayani, B Gazing at Death: dark tourism as an emergent horizon of Research. Chapter 1 (Korstanje M. & Handayani, B). New York, Nova Science Publishers, 2017
  199. ^ Korstanje M & George B. Virtual Traumascape and exploring the roots of Dark Tourism. Hershey, IGI Global. 2017
  200. ^ Korstanje M & Cisneros Mustelier, L. “Banalizing the Alterity, when suffering turns attractive”. In Virtual Traumascape and exploring the roots of Dark Tourism. Korstanje M & George B. (eds) Hershey, IGI Global. 2017
  201. ^ Korstanje (2017) Research Methods in Dark Tourism Fields”. Virtual Traumascape and exploring the roots of Dark Tourism. Korstanje M & George B. (eds) Hershey, IGI Global.
  202. ^ Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. (2012). Why nations fail: The origins of power, prosperity, and poverty. Crown Business.
  203. ^ Korstanje M. (2015) Exploring the contradictions of Why Nations fail?, the dark side of capitalism". CERS Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies. University of Leeds UK. Working Paper 29.
  204. ^ Derrida, J. (2000). "Hospitality". Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities,5(3), 3-18
  205. ^ Kristeva, J. (1991). Extranjeros para nosotros mismos, trad. de X. Gispert, Barcelona, Plaza & Janes Editores (Hombre y Sociedad).
  206. ^ Pagden, A. (1995). Lords of All the World: Ideologies of Empire in Britain, France, and Spain, 1400–1800. New Haven.
  207. ^ Korstanje, M. E., & Olsen, D. H. (2011). The discourse of risk in horror movies post 9/11: hospitality and hostility in perspective. International Journal of Tourism Anthropology, 1(3-4), 304-317.
  208. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2011). The fear of traveling: a new perspective for tourism and hospitality. Anatolia, 22(2), 222-233
  209. ^ Korstanje, M. E., & Tarlow, P. (2012). Being lost: tourism, risk and vulnerability in the post-‘9/11’entertainment industry. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 10(1), 22-33.
  210. ^ Korstanje M (2016) Terrorism in a global village, how terrorism affects our daily lives?, New York, Nova Science Pubs.
  211. ^ Korstanje, M. E., & Olsen, D. H. (2011). The discourse of risk in horror movies post 9/11: hospitality and hostility in perspective. International Journal of Tourism Anthropology, 1(3-4), 304-317.
  212. ^ Korstanje M (2017) Terrorism, Tourism, and the End of Hospitality in the West. New York, Palgrave Macmillan
  213. ^ Korstanje, M. E. The Rebellion in Heaven The beginning. Cultural Anthropology, 65, 78.
  214. ^ Korstanje, M. E. RELEYENDO EL TÍTERE Y EL ENANO: EL ORIGEN DEL CRISTIANISMO. Aposta Digital: revista de ciencias sociales. Enero, Febrero y Marzo 2017, 166.
  215. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2011). Sobre la Violencia. Seis reflexiones marginales (En respuesta a S. Zizek). Nómadas. Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas, 30(2), 367-381.
  216. ^ Korstanje, M. E. (2013). Hansel & Gretel, Cazadores de brujas. Nómadas. Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas, 37(1), 307-312.
  217. ^ Korstanje M (2016) The rise of Thana Capitalism and Tourism. Abingdon, Routledge
  218. ^ Korstanje M. E. (2017) “The Roots of Evilness and Biblical Literature: the revolt of Lucifer”. In Ideological Messaging and the role of Political Literature. Chapter 5. Onder Cakirtas. Hershey, IGI Global.

External linksEdit

Some Articles by Maximiliano Korstanje or where he is cited

  • [1], Diario Popular, November 21, 2012., Especialistas debatirán en torno al azote del Diablo.
  • [2], ID Investigation Discovery, Octubre, 2013., La Psicologìa del Terrorismo.
  • [3], La Nacion, September 21, 2014. Raquel San Martin. Maximiliano Korstanje, la movilidad y el terror global.
  • [4], Areco Noticias, December 6, 2014. Caso Pomar. A Cinco Años de la Tragedia.
  • [5], TeleSur, October 11, 2015. Blog de German Gorraiz Lopez. Israel y la banalidad del mal.
  • [6], Condé Nast Traveller, October 14, 2015. Marta Sader. ¿POR QUÉ NOS ATRAE EL TURISMO NEGRO?.
  • [7], Condé Nast Traveller, October 30, 2015. Marta Sader. FOTOGRAFIARSE DESNUDO, LA NUEVA TENDENCIA VIAJERA.
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