"Mawṭinī" (Arabic: موطني, lit.'My Homeland') is the national anthem of Iraq, being adopted as such in 2004.

Mawṭinī
English: My Homeland
موطني

Former national anthem of  Palestine
National anthem of  Iraq
LyricsʾIbrāhīm Ṭūqān, 1934
MusicMuḥammid Flayfil, 1934
Adopted1936 (by Palestine)
2004 (by Iraq)
Preceded by"Mawtini" (Iraq)
Audio sample
U.S. Navy Band instrumental version (two verses)

The song formerly served as an unofficial anthem of Palestine from the late 1930s Palestinian Arab revolt to 1996, when the country formally adopted an official national anthem.[1][2] Though it has since been superseded by an official national anthem there, many Palestinians still identify strongly with it and consider it a sort of unofficial second national anthem of their country, It is considered one of the Arab national anthems.

HistoryEdit

U.S. military band performing "Mawtini" in 2009

It is a popular poem written by the Palestinian poet ʾIbrāhīm Ṭūqān c. 1934 and composed by the Lebanese composer Muḥammid Flayfil. It served as Palestine's de facto national anthem from its inception to 1996 when it was officially replaced by "Fidā'ī". However, many Palestinians still identify with it along with "Fida'i" and consider the former a sort of unofficial second national anthem of their country.[3]

In 2004, it was re-adopted as a national anthem, this time by Iraq, on the order of Coalition Provisional Authority chief Paul Bremer[4] as the national anthem of Iraq. It replaced "Mawṭinī" (of no relation to the current national anthem), which in turn replaced the old national anthem "Arḍulfurātayni", which had been in use since 1981 and was thus associated with Saddam Hussein's Ba'athist regime.[5]

BackgroundEdit

During the late 1950s and early 1960s, after it became a republic, Iraq used a national anthem also called "Mawṭinī", composed by Lewis Zanbaka.[6] Though it shares the same name as the current Iraqi national anthem, it is a different song altogether.[6] Unlike the current Iraqi national anthem, this version is instrumental and has no lyrics.[7][6]

After Iraq's Ba'athist regime was deposed in 2003, the old "Mawṭinī" formerly used as the Iraqi national anthem during the late 1950s and early 1960s was brought back and used temporarily as an interim national anthem[6] until it was replaced by the current "Mawṭinī" in 2004.

LyricsEdit

Arabic original[8][9] Transliteration IPA transcription[a] English translation[10][11]

كورال:
مَوطِنِي مَوطِنِي
الجلالُ والجمالُ والسَّنَاءُ والبَهَاءُ
في رُبَاكْ في رُبَاكْ
والحياةُ والنجاةُ والهناءُ والرجاءُ
في هواكْ في هواكْ
هلْ أراكْ هلْ أراكْ
𝄇 سالِماً مُنَعَّماً و غانما مكرما 𝄆
هلْ أراكْ في عُلاكْ
تبلُغُ السِّمَاكْ تبلغُ السِّمَاكْ
مَوطِنِي مَوطِنِي

٢
مَوطِنِي مَوطِنِي
الشبابُ لنْ يكِلَّ هَمُّهُ أنْ يستقلَّ[b]
أو يَبيدْ أو يَبيدْ
نَستقي منَ الرَّدَى ولنْ نكونَ للعِدَى
كالعَبيدْ كالعَبيدْ
لا نُريدْ لا نُريدْ
𝄇 ذُلَّنَا المُؤَبَّدا وعَيشَنَا المُنَكَّدا 𝄆[c]
لا نُريدْ بلْ نُعيدْ
مَجدَنا التّليدْ مَجدَنا التّليدْ
مَوطِنِي مَوطِنِي

٣
مَوطِنِي مَوطِنِي
الحُسَامُ و اليَرَاعُ لا الكلامُ والنزاعُ
رَمْزُنا رَمْزُنا
مَجدُنا و عهدُنا وواجبٌ منَ الوَفاء
يهُزُّنا يهُزُّنا
عِزُّنا عِزُّنا
𝄇 غايةٌ تُشَرِّفُ و رايةٌ ترَفرِفُ 𝄆
يا هَنَاكْ في عُلاكْ
قاهِراً عِداكْ قاهِراً عِداكْ
مَوطِنِي مَوطِنِي

I
Mawṭinī mawṭinī
al-Jalālu wa-l-jamālu wa-s-sanāʾu wa-l-bahāʾu
Fī rubāk fī rubāk
Wa-l-ḥayātu wa-n-najātu wal-hanāʾu wa-r-rajāʾu
Fī hawāk fī hawāk
Hal ʾarāk hal ʾarāk
𝄆 Sāliman munaʿʿaman wa-ġāniman mukarraman 𝄇
Hal ʾarāk fī ʿulāk
Tabluġu s-simāk tabluġu s-simāk
Mawṭinī mawṭinī

II
Mawṭinī mawṭinī
Aš-šabābu lan yakilla hammuhu ʾan yastaqilla[b]
ʾAw yabīd, ʾaw yabīd
Nastaqī mina r-radā wa-lan nakūna li-l-ʿidāʾ
Kā-l-ʿabīd, kā-l-ʿabīd
Lā nurīd lā nurīd
𝄆 Ḏullanā l-muʾabbada wa ʿayšanā l-munakkadā 𝄇
Lā nurīd bal nuʿīd
Majdanā t-talīd majdanā t-talīd
Mawṭinī mawṭinī

III
Mawṭinī mawṭinī
Al-ḥusāmu wa-l-yarāʿu lā l-kalāmu wa-n-nizāʿu
Ramzunā ramzunā
Majdunā wa ʿahdunā wa-wājibun mina l-wafāʾ
Yahuzzunā yahuzzunā
ʿIzzunā ʿizzunā
𝄆 Ġāyatun tušarrifu wa rāyatun turafrifu 𝄇
Yā hanāk fī ʿulāk
Qāhiran ʿidāk qāhirān ʿidāk
Mawṭinī mawṭinī

1
[mɑw.tˤɪ.niː mɑw.tˤɪ.niː]
[æl.d͡ʒæ.læː.lʊ wæ‿l.d͡ʒæ.mæː.lʊ wæ‿s.sæ.næː.ʔʊ wæ‿l.bæ.hæː.ʔʊ]
[fɪː rʊ.bæːk fɪː rʊ.bæːk]
[wæ‿l.ħɑ.jæː.tʊ wæ‿n.næ.d͡ʒæː.tʊ wæ‿l.hæ.næː.ʔʊ wɑ‿r.rɑ.d͡ʒæː.ʔʊ]
[fiː hæ.wæːk fiː hæ.wæːk]
[hæl ʔɑ.rɑːk hæl ʔɑ.rɑːk]
𝄆 [sæː.li.mæn mʊ.nɑʕ.ʕɑ.mæn wɑ ɣæː.ni.mæn mʊ.kɑr.rɑ.mæn] 𝄇
[hæl ʔɑ.rɑːk fiː ʕʊ.læːk]
[tæb.lʊ.ɣu‿s.si.mæːk tæb.lʊ.ɣu‿s.si.mæːk]
[mɑw.tˤɪ.niː mɑw.tˤɪ.niː]

2
[mɑw.tˤɪ.niː mɑw.tˤɪ.niː]
[æʃ.ʃæ.bæː.bʊ læn jæ.kɪl.læ hæm.mʊ.hu ʔæn jæs.tɑ.qɪl.læ][b]
[ʔɑw jæ.biːd ʔɑw jæ.biːd]
[næs.tɑ.qɪː mi.næ‿r.rɑ.dæː wɑ læn næ.kuː.næ lɪ‿l.ʕɪ.dæːʔ]
[kæː‿l.ʕɑ.biːd kæː‿l.ʕɑ.biːd]
[læː nʊ.riːd læː nʊ.riːd]
𝄆 [ðʊl.læ.næː‿l.mu.ʔæb.bæ.dæ wɑ ʕɑj.ʃæ.næː‿l.mʊ.næk.kæ.dæː] 𝄇
[læː nʊ.riːd bæːl nʊ.ʕiːd]
[mæd͡ʒ.dæ.næː‿t.tæ.liːd mæd͡ʒ.dæ.næː‿t.tæ.liːd]
[mɑw.tˤɪ.niː mɑw.tˤɪ.niː]

3
[mɑw.tˤɪ.niː mɑw.tˤɪ.niː]
[æl.ħʊ.sæː.mʊ wæ‿l.jɑ.rɑː.ʕʊ læː‿l.kæ.læː.mʊ wæ‿n.ni.zɑː.ʕʊ]
[rɑm.zʊ.næː rɑm.zʊ.næː]
[mæd͡ʒ.dʊ.næː wɑ ʕɑh.dʊ.næː wɑ wæː.d͡ʒi.bʊn mi.næ‿l.wɑ.fæːʔ]
[jæ.hʊz.zʊ.næː jæ.hʊz.zʊ.næː]
[ʕɪz.zʊn.næː ʕɪz.zʊn.næː]
𝄆 [ɣɑː.jæ.tʊn tʊ.ʃɑr.rɪ.fu wɑ rɑː.jæ.tʊn tʊ.rɑf.rɪ.fʊ] 𝄇
[jæː hæ.næːk fiː ʕʊ.læːk]
[qɑː.hɪ.rɑn ʕɪ.dæːk qɑː.hɪ.rɑn ʕɪ.dæːk]
[mɑw.tˤɪ.niː mɑw.tˤɪ.niː]

I
My homeland, my homeland,
Glory and beauty, sublimity and splendor
Are in your hills, are in your hills.
Life and deliverance, pleasure and hope
Are in your air, are in your air.
Will I see you, will I see you?
𝄆 Safely comforted and victoriously honored. 𝄇
Will I see you in your eminence?
Reaching to the stars, reaching to the stars
My homeland, my homeland.

II
My homeland, my homeland,
The youth will not tire, their goal is your independence
Or they die, or they die.
We will drink from death, and will not be to our enemies
Like slaves, like slaves.
We do not want, we do not want
𝄆 An eternal humiliation, nor a miserable life. 𝄇
We do not want, but we will bring back
Our storied glory, our storied glory.
My homeland, my homeland.

III
My homeland, my homeland,
The sword and the pen, not the talk nor the quarrel
Are our symbols, are our symbols.
Our glory and our covenant, and a faithful duty
Moves us, moves us.
Our glory, our glory,
𝄆 Is an honorable cause, and a waving flag. 𝄇
O, behold you, in your eminence,
Victorious over your enemies, victorious over your enemies.
My homeland, my homeland!

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ See Help:IPA/Arabic and Arabic phonology.
  2. ^ a b c Sometimes written تستَقِلَّ tastaqilla [tæs.tɑ.qɪl.læ],[8] the second-person instead of third-person form.
  3. ^ ذِلُّنَا Ḏillunā [ðɪl.lʊ.næː] is also used.[12]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "National Anthems".
  2. ^ "The song that inspired the Arab world: Ibrahim Tuqan and the making of "Mawtini"". Palestinian Journeys. Archived from the original on 2019-08-29. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  3. ^ Wills, Emily Regan (July 2016). "Discourses and Differences: Situating Pro-Palestine Activism in Discursive Context". Theory in Action. 9 (3): 48–71. doi:10.3798/tia.1937-0237.16018.
  4. ^ "Iraq aims to unite with new national anthem, flag". The Daily Star. September 24, 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  5. ^ "Iraq - Mawtini". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
  6. ^ a b c d Schaffer, Edward; Scotland, Jan; Popp, Reinhard (2017). "Iraq (1958-1965, 2003-2004)". National Anthems. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 30, 2017. Immediately after the fall of the Sadam Hussein government in 2003, 'Mawtini' was used again for a brief time as an interim anthem until a new one was adopted. (The title of this anthem is identical to the title of the anthem that replaced it in 2004).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  7. ^ Wetzel, Dan (August 24, 2004). "One last chance". Yahoo! Sports. Yahoo!. Retrieved December 4, 2017. The song is 'My Country.' It is relatively short, contains no words and was composed by a man named Lewis Zanbaka...
  8. ^ a b نشيد مَوطِني. المدرسة العربية الالكترونية. April 2003.
  9. ^ سمير الرسام - النشيد الوطني العراقي - موطني بحلته الجديدة - الحوار المتمدن. Ahewar. December 18, 2016.
  10. ^ "Maw6ini" (PDF). Xpace Cultural Centre. June 29, 2018.
  11. ^ "My Homeland: "The Youth will not tire, 'till your independence!"". Bethlehem Bible College. November 28, 2015.
  12. ^ "National Anthem of Iraq - مَوطِنِي (Iraq anthem, 이라크의 국가)". YouTube.

External linksEdit