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Mathias Sinamenye is an Economist by profession and became 2nd Vice-President of Burundi from 12 June 1998 to 1 November 2001, after he was Governor of the Central Bank of Burundi. He is a member of the Tutsi ethnic group.
On 12 June 1998, he was appointed 2nd Vice-President (responsible for economic and social affairs), by Interim President Pierre Buyoya. He held that post until a new power-sharing government was installed on 1 November 2001.
After Vice Presidency,he was appointed Executive Director of the World Bank Group in charge of the African region.