Mathematics in Nepal

Mathematics has been used in Nepal for measurement since ancient time. Advance mathematics was used primarily in the field of Astrology to predict position of planets to determine auspicious time for various Hindu rituals. In recent time, mathematics is taught formally in schools from primary level up to doctrate degree. All students must pass mathematics in the SEE exam.


The history of mathematics in Nepal is inter-related with the history of mathematics in the Indian sub-continent. However, independent history of mathematics in Nepal also exists. The ancient Licchavi people developed a series of the system for measurement such as Kharika to measure land area and Kosh for measurement of distance. Similalry, Jayasthiti Malla during 1350 standardized Mana and Pathi for volumetric measurement of grains and cerials.[1]

The numerials of Ranjana script, was developed in 199 BC. It was used until the mid-20th century in Nepal and India. It is still in use in the Newari language.[2]

Formal EducationEdit

In the Rana Period, Kashi (Banaras) used to be the education hub to learn astrology and mathematics. The mathematics was based mainly on the text of Baskaracharya's Siddhant Siromani. [3]

The formal education of mathematics in school started after overthrowing of Rana regime and start of democracy.

The M.A./M.Sc. in Mathematics started on July 14, 1959 and Central Department of Mathematics was formed on September 20, 1959 A.D. in Tripureshwor[4] Bengali mathematician Prof. Asutosh Ganguli was the first head of Department in Master level mathematics courses at Tri-Chandra College. [3]

Institution offering graduate course in mathematics

Notable books of mathematics in NepalEdit

  • Siddhānta Shiromani of Bhāskara II
  • Līlāvatī
  • Bijganita (Algebra)
  • Arithmetic by Yadav Chandra Chakravorty
  • Geometry of Jagannath
  • Wyakta Chandrika by Gopal Pande illustrates the rule of three to the determination of square root and cube roots
  • Nepal Arithmetic by Nepal Bhasa Prakasiri Samiti published in 1834

Notable figures in mathematicsEdit

  • Chakra Pani Aryal was the 15th Century's astrologer and mathematicians. He wrote Uttan Gadit (in Sanskrit) that was used for calculation of solar and lunar eclipses. This book was revised by Padma Nav Keshari Aryal in 1934 A.D.[5]
  • Pd. Gopal Pande (1883-1914) was the first person to write a book in Nepali about mathematics. He wrote four editions of his mathematics books in Nepali. The third edition was also published in Hindi. He was honoured as the Royal Astrologer for successfully predicting the number of lunar eclipses in 1884.He was also responsible to make the plot of Tudikhel. [3]
  • Noor Dutta Pande (second son of Gopal Pande) wrote the Gorkha Bijaganita. He has composed the mathematics book called “Bichitra Ganita”.
  • Chandra Kala Dhananjay was the first women writer in mathematics. She wrote Shishu Bodhini Ragini Ganita in a form of poem that explained addition, multiplication and divisions.
  • In 1890 the Rana Prime minister Chandra Samser was the first Nepali to pass the matriculation examination from the Calcutta University with mathematics.
  • Naya Raj Pant (1913-2002) was the first person to graduate in Mathematics from Tribhuwan University. He also used his skill in astronomy to decide the historical events.[6] [7]
  • Govinda Dev Pant, Professor, writer

See AlsoEdit


  1. ^ History of Nepal. “Malla Kings,” July 11, 2010.
  2. ^ Acharya, Eka Ratna. “Ranjana Numeral System: A Brief Information.” Journal of the Institute of Engineering 13, no. 1 (2017): 221–24.
  4. ^ “Department of Mathematics :: Tribhuvan University.” Accessed June 22, 2020.
  5. ^ Acharya, Eka Ratna. “Gopal Pande: The First Mathematician of Nepal.” ResearchGate. Accessed June 22, 2020.
  6. ^ “Remembering a Scholar Extraordinaire - MyRepublica - The New York Times Partner, Latest News of Nepal in English, Latest News Articles.” Accessed June 22, 2020.
  7. ^ Acharya, E.R. (2012). "Prof. Naya Raj Pant As an Institution of Mathematics". J. of Ramanujan Society of Math. and Math. Sc. 1 (1): 22–28.

External LinksEdit