Margaretha Geertruida MacLeod (née Zelle, Dutch: [mɑrɣaːˈreːtaː ɣeːrˈtrœydaː ˈzɛlə]; 7 August 1876 – 15 October 1917), better known by the stage name Mata Hari (/ˈmɑːtə ˈhɑːri/ MAH-tə HAR-ee, Dutch: [ˈmaːtaː ˈhaːri]; Indonesian for 'sun', lit.'eye of the day'), was a Dutch exotic dancer and courtesan who was convicted of being a spy for Germany during World War I. She was executed by firing squad in France.[1] The idea of a beautiful exotic dancer using her powers of seduction as a spy made her name synonymous with the femme fatale. Her story has served as an inspiration for books, films, and other works.

Mata Hari
Mata Hari, c. 1910
Born
Margaretha Geertruida Zelle

(1876-08-07)7 August 1876
Leeuwarden, Netherlands
Died15 October 1917(1917-10-15) (aged 41)
Vincennes, France
Cause of deathExecution by firing squad
Occupations
  • Exotic dancer
  • courtesan
  • spy
Spouse
Rudolf John MacLeod
(m. 1895; div. 1906)
Children2
Espionage activity
Allegiance
Service branchDeuxième Bureau
Service years1916–1917
Signature

It has been said that she was convicted and condemned because the French Army needed a scapegoat,[2][3] and that the files used to secure her conviction contained falsifications.[4] Some have even stated that Mata Hari could not have been a spy and was innocent.[5]

Early life

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Margaretha Geertruida Zelle was born 7 August 1876 in Leeuwarden, Netherlands. She was the eldest of four children to Antje van der Meulen (1842–1891) and her husband, Adam Zelle (1840–1910).[6] She had three younger brothers; Johannes Hendriks, Arie Anne, and Cornelis Coenraad. She was affectionately called "M'greet" by her family.[7] Despite traditional assertions that Mata Hari was partly of Jewish,[7] Malaysian,[8] or Javanese, i.e., Indonesian descent, scholars conclude she had no Jewish or Asian ancestry, and both of her parents were Dutch.[9] Her father owned a hat shop, made investments in the oil industry, and became affluent enough to give Margaretha and her siblings a lavish early childhood[10] that included exclusive schools until the age of 13.[11]

Soon after Margaretha's father went bankrupt in 1889, her parents divorced, and her mother died in 1891.[10][11] Her father remarried in Amsterdam on 9 February 1893 to Susanna Catharina ten Hoove (1844–1913). The family fell apart, and Margaretha was sent to live with her godfather, Mr. Visser, in Sneek. She studied to be a kindergarten teacher in Leiden, but when the headmaster began to flirt with her conspicuously, she was removed from the institution by her godfather.[10][11][12] A few months later, she fled to her uncle's home in The Hague.[12]

Dutch East Indies

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At 18, Margaretha answered an advertisement in a Dutch newspaper placed by Dutch colonial army captain Rudolf MacLeod (1856–1928), who was living in what was then the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) and was looking for a wife. Margaretha married MacLeod in Amsterdam on 11 July 1895. He was the son of Captain John Brienen MacLeod (a descendant of the Gesto branch of the MacLeods of Skye, hence his Scottish surname) and Dina Louisa, Baroness Sweerts de Landas. The marriage enabled Zelle to move into the Dutch upper class and placed her finances on a sound footing. She moved with her husband to Malang on the east side of the island of Java, travelling out on the SS Prinses Amalia in May 1897. They had two children, Norman-John MacLeod (1897–1899) and Louise Jeanne MacLeod (1898–1919).[citation needed]

Her children Louise Jeanne and Norman-John, with his father

The marriage was overall a disappointment.[13] Rudolf was an alcoholic, physically abused Margaretha, and blamed her for his lack of promotion. He openly kept a concubine, a socially accepted practice in the Dutch East Indies. Margaretha abandoned him temporarily, moving in with Van Rheedes, another Dutch officer. She studied Indonesian culture intensely for several months and joined a local dance company. In correspondence to her relatives in the Netherlands in 1897, she revealed her artistic name of Mata Hari, the word for "sun" in the local Indonesian language (literally, "eye of the day").[11]

At Rudolf's urging, Margaretha returned to him, but his behavior did not change. She sought escape from her circumstances by studying the local culture.[11] In 1899, their children fell violently ill from complications relating to the treatment of syphilis contracted from their parents,[14] though the family claimed an irate servant poisoned them. Jeanne survived, but Norman died. Some sources[11] maintain that one of Rudolf's enemies may have poisoned their supper to kill both of their children. After moving back to the Netherlands, the couple officially separated on 30 August 1902. The divorce became final in 1906, and Margaretha was awarded custody of Jeanne. Rudolf was legally required to pay child support but never did. Once when Jeanne visited Rudolf, he did not return her to her mother. Margaretha did not have the resources to fight the situation and accepted it, believing that while Rudolf had been an abusive husband, he had been a good father. Jeanne later died at the age of 21, possibly from complications related to syphilis.[12][15]

Career

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Paris

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Mata Hari performing in 1905

In 1903, Zelle moved to Paris, where she performed as a circus horse rider using the name Lady MacLeod, much to the disapproval of the Dutch MacLeods. Struggling to earn a living, she also posed as an artist's model.[16]

By 1904, Mata Hari rose to prominence as an exotic dancer. She was a contemporary of dancers Isadora Duncan and Ruth St. Denis, leaders in the early modern dance movement, which around the turn of the 20th century, looked to Asia and Egypt for artistic inspiration. Gabriel Astruc became her personal booking agent.[11]

Promiscuous, flirtatious, and openly flaunting her body, Mata Hari captivated her audiences and was an overnight success from the debut of her act at the Musée Guimet on 13 March 1905.[17] She became the long-time mistress of the millionaire industrialist Émile Étienne Guimet, who had founded the Musée. Entertainers of her era commonly invented colourful stories about their origins, and she posed as a Javanese princess of priestly Hindu birth, pretending to have been immersed in the art of sacred Indian dance since childhood. She was photographed numerous times during this period, nude or nearly so. Some of these pictures were obtained by MacLeod and strengthened his case in keeping custody of their daughter.[18]

Mata Hari brought a carefree provocative style to the stage in her act, which garnered wide acclaim. The most celebrated segment of her act was her progressive shedding of clothing until she wore just a jeweled breastplate and some ornaments upon her arms and head.[11] She was never seen bare-chested as she was self-conscious about having small breasts. Early in her career, she wore a bodystocking for her performances that was similar in color to her skin, but that was later omitted.[12]

 
Mata Hari in 1906

Her act was successful because it elevated erotic dance to a more respectable status and broke new ground in a style of entertainment for which Paris was later world-famous. Her style and free-willed attitude made her popular, as did her eagerness to perform in exotic and revealing clothing. She posed for provocative photos and mingled in wealthy circles. Since most Europeans at the time were unfamiliar with the Dutch East Indies, Mata Hari was thought of as exotic, and her claims were accepted as genuine. One enthusiastic French journalist wrote in a Paris newspaper that Mata Hari was "so feline, extremely feminine, majestically tragic, the thousand curves and movements of her body trembling in a thousand rhythms."[19] One journalist in Vienna wrote after seeing one of her performances that Mata Hari was "slender and tall with the flexible grace of a wild animal, and with blue-black hair" and that her face "makes a strange foreign impression."[19]

 
Mata Hari in 1906, wearing only a gold jeweled breastplate and jewelry

By about 1910, myriad imitators had arisen. Critics began to opine that the success and dazzling features of the popular Mata Hari were due to cheap exhibitionism and lacked artistic merit. Although she continued to schedule important social events throughout Europe, she was disdained by serious cultural institutions as a dancer who did not know how to dance.[11]

 
Mata Hari in 1910 wearing a jeweled head-dress

Mata Hari's career went into decline after 1912. On 13 March 1915, she performed in the last show of her career.[20] She had begun her career relatively late as a dancer and had started putting on weight. However, by this time, she had become a successful courtesan, known more for her sensuality and eroticism than for her classical beauty. She had relationships with high-ranking military officers, politicians, and others in influential positions in many countries. Her relationships and liaisons with powerful men frequently took her across international borders. Before World War I, she was generally viewed as an artist and a free-spirited bohemian, but as war approached, she began to be seen by some as a wanton and promiscuous woman, and perhaps a dangerous seductress.[21]

Espionage

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Zelle photographed in Amsterdam, 1915

During World War I, the Netherlands remained neutral. As a Dutch subject, Zelle was thus able to cross national borders freely. To avoid the battlefields, she traveled between France and the Netherlands via Spain and Britain, and her movements inevitably attracted attention. During the war, Zelle was involved in what was described as a very intense romantic-sexual relationship with Captain Vadim Maslov, a 23-year-old Russian Staff Captain of the 1st Special Infantry Regiment serving with the French, whom she called the love of her life.[22] Maslov was part of the 50,000-strong Russian Expeditionary Force sent to the Western Front in the spring of 1916.[23]

In the April 1917, Maslov was wounded fighting in the ill-fated Nivelles Offensive to capture the German controlled fortified Brimont mountain range, losing his sight in his left eye, which led Zelle to ask for permission to visit her wounded lover at the hospital where he was staying near the front.[22] As a citizen of a neutral country, Zelle would not normally be allowed near the front. Zelle was met by agents from the Deuxième Bureau who told her that she would be allowed to see Maslov if she agreed to spy for France.[22]

Before the war, Zelle had performed as Mata Hari several times before the Crown Prince Wilhelm, eldest son of Kaiser Wilhelm II and nominally a senior German general on the Western Front.[22] The Deuxième Bureau believed she could obtain information by seducing the Crown Prince for military secrets.[22] In fact, his involvement was minimal, and it was German government propaganda that promoted the image of the Crown Prince as a great warrior, the worthy successor to the Hohenzollern monarchs who had made Prussia strong and powerful.[24] They wanted to avoid publicizing that the man expected to be the next Kaiser was a playboy noted for womanizing, partying, and indulging in alcohol, who spent another portion of his time associating with far right-wing politicians, with the intent to have his father declared insane and deposed.[22]

 
Painting of Mata Hari by Isaac Israëls, 1916

Unaware that the Crown Prince did not have much to do with the running of Army Group Crown Prince or the 5th Army, the Deuxième Bureau offered Zelle 1 million francs if she could seduce him and provide France with good intelligence about German plans.[22] The fact that the Crown Prince had, before 1914, never commanded a unit larger than a regiment, and was now supposedly commanding both an army and an army group at the same time should have been a clue that his role in German decision-making was mostly nominal. Zelle's contact with the Deuxième Bureau was Captain Georges Ladoux, who later emerged as one of her principal accusers.[19]

In November 1916 she was traveling from Spain aboard the steamship Zeelandia.[25] When the ship called at the British port of Falmouth she was arrested and taken to London, where she was interrogated at length by Sir Basil Thomson, assistant commissioner at New Scotland Yard in charge of counter-espionage. He gave an account of this in his 1922 book Queer People, saying that she eventually admitted to working for the Deuxième Bureau. Initially detained in Canon Row police station, she was then released and stayed at the Savoy Hotel. A full transcript of the interview is in Britain's National Archives and was broadcast, with Mata Hari played by Eleanor Bron, on the independent station LBC in 1980.[26] It is unclear if she lied on this occasion, believing the story made her sound more intriguing, or if French authorities were using her in such a way but would not acknowledge her due to the embarrassment and international backlash it could cause.[27]

In late 1916, Zelle traveled to Madrid, where she met the German military attaché Major Arnold Kalle and asked if he could arrange a meeting with the Crown Prince.[28] During this period, Zelle apparently offered to share French secrets with Germany in exchange for money, though whether this was because of greed or an attempt to set up a meeting with Crown Prince Wilhelm remains unclear.[28]

In January 1917, Major Kalle transmitted radio messages to Berlin describing the helpful activities of a German spy code-named H-21, whose biography so closely matched Zelle's that it was obvious that Agent H-21 could only be Mata Hari.[28] The Deuxième Bureau intercepted the messages and, from the information they contained, identified H-21 as Mata Hari. The messages were in a code that German intelligence knew had already been broken by the French, suggesting that the messages were contrived to have Zelle arrested by the French.[28][29]

General Walter Nicolai, the chief IC (intelligence officer) of the German Army, had grown very annoyed that Mata Hari had provided him with no intelligence worthy of the name, instead selling the Germans mere Paris gossip about the sex lives of French politicians and generals, and decided to terminate her employment by exposing her as a German spy to the French.[30]

Trial

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Mata Hari on the day of her arrest

In December 1916, the Second Bureau of the French War Ministry let Mata Hari obtain the names of six Belgian agents. Five were suspected of submitting fake material and working for the Germans, while the sixth was suspected of being a double agent for Germany and France. Two weeks after Mata Hari had left Paris for a trip to Madrid, the Germans executed the double agent while the five others continued their operations. This development proved to the Second Bureau that Mata Hari had communicated the names of the six spies to the Germans.[31]

On 13 February 1917, Mata Hari was arrested in her room at the Hotel Elysée Palace on the Champs Elysées in Paris. She was tried on 24 July, accused of spying for Germany and consequently causing the deaths of at least 50,000 soldiers. Although the French and British intelligence suspected her of spying for Germany, neither could produce definite evidence against her.

A harlot? Yes, but a traitoress, never!

— Phrase attributed to Mata Hari during the trial

Zelle's principal interrogator, who grilled her relentlessly, was Captain Pierre Bouchardon; he later prosecuted her at trial.[19] Bouchardon established that much of the Mata Hari persona was invented. Far from being a Javanese princess, Zelle was Dutch, which he used as evidence of her dubious and dishonest character at her trial. Zelle admitted to Bouchardon that she had accepted 20,000 francs from a German diplomat and former lover as reimbursement for belongings taken from her by German authorities. Bouchardon claimed that this was, in fact, payment to her for spying for Germany. In the meantime, Ladoux had been preparing a case against his former agent by casting all of her activities in the worst possible light, going so far as to engage in evidence tampering.[19]

Scapegoat

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In 1917, France had been badly shaken by the Great Mutinies of the French Army in the spring of 1917 following the failure of the Nivelle Offensive and massive strikes. France might have collapsed from war exhaustion. Having one German spy on whom everything that went wrong with the war could be blamed was convenient for the French government. Mata Hari seemed the perfect scapegoat. The case against her received maximum publicity in the French press and led to her importance being greatly exaggerated.[32] The Canadian historian Wesley Wark stated in a 2014 interview that Mata Hari was never an important spy but a scapegoat for French military failures that had nothing to do with her. Wark stated: "They needed a scapegoat, and she was a notable target for scapegoating."[33] The British historian Julie Wheelwright stated: "She really did not pass on anything that you couldn't find in the local newspapers in Spain."[33] Wheelwright described Zelle as "an independent woman, a divorcée, a citizen of a neutral country, a courtesan, and a dancer, which made her a perfect scapegoat for the French, who were then losing the war. She was ... held up as an example of what might happen if your morals were too loose."[33]

Claiming her innocence, Zelle wrote letters to the Dutch Ambassador in Paris. "My international connections are due [to] my work as a dancer, nothing else .... Because I really did not spy, it is terrible that I cannot defend myself."[34] The most terrible and heartbreaking moment for Mata Hari during the trial occurred when her lover Maslov—by now deeply embittered as a result of losing his eye in combat—declined to testify for her and told her that he did not care whether she was convicted.[35] When Zelle learned that Maslov had abandoned her, she fainted.[36]

Her defense counsel, veteran international lawyer Édouard Clunet [Wikidata],[37] faced impossible odds; he was denied permission to cross-examine the prosecution's witnesses or to examine his witnesses directly.[38] Bouchardon used the fact that Zelle was a woman as evidence of her guilt, saying: "Without scruples, accustomed to making use of men, she is the type of woman who is born to be a spy."[19] Zelle has often been portrayed as a femme fatale, the dangerous, seductive woman who uses her sexuality to manipulate men effortlessly, but others view her differently: in the words of the American historians Norman Polmer and Thomas Allen she was "naïve and easily duped", a victim of men rather than a victimizer.[22]

Although news reports following her execution claimed she had admitted to spying for Germany, Mata Hari made no such admission. She maintained throughout her ordeal that she had never been a German spy. At her trial, Zelle vehemently insisted that her sympathies were with the Allies and declared her passionate love of France, her adopted homeland. In October 2001, documents released from the archives of MI5 (British counter-intelligence) were used by a Dutch group, the Mata Hari Foundation, to ask the French government to exonerate Zelle as they argued that the MI5 files proved she was not guilty of the charges she was convicted of.[4] A spokesperson from the Mata Hari Foundation argued that at most, Zelle was a low-level spy who provided no secrets to either side, stating: "We believe that there are sufficient doubts concerning the dossier of information that was used to convict her to warrant re-opening the case. Maybe she wasn't entirely innocent, but it seems clear she wasn't the master-spy whose information sent thousands of soldiers to their deaths, as has been claimed."[4]

Execution

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Mugshot of Margaretha Zelle

Zelle was executed by a firing squad consisting of 12 French soldiers just before dawn on 15 October 1917. She was 41.[39] According to an eyewitness account by British reporter Henry Wales, she was not bound and refused a blindfold. She defiantly blew a kiss to the firing squad.[28]

A 1934 New Yorker article reported that at her execution, she wore "a neat Amazonian tailored suit, especially made for the occasion, and a pair of new white gloves",[40] though another account indicates she wore the same suit, low-cut blouse, and tricorn hat ensemble which had been picked out by her accusers for her to wear at trial, and which was still the only full, clean outfit which she had in prison.[15] Neither description matches photographic evidence. Wales recorded her death, saying that after the volley of shots rang out, "Slowly, inertly, she settled to her knees, her head up always, and without the slightest change of expression on her face. For the fraction of a second it seemed she tottered there, on her knees, gazing directly at those who had taken her life. Then she fell backward, bending at the waist, with her legs doubled up beneath her." A non-commissioned officer then walked up to her body, pulled out his revolver, and shot her in the head to make sure she was dead.[41]

Remains and 2017 French declassification

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Mata Hari's body was not claimed by any family members and was accordingly used for medical study. Her head was embalmed and kept in the Museum of Anatomy in Paris. In 2000, archivists discovered that it had disappeared, possibly as early as 1954, according to curator Roger Saban, during the museum's relocation.[42] Her head remains missing.[43][44] Records dated 1918 show that the museum also received the rest of the body, but none of the remains could later be accounted for.[45]

Mata Hari's sealed trial and other related documents, a total of 1,275 pages, were declassified by the French Army in 2017, one hundred years after her execution.[46]

Legacy

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Museum exhibition

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Scrapbook of Mata Hari in the Frisian Museum in Leeuwarden, Netherlands
 
Statue of Mata Hari in Leeuwarden, Netherlands

The Frisian museum (Dutch: Fries Museum) in Leeuwarden, Netherlands, contains a "Mata Hari Room". Included in the exhibit are two of her personal scrapbooks and an oriental rug embroidered with the footsteps of her fan dance.[47] Located in Mata Hari's native town, the museum is well known for researching the life and career of Leeuwarden's world-famous citizen. The largest-ever Mata Hari exhibition was opened in the Museum of Friesland on 14 October 2017, one hundred years after her death.

Mata Hari's birthplace is located in the building at Kelders 33. The building suffered smoke and water damage during a fire in 2013 but was later restored. Architect Silvester Adema studied old drawings of the storefront to reconstruct it as it appeared when Adam Zelle, the father of Mata Hari, had a hat shop there. In 2016, an information centre (belevingscentrum) was created in the building displaying mementos of Mata Hari.[48]

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Execution scene from 1920 film about Mata Hari[49]

The idea of an exotic dancer working as a lethal double agent using her powers of seduction to extract military secrets from her many lovers made Mata Hari an enduring archetype of the femme fatale.[50]

Her life inspired several films, including:

Mata Hari's life also inspired at least five stage musicals:

Two songs named after Mata Hari have appeared at the Eurovision Song Contest:

In 1931 Mata Hari, an American thoroughbred racehorse, was foaled. She twice won championship honors as the top filly in the sport. In 1943, when in foal to fellow champion Balladier, she produced Spy Song.

In 1977, Bally Manufacturing released an electromechanical pinball machine named after Mata Hari,[58] and a solid-state version in 1978.[59]

In the 1982 release of Birds & Bees by the Belgian band Telex (band), the tenth track on the album is dedicated to Mata Hari.

In 1995, Israeli singer Ofra Haza released a single titled "Mata Hari".[60]

In February 2016, the Dutch National Ballet premiered a two-act ballet entitled Mata Hari, with Anna Tsygankova dancing the role of Mata Hari, choreography by Ted Brandsen and music by Tarik O'Regan.[61]

In 2017, the opera Mata Hari by librettist Peter Peers and composer Matt Marks premiered at New York's Prototype Festival.[62] In August 2018, it was also produced by West Edge Opera, with Tina Mitchell reprising her starring role.[63]

In 2018, French nu-disco band L'Impératrice released their album titled 'Matahari' containing a song of the same name.[64]

In 2019, English singer-songwriter Frank Turner released a song about Mata Hari entitled "Eye of the Day" on his album No Man's Land.[65][66]

In 2020, the Dutch singer Kovacs released a single titled “Mata Hari”.

In 2022, she was referenced in episode 4 of the second season of Apple TV show Slow Horses.[67]

See also

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References

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Citations

  1. ^ "Mata Hari". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 August 2007. The daughter of a prosperous hatter, she attended a teachers' college in Leiden. In 1895 she married an officer whose family was of Scottish origin, Captain Rudolph MacLeod, in the Dutch colonial army, and from 1897 to 1902, they lived in Java and Sumatra. The couple returned to Europe but later separated, and she began to dance professionally in Paris in 1905 under the name of Lady MacLeod. She soon called herself Mata Hari, said to be a Malay expression for the sun (literally, "eye of the day"). Tall, extremely attractive, superficially acquainted with East Indian dances, and willing to appear virtually nude in public, she was an instant success in Paris and other large cities.
  2. ^ "Why Mata Hari Wasn't a Cunning Spy After All". National Geographic. 12 November 2017. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. In 1916 the war was going badly for the French. Two of the longest and bloodiest battles of the war—Verdun and the Somme—pitted the French against the Germans for months at a time. The mud, bad sanitation, disease, and the newly introduced horror of phosgene gas led to the death or maiming of hundreds of thousands of soldiers. Eventually, French troops became so demoralized that some refused to fight. Ladoux felt the arrest of a prominent spy could raise French spirits and recharge the war effort.
  3. ^ Howe, Russel Warren (1986). Mata Hari: The True Story. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company. pp. x–xi, 285.
  4. ^ a b c Jeffries, Stuart (16 October 2001). "Did they get Mata Hari wrong?". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  5. ^ Goldsmith, Belinda (7 August 2007). "Mata Hari was a scapegoat, not a spy – biographer". Reuters. 'But the evidence is quite strong that she was completely innocent of espionage,' Shipman, a professor of anthropology at Pennsylvania State University, told Reuters. 'When she was arrested the war was going very badly for the French and she was a foreigner, very sexy, having affairs with everyone, and living lavishly while people in Paris had no bread. There was a lot of resentment against her.' Shipman said Mata Hari's standing in 1917 was similar to that of Marilyn Monroe in the 1960s—she was recognizable everywhere and considered the sexiest, most desirable woman in Europe. 'This is part of why it is so ludicrous to think she was a spy. She couldn't be clandestine and sneak around. She couldn't help but attract attention,' said Shipman, whose book Femme Fatale: Love, Lies and the Unknown Life of Mata Hari (ISBN 978-0297856276) has just been released.
  6. ^ "Family Trees - Margaretha Gertruida Zelle". Praamsma.org. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017.
  7. ^ a b Kerr, Gordon (2011). Treacherous Women: Sex, temptation and betrayal. Canary Press eBooks. ISBN 978-1908698193.
  8. ^ Parish, James Robert (1992). Prostitution in Hollywood Films: Plots, Critiques, Casts, and Credits for 389 Theatrical and Made-for-television Releases. McFarland & Co. ISBN 978-0899506777.
  9. ^ Cohen, M (2010). Performing Otherness: Java and Bali on International Stages, 1905–1952. Springer. ISBN 978-0230309005. Retrieved 15 October 2017 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ a b c Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Biography of Mata Hari, Infamous World War I Spy". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 3 February 2024.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Mata Hari". World of Biography. Archived from the original on 15 September 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
  12. ^ a b c d Noe, Denise. "Mata Hari — The Story of Mata Hari: Introduction — Crime Library". Archived from the original on 9 February 2015.
  13. ^ Keay, Julia (1897). The Spy Who Never Was: The Life and Loves of Mata Hari. Michael Joseph Ltd. ISBN 978-0718126148.[page needed]
  14. ^ "Why Mata Hari Wasn't a Cunning Spy After All". National Geographic. 12 November 2017[page needed]
  15. ^ a b Shipman, Pat (2007). Femme Fatale: Love, Lies, and the Unknown Life of Mata Hari. New York: HarperCollins. p. 450. ISBN 978-0-06-081728-2.
  16. ^ Myall, Steve (17 October 2017). "Rare pictures of dancer and "spy" Mata Hari who was executed by firing squad". mirror. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  17. ^ Noe, Denise. "Mata Hari Is Born — Mata Hari — Crime Library". Archived from the original on 10 February 2015.
  18. ^ Craig, Mary W (2017). A Tangled Web: Dancer, Courtesan, Spy. Cheltenham: The History Press. ISBN 978-0750984720.
  19. ^ a b c d e f "Biography of Mata Hari". The Biography Channel. May 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  20. ^ Mata Hari – The True Story. By Russell Warren Howe, p. 63. 1986
  21. ^ Joanna Bourke, Gresham Professor of Rhetoric, 'Mata Hari: Femmes Fatales' (2020)
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Polmer, Norman; Allen, Thomas (1998). Spy Book: The Encyclopedia of Espionage. New York: Random House. p. 357. ISBN 978-0679425144.
  23. ^ Cockfield, Jamie H (1997). With Snow on Their Boots: The Tragic Odyssey of the Russian Expeditionary Force in France During World War I. St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0312173562.
  24. ^ Wheeler-Bennett, John (1954). The Nemesis of Power: The German Army In Politics 1918–1945. London: St Martin's Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-1403918123.
  25. ^ "Blog Mata Hari". Fries Museum. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  26. ^ "The London Interrogations". British Universities Film & Video Council. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  27. ^ Proctor, Tammy M (2006). Female Intelligence: Women and Espionage in the First World War. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814766941.
  28. ^ a b c d e Polmer, Norman; Allen, Thomas (1998). Spy Book: The Encyclopedia of Espionage. New York: Random House. p. 358. ISBN 978-0679425144.
  29. ^ Howe, Russell Warren (1986). Mata Hari: The True Story. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. p. 143. ISBN 978-0396087175.
  30. ^ Polmer, Norman; Allen, Thomas (1998). Spy Book: The Encyclopedia of Espionage. New York: Random House. p. 394. ISBN 978-0679425144.
  31. ^ Waagenaar, 1965, p. 258
  32. ^ Arbuckle, Alex (May 2016). "The Dramatic Tale of Mata Hari Dancer, courtesan, scapegoat, spy?". Retronaut. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  33. ^ a b c Edwards, Peter (24 April 2014). "Condemned spy Mata Hari glib during final interrogation: MI5 files". The Toronto Star. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  34. ^ "Brieven van Mata Hari (Letters of Mata Hari)". Dutch National Archives. Gahetna.nl (in Dutch). 17 June 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  35. ^ Cockfield, Jamie H (1997). With Snow on Their Boots: The Tragic Odyssey of the Russian Expeditionary Force in France During World War I. St Martin's Press. pp. 330–31. ISBN 978-0312173562.
  36. ^ Cockfield, Jamie H (1997). With Snow on Their Boots: The Tragic Odyssey of the Russian Expeditionary Force in France During World War I. St Martin's Press. p. 331. ISBN 978-0312173562.
  37. ^ Macedonio, Mauro (2017). Mata Hari, a life through images'. Tricase: Youcanprint. p. 207. ISBN 978-8892637818.
  38. ^ Milton, Giles (2016). When Churchill Slaughtered Sheep and Stalin Robbed a Bank: History's Unknown Chapters. Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-1250078759.
  39. ^ Siegel, Rachel (16 October 2017). "New picture emerges of Mata Hari, who faced firing squad 100 years ago". The Boston Globe. Washington Post. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  40. ^ Flanner, Janet (1979). Paris was Yesterday: 1925–1939. New York: Penguin. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-14-005068-4.
  41. ^ "Execution of Mata Hari". Eyewitnesstohistory.com. 19 October 1917. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
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Bibliography

  • Collas, Phillipe, (2008). Mata Hari, sa véritable Histoire. Paris: Plon 2003. ISBN 978-2-2591-9872-1 (French)
  • Coulson, Thomas. Mata Hari: Courtesan and Spy. London: Hutchinson, 1930. OCLC 17969173
  • Craig, Mary, W. (2017), A Tangled Web: Mata Hari Dancer, Courtesan, Spy. Stroud: The History Press, 2017. ISBN 978-0750968195
  • Dumarcet, Lionel: L'affaire Mata-Hari. De Vecchi, Paris 2006, ISBN 2-7328-4870-0 (French)
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  • Huisman, Marijke. (1998), Mata Hari (1876–1917): de levende legende. Hilversum: Verloren. ISBN 90-6550-442-7 (Dutch)
  • Maucher,Ute, Pfeiffer, Gabi: Codewort: Seidenstrumpf, Die größten Spioninnen des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts. ars vivendi verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-89716-999-9 (German)
  • Ostrovsky, Erika. (1978), Eye of Dawn: The Rise and Fall of Mata Hari. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0025940309 OCLC 3433352
  • Samuels, Diane: The true life fiction of Mata Hari. Hern Books, London 2002, ISBN 1-85459-672-1
  • Shipman, Pat. (2007), Femme Fatale: Love, Lies, and the Unknown Life of Mata Hari. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson ISBN 0-297-85074-1
  • Waagenaar, Sam. (1965), Mata Hari. New York: Appleton-Century.
  • Wheelwright, Julie. (1992). The Fatal Lover: Mata Hari and the Myth of Women in Espionage. London: Collins and Brown. ISBN 1-85585-128-8
  • Mauro Macedonio. (2017). Mata Hari, a life through images. Tricase: Youcanprint. ISBN 978-8892637818
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