Machilipatnam

  (Redirected from Masulipatam)

Machilipatnam (About this soundpronunciation ), also known as Masulipatnam, Masulipatam, Masula, and Bandar, is a city in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation and the administrative headquarters of Krishna district.[3] It is also the mandal headquarters of Machilipatnam mandal in Machilipatnam revenue division of the district.[4][5] The ancient port town served as the settlement of European traders from the 16th century, and it was a major trading port for the Portuguese, British, Dutch and French in the 17th century.[6]

Machilipatnam

మచిలీపట్నం / బందరు

Masulipatnam, Masulipatam, Masula, Bandar
City Aerial view
City Aerial view
Machilipatnam is located in Andhra Pradesh
Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India
Machilipatnam is located in India
Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam (India)
Coordinates: 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13Coordinates: 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13
CountryIndia
StateAndhra Pradesh
DistrictKrishna district
Founded14th century
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyMachilipatnam Municipal Corporation, MUDA
 • MLAPerni venkataramiah (Nani) (Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party)
 • Municipal commissionerP. J. Sampath Kumar
Area
 • Total95.35 km2 (36.81 sq mi)
Elevation
14 m (46 ft)
Population
 (2020)[2]
 • Total219,892
 • Density6,875/km2 (17,810/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
521001,002,003
Telephone code91-08672
Vehicle registrationAP-16
Websitemachilipatnam.cdma.ap.gov.in

EtymologyEdit

During the 17th century, it was known by the names Masulipatnam and Masulipatam, in local Telugu language, Masuli/Machili means fish and Patnam means city. Masula and Bandar (Bandar translates to port in Parsi language).[7][8][9] The port town in the ancient times was also referred with the name Maesolia.[10]

HistoryEdit

 
Masulipatam port in 1759
 
View of Masulipatam in 1676

The town has existed since at least the 3rd century BCE (Satavahana period) when, according to Ptolemy, it was known as Maisolos. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea calls it Masalia in the 1st-century BCE.[11] The port is on the southeastern, or Coromandel Coast, of India. At the mouth of the River Krishna on the Bay of Bengal, the Masula port saw flourishing sea trade.

Muslin was traded by ancient Greeks from the town and the word muslin originated from the name Maisolos.[12] Muslin was an important source of income for the town, being a favorite of Roman traders for domestic consumption. Several Roman coins were found during excavations of Buddhist towns near Machilipatnam.[13]

The town was the district headquarters of the then, Masulipatnam district and now to the Krishna district, which was formed in 1859 in the composite Madras state.[5]

[14]

GeographyEdit

Machilipatnam city is at 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13 on the southeast coast of India and in the east coast of Andhra Pradesh.[15] The city has an average elevation of 14 meters (45 feet).[16]

ClimateEdit

Machilipatnam (city) gets most of its annual rainfall due to the southwest monsoon. It has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with hot summers and moderate winters. The hottest months are between April and June. The average normal rainfall in the district is 959 millimetres (37.8 in) and Machilipatnam is vulnerable to high surges of the sea due to cyclones. The 1977 Andhra Pradesh cyclone crossed the coast near Nizampatnam and took approximately 10,000 lives. As the storm approached the coast, gale winds reaching 200 km/h lashed Prakasam, Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari and West Godavari districts. A storm surge, 5 meters high, inundated the Krishna estuary and the coast south of the city (Bandar).

On 8 December 2004, a high capacity S-Band Doppler cyclone warning radar was installed, commissioned and made operational at the city[17] by the German manufacturer Gematronik. With the installation of the radar, it is hoped the state will be better equipped to track cyclones. The facility will monitor the 960 km long coastline of the state.[18]

Climate data for Machilipatnam (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.5
(94.1)
37.4
(99.3)
42.2
(108.0)
44.4
(111.9)
47.8
(118.0)
47.0
(116.6)
41.7
(107.1)
39.8
(103.6)
38.2
(100.8)
37.8
(100.0)
35.0
(95.0)
34.6
(94.3)
47.8
(118.0)
Average high °C (°F) 29.0
(84.2)
30.8
(87.4)
33.1
(91.6)
35.1
(95.2)
37.5
(99.5)
36.9
(98.4)
33.9
(93.0)
32.9
(91.2)
32.9
(91.2)
31.7
(89.1)
30.4
(86.7)
29.1
(84.4)
32.8
(91.0)
Average low °C (°F) 20.0
(68.0)
21.3
(70.3)
23.3
(73.9)
25.9
(78.6)
27.9
(82.2)
27.6
(81.7)
26.2
(79.2)
26.0
(78.8)
25.9
(78.6)
24.7
(76.5)
22.3
(72.1)
20.3
(68.5)
24.3
(75.7)
Record low °C (°F) 13.4
(56.1)
14.4
(57.9)
16.7
(62.1)
18.0
(64.4)
17.8
(64.0)
20.0
(68.0)
19.0
(66.2)
19.0
(66.2)
18.3
(64.9)
18.0
(64.4)
13.9
(57.0)
13.2
(55.8)
13.2
(55.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 8.8
(0.35)
12.4
(0.49)
7.4
(0.29)
7.3
(0.29)
40.1
(1.58)
98.8
(3.89)
184.9
(7.28)
181.2
(7.13)
173.2
(6.82)
196.3
(7.73)
104.5
(4.11)
17.1
(0.67)
1,031.9
(40.63)
Average rainy days 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.4 1.8 5.6 10.6 10.4 8.4 8.7 3.7 0.8 51.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 68 68 68 68 63 58 67 69 73 76 73 69 68
Source: India Meteorological Department[19][20]
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1871 36,188—    
1881 35,056−3.1%
1891 38,809+10.7%
1901 39,507+1.8%
1911 42,123+6.6%
1921 43,940+4.3%
1931 56,928+29.6%
1941 59,146+3.9%
1951 77,953+31.8%
1961 101,417+30.1%
1971 112,612+11.0%
1981 138,525+23.0%
1991 159,110+14.9%
2001 179,353+12.7%
2011 169,892−5.3%

DemographicsEdit

As of 2020 census, Machilipatnam had a population of 2,19,892. The total population constitutes 83,561 males and 86,447 females — a sex ratio of 1035 females per 1000 males. 13,778 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 7,076 are boys and 6,702 are girls. The average literacy rate stands at 83.32% with 130,173 literates, significantly higher than the state average of 67.41%.[2][21]

GovernanceEdit

Civic administrationEdit

Machilipatnam Municipal Corporation is the civic body of the city. It was constituted as a municipality in 1866 and was upgraded to corporation from special grade municipality on 9 December 2015.[22][23] It covers an area of 26.67 km2 (10.30 sq mi) under its jurisdiction. The present commissioner of the corporation is Sampath and the municipal chairperson is Motamarri Venkata Baba Prasad.[24]

Machilipatnam Urban Development Authority is the urban planning authority, headquartered at Machilipatnam.[25]

PoliticsEdit

Machilipatnam is a part of Machilipatnam (Assembly constituency) for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Perni Venkata Ramaiah is the present MLA of the constituency from the Yuvajana Sramika Rytu Congress Party.[26][27] The assembly segment is also a part of Machilipatnam (Lok Sabha constituency), which was won by Balashowry Vallabhaneni of YSR Party.[28]

EconomyEdit

Machilipatnam is known for its handloom industry, which produces Kalamkari textiles exported to United States and other Asian countries.[citation needed]

Other notable local industries are boat building and fishing.[29] Machilipatnam was a trading base for the Europeans in the 17th century and known for minting copper coins, exporting diamonds, textiles etc., through the port.[30]

The AP state government is taking measures to bring back the glory of the former port city. On 7 February 2019, it has started construction of a deep seaport and associated industrial corridor under the Machilipatnam Area Development Authority.[29][31]

CultureEdit

Art and handicraftsEdit

Machilipatnam Kalamkari is a handcrafted dyed block-painting of a fabric.[32] It is performed at the nearby town of Pedana and was registered with geographical indication from Andhra Pradesh.[33] Machilipatnam and Srikalahasti styles are the only existing Kalamkari style works present in India.[34]

DanceEdit

Kuchipudi, a popular Indian Classical Dance form, originated at Kuchipudi, 25 kilometres from Machilipatnam.[35]

CuisineEdit

The city is well known for a sweet known as Bandar Laddu.[36]

Religious worshipEdit

There are many religions with worship centers in and around the city, such as Panduranga Temple at Chilakalapudi, Agastheeswara Temple etc. Dattashram is a pilgrimage site on the coast and home to ancient Shiva and Datta temples. Manginapudi is popularly known as "Datta Rameswaram" due to the consecration of 12 wells for bathing (recalling those at Rameswaram).[37]

TourismEdit

Manginapudi Beach is on the coast of the city.[38]

TransportEdit

The city has a total road length of 359.09 km (223.13 mi).[39] The National Highway 65 connects Machilipatnam to Pune via Hyderabad, Suryapet and Vijayawada. NH 216 from Kattipudi to Ongole, passes through the city.

The city's bus station is owned and operated by Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation.[40][41] The station is equipped with a bus depot for storage and maintenance of buses.[42]

Machilipatnam railway station is a 'B–Category' and 'Adarsh station' under the jurisdiction of Vijayawada railway division.[43] It is the terminal station of Vijayawada-Machilipatnam branch line that connects Howrah-Chennai main line at Vijayawada.[44]

Machilipatnam port was damaged by a giant ocean wave on 1 November 1864.[30] Since then, there were many efforts to build a new port. Navayuga Engineering Company Limited is in the process of building a deep water port at Gilakaladinne of the city.[45]

The nearest International airport is Vijayawada Airport.

EducationEdit

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided, and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[46][47] Krishna University is located at Machilipatnam

Notable nativesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Machilipatnam at Glance". Machilipatnam Municipality. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Statistical Abstract of Andhra Pradesh, 2015" (PDF). Directorate of Economics & Statistics. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  3. ^ "Mandals in East godavari district". aponline.gov.in. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  4. ^ "Krishna District Mandals" (PDF). Census of India. p. 517. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  5. ^ a b "District Census Handbook – Krishna" (PDF). Census of India. pp. 15–16. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  6. ^ Reddy, Consulting Editor-KV Nandini. Social Sci. (History) 7 (Rev.). Ratna Sagar. p. 72. ISBN 9788183322966. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  7. ^ Guru Srikanth, S (2 April 2015). "Machilipatnam Growth May Trigger Off Reverse Migration". The New Indian Express. Machilipatnam. Archived from the original on 28 November 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  8. ^ Bhatia, Gita Duggal, Joyita Chakrabarti, Mary George, Pooja. Milestones Social Science – 7 (History, Geography, Social and Political Life). Vikas Publishing House. p. 55. ISBN 9789325982673.
  9. ^ Gateways Of Asia. Routledge. 28 October 2013. ISBN 9781136169021.
  10. ^ "The rise and fall of Maesolia port". The Hindu. 8 August 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  11. ^ The Great Stupa at Nagarjunakonda in Southern India, p. 187
  12. ^ Periplus, Point 62; http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/periplus.asp Archived 4 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India: Their History and Their Contribution to Indian Culture by Sukumar Butt, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1988, p. 132
  14. ^ Edward Stanley Poole (1865). The Thousand and One Nights, Commonly Called The Arabian Nights' Entertainments, Translated from the Arabic, with Copious Notes, Volume 3 (Volume 1 ed.). Chatto & Windus. p. 89. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  15. ^ "redirect to /world/IN/02/Machilipatnam.html". fallingrain.com.
  16. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00maplinks/mughal/bellinmasulipatam/overview1758.jpg
  17. ^ "Weather Radar Network of India Meteorological Department". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  18. ^ "The Hindu: Andhra Pradesh News: Modern cyclone warning system for Machilipatnam". hindu.com.
  19. ^ "Station: Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 479–480. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  20. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  21. ^ "Literacy of AP (Census 2011)" (PDF). Official Portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. p. 43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  22. ^ "Masula, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram upgraded into corporations". The Hindu. Vijayawada. 10 December 2015. Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  23. ^ "Population Glitch for Masula to Turn into Corporation". Machilipatnam. 20 February 2015. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  24. ^ "Machilipatnam info". Machilipatnam Municipality. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  25. ^ "State constitutes Machilipatnam Area Development Authority". Machilipatnam. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  26. ^ "MLA". Government of AP. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  27. ^ "Machilipatnam Assembly 2014 Election Results". Elections.in. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  28. ^ "MP (Lok Sabha)". Government of AP. Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  29. ^ a b Naga Sridhar, G. "A port all at sea". Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  30. ^ a b T. Appala Naidu (8 August 2015). "The rise and fall of Maesolia port". Machilipatnam. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  31. ^ Appala Naidu, T (6 February 2016). "MADA to expedite work on deep-sea port project". The Hindu. Machilipatnam. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  32. ^ "Kalamkari back in demand". The Hindu. Tirupati. 25 October 2010. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011.
  33. ^ "State Wise Registration Details of G.I Applications" (PDF). Geographical Indication Registry. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  34. ^ "Kalamkari: Craft of the matter". mid-day. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  35. ^ Goyal, Anuradha (2 March 2017). "Kuchipudi Village – Dance Village Of Andhra Pradesh". Inditales. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  36. ^ Varma, Sujatha (13 April 2013). "In search of Bandar Laddu". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 July 2015. Vani sweets, near to the Koneru center and RK sweets, near to the bus stand are famous in the city
  37. ^ "History". dattapeetham.com.
  38. ^ "Manginapudi Beach". Andhra Pradesh Tourism. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  39. ^ "Details of Roads in Each ULB of Andhra Pradesh". Commissioner and Directorate of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration and Urban Developmemt Department - Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  40. ^ "Bus Stations in Districts". Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  41. ^ Mareedu, Mouli (21 May 2010). "RTC takes a low blow from Laila". The Times of Iindia. Hyderabad. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  42. ^ "Depot Name". APSRTC. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  43. ^ "Vijayawada Division – a profile" (PDF). Indian Railways. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
  44. ^ "Machilipatnam Railway Station". India Rail Info. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  45. ^ "G.O. on development of Machilipatnam deep water port" (PDF). Department of Ports. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  46. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  47. ^ "The Department of School Education - Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  48. ^ "Medical Personalities in Chennai - chennaibest.com". 50.6.66.190. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017.

External linksEdit