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Maski is a town and an archaeological site in the Raichur district of the state of Karnataka, India.[1] It lies on the bank of the Maski river which is a tributary of the Tungabhadra. Maski derives its name from Mahasangha or Masangi . The site came into prominence with the discovery of a minor rock edict of Emperor Ashoka by C. Beadon in 1915.[2] It was the first edict of Emperor Ashoka that contained the name Ashoka in it instead of the earlier edicts that referred him as Devanampiye piyadasi.[3][4] This edict was important to conclude that many edicts found earlier in the Indian sub-continent in the name of Devanampiye piyadasi, all belonged to Emperor Ashoka.[3] The edict is etched on a rock-face of Durgada-gudda, one of the gneissic outcrops that are present in the site.

Maski
Town
Maski is located in India
Maski
Maski
Location in Karnataka, India
Maski is located in Karnataka
Maski
Maski
Maski (Karnataka)
Coordinates: 15°58′N 76°39′E / 15.96°N 76.65°E / 15.96; 76.65Coordinates: 15°58′N 76°39′E / 15.96°N 76.65°E / 15.96; 76.65
Country India
StateKarnataka
DistrictRaichur district
Languages
 • OfficialKannada
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
584124
Vehicle registrationKA 36
Websitewww.lingasugurtown.gov.in/tourism

Maski is also the place on the Raichur Doab which was also under the hegemony of the imperial Chola empire and it was here that Rajendra Chola I defeated Jayasimha II, the Western Chalukya ruler in battle in 1019-1020 AD.[5]

Contents

Excavation historyEdit

Maski was studied initially by Robert Bruce Foote in 1870 and 1888. In 1915, C. Beadon, a mining engineer, discovered Ashoka's rock edict here. In 1935-37, the archaeological department of Hyderabad state explored this region and in 1954, Amalananda Ghosh excavated this place on behalf of the Archaeological Survey of India.[1]

Minor Rock Edict of AshokaEdit

The Maski version of Minor Rock Edict No.1 was historically especially important in that it confirmed the association of the title "Devanampriya" ("Beloved-of-the-Gods") with Ashoka:[6][7]

[A proclamation] of Devanampriya Asoka.

Two and a half years [and somewhat more] (have passed) since I am a Buddha-Sakya.
[A year and] somewhat more (has passed) [since] I have visited the Samgha and have shown zeal.
Those gods who formerly had been unmingled (with men) in Jambudvipa, have how become mingled (with them).
This object can be reached even by a lowly (person) who is devoted to morality.
One must not think thus, — (viz.) that only an exalted (person) may reach this.

Both the lowly and the exalted must be told : "If you act thus, this matter (will be) prosperous and of long duration, and will thus progress to one and a half.

— Maski Minor Rock Edict of Ashoka.[8]

Other findingsEdit

The excavations indicated that the region was occupied across four different cultural periods; Period I: Neolithic-Chalcolithic, Period II: Megalithic, Period III: Early historical and Period IV: Medieval. In Period I, microliths and blades made of agate, chert, carnelian and opal are found.[1] Ornamental beads of agate, coral, shell and other materials are also found. Dull-grey ware and painted-buff ware pottery are found, some of which were painted with linear patterns. Animal remains of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat are also found.[1] Period II saw the introduction of iron and five different forms of burials were discovered. Lances, ferrules, daggers and arrowheads were found, apart from beads of gold and terracotta objects.[1] The pottery of Period II consisted of the megalithic red-and-black ware, all-black ware and red-slipped ware, some of which had graffiti on them. Coins were discovered in the Period III which also saw the use of Russet-coated painted ware. The earliest specimens of Indian glass were also discovered at Maski.[9] A cylinder seal has also been found here.[10]

TransportEdit

Maski is well connected by road. It lies on Bangalore-Gulbarga road. Maski ia around 430 km from Bangalore, 80 km from raichur and 22 km from Sindhanur. Maski can be reached by KSRTC buses from all Major towns and cities in Karnataka. Raichur Junction, 80 km away, is the nearest railway station.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Amalananda Ghosh (1990), p282
  2. ^ V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar (1993), p41
  3. ^ a b O. C. Handa (1994), p197
  4. ^ Vincent Arthur Smith (1998), p5
  5. ^ (2003), K.A.Nilakanta Sastri, p. 166
  6. ^ The Cambridge Shorter History of India. CUP Archive. p. 42.
  7. ^ Gupta, Subhadra Sen (2009). Ashoka. Penguin UK. p. 13. ISBN 9788184758078.
  8. ^ Inscriptions of Asoka. New Edition by E. Hultzsch (in Sanskrit). 1925. pp. 174–175.
  9. ^ Manfred G. Raschke (1978), p1029
  10. ^ E. C. L. During Caspers (1975), p64
  • Ghosh, Amalananda (1990) [1990]. An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-09262-5.
  • Smith, Vincent Arthur (1998) [1998]. Aśoka: The Buddhist Emperor of India. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-1303-1.
  • Handa, O. C. (1994) [1994]. Buddhist Art and Antiquities of Himachal Pradesh. Indus Publishing. ISBN 81-85182-99-X.
  • Dikshitar, Ramachandra V. R. (1993) [1993]. The Mauryan Polity. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 81-208-1023-6.
  • Raschke, Manfred G. (1978) [1978]. "New Studies in Roman Commerce with the East". In Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang Haase (ed.). Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. Geschichte und Kultur Roms. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-007175-4.
  • Caspers, During E. C. L. (1979) [1979]. "Statuary in the round from Dilmun". In Johanna Engelberta, Lohuizen-De Leeuw (ed.). South Asian Archaeology 1975: Papers from the Third International. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-05996-2.


Edicts of Ashoka
(Ruled 269-232 BCE)
Regnal years
of Ashoka
Type of Edict
(and location of the inscriptions)
Geographical location
Year 8 End of the Kalinga war and conversion to the "Dharma"
Year 10[1] Minor Rock Edicts Related events:
Visit to the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya
Construction of the Mahabodhi Temple and Diamond throne in Bodh Gaya
Predication throughout India.
Dissenssions in the Sangha
Third Buddhist Council
In Indian language: Sohgaura inscription
Erection of the Pillars of Ashoka
Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription
(in Greek and Aramaic, Kandahar)
Minor Rock Edicts in Aramaic:
Laghman Inscription, Taxila inscription
Year 11 and later Minor Rock Edicts (n°1, n°2 and n°3)
(Panguraria, Maski, Palkigundu and Gavimath, Bahapur/Srinivaspuri, Bairat, Ahraura, Gujarra, Sasaram, Rajula Mandagiri, Yerragudi, Udegolam, Nittur, Brahmagiri, Siddapur, Jatinga-Rameshwara)
Year 12 and later[1] Barabar Caves inscriptions Major Rock Edicts
Minor Pillar Edicts Major Rock Edicts in Greek: Edicts n°12-13 (Kandahar)

Major Rock Edicts in Indian language:
Edicts No.1 ~ No.14
(in Kharoshthi script: Shahbazgarhi, Mansehra Edicts
(in Brahmi script: Kalsi, Girnar, Sopara, Sannati, Yerragudi, Delhi Edicts)
Major Rock Edicts 1-10, 14, Separate Edicts 1&2:
(Dhauli, Jaugada)
Schism Edict, Queen's Edict
(Sarnath Sanchi Allahabad)
Rummindei Edict, Nigali Sagar Edict
Year 26, 27
and later[1]
Major Pillar Edicts
In Indian language:
Major Pillar Edicts No.1 ~ No.7
(Allahabad pillar Delhi pillar Topra Kalan Rampurva Lauria Nandangarh Lauriya-Araraj Amaravati)

Derived inscriptions in Aramaic, on rock:
Kandahar, Edict No.7[2][3] and Pul-i-Darunteh, Edict No.5 or No.7[4]

  1. ^ a b c Yailenko,Les maximes delphiques d'Aï Khanoum et la formation de la doctrine du dhamma d'Asoka, 1990, pp.243.
  2. ^ Inscriptions of Asoka de D.C. Sircar p.30
  3. ^ Handbuch der Orientalistik de Kurt A. Behrendt p.39
  4. ^ Handbuch der Orientalistik de Kurt A. Behrendt p.39