Masjed Soleyman

Masjed Soleyman (Persian: مسجد سلیمان‎, Old Persian: parsumash, Persian: پارسوماش) also Romanized as Masjedsoleimān, Masjed-e Soleymān, Masjed Soleiman, and Masjid-i-Sulaiman)[2] is a city and capital of Masjed Soleyman County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 206,121, in 51,530 families.[3] Masjed Soleiman is a historical city dating back to Achaemenid Empire. This city is a affluent region in terms of oil and gas reservoirs, Vicinity to Karoon River and spectacular sceneries. On 26 May 1908, the first oil wellbore reached the underground oil reservoir in Naphton Neigborhood. This oil discovery completely changed the economic and social life of Iran and Middle East. From the wellbore, 36,000 liters of oil were extracted daily. Afterwards, During the following decades, over 300 oil wellbores were drilled and completed in this field in order to exploit its reservoirs. Becoming as the first industrial city of Iran, it has played a vital role in Iran economy, industry and modernization.

Masjed Soleyman

Irsoleymān
City
Masjed Soleyman is located in Iran
Masjed Soleyman
Masjed Soleyman
Coordinates: 31°56′11″N 49°18′14″E / 31.93639°N 49.30389°E / 31.93639; 49.30389Coordinates: 31°56′11″N 49°18′14″E / 31.93639°N 49.30389°E / 31.93639; 49.30389
Country Iran
ProvinceKhuzestan
CountyMasjed Soleyman
BakhshCentral
Population
 (2016 Census)
 • Urban
100,497 [1]
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)

GeographyEdit

Masjed Soleyman was inhabited by various clans of Bakhtiari tribes but oil exploration in this area attracted other people from other parts of Bakhtiari zones to this city for trade or jobs.

ClimateEdit

Masjed Soleyman has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSh).

Climate data for Masjed Soleyman 320m (1985–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.6
(78.1)
29.0
(84.2)
36.6
(97.9)
41.6
(106.9)
47.6
(117.7)
51.2
(124.2)
51.6
(124.9)
53
(127)
48.0
(118.4)
42.2
(108.0)
34.2
(93.6)
30.0
(86.0)
51.6
(124.9)
Average high °C (°F) 16.4
(61.5)
18.8
(65.8)
23.3
(73.9)
30.3
(86.5)
37.8
(100.0)
43.2
(109.8)
45.1
(113.2)
44.8
(112.6)
40.9
(105.6)
34.6
(94.3)
25.4
(77.7)
18.9
(66.0)
31.6
(88.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.0
(53.6)
13.8
(56.8)
17.7
(63.9)
24.0
(75.2)
31.0
(87.8)
35.8
(96.4)
38.1
(100.6)
37.7
(99.9)
33.5
(92.3)
27.8
(82.0)
19.7
(67.5)
14.2
(57.6)
25.4
(77.7)
Average low °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
8.7
(47.7)
12.1
(53.8)
17.7
(63.9)
24.2
(75.6)
28.3
(82.9)
31.2
(88.2)
30.6
(87.1)
26.1
(79.0)
20.9
(69.6)
13.9
(57.0)
9.4
(48.9)
19.2
(66.6)
Record low °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−4.4
(24.1)
1.8
(35.2)
7.0
(44.6)
14.4
(57.9)
22.0
(71.6)
24.0
(75.2)
22.0
(71.6)
20.0
(68.0)
12.4
(54.3)
3.4
(38.1)
0.5
(32.9)
−4.4
(24.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 94.1
(3.70)
55.7
(2.19)
71.2
(2.80)
36.0
(1.42)
5.1
(0.20)
0.0
(0.0)
1.0
(0.04)
0.8
(0.03)
0.1
(0.00)
8.2
(0.32)
59.4
(2.34)
104.9
(4.13)
436.5
(17.19)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7.9 6.3 6.4 4.2 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 3.9 6.9 37.9
Average relative humidity (%) 73 63 52 38 23 16 17 18 20 28 50 69 38
Mean monthly sunshine hours 165.6 170.5 207.5 212.5 268.2 313.8 322.4 332.8 303.7 259.5 198.3 163.3 2,918.1
Source: Iran Meteorological Organization (records),[4] (temperatures),[5] (precipitation),[6] (humidity),[7] (days with precipitation),[8]

(sunshine)[9]

Main sightsEdit

Masjed Soleiman's most interesting parish is Tembi, and historical and ancient site is Sarmasjed Temple in the northeast. Sarmasjed temple is on the verge of Sarmasjed terrace, in ancient time fire had been continuously flaming inside it. And according to historians was the capital of Achaemenian Reign. Among other Masjed Soleiman ancient relics, we can suggest the ancient Temple of Bard-e-Neshande.

HistoryEdit

 
Parthian king, making an offering to god Herakles-Verethragna. Masdjid-e Suleiman, Iran. 2nd-3rd century CE. Louvre Museum Sb 7302.[10]

Ancient history and etymologyEdit

The city was known as Parsumash prior to the Muslim conquest of Persia.

A French archaeological expedition under the supervision of Prof. Roman Ghirshman made some important discoveries.[11] Ghirshman believes Parsomash (present-day Masjed Soleyman) was the oldest capital of the Achaemenian Kingdom.

Contemporary historyEdit

Masjed Soleyman's importance today is in oil exploration. William Knox D'Arcy, by contract with Ali-Qoli Khan Bakhtiari, obtained permission to explore for oil in Iran, he discovered oil near this city in 1908.[12][13] This was the first time oil was discovered in the Middle East, changing the history of the region.[14] The oil discovery led to petrochemical industry development and also the establishment of industries that strongly depended on oil.

First of IranEdit

  • Masjed Soleyman oil field The first oil well in Iran and the Middle East
  • The first sulfur factory in Iran
  • Iran first water treatment plant
  • The first power plant in Iran
  • The first airport in Iran
  • The first sports clubs in Iran
  • The first gypsum factory in Iran
  • The first geological museum in Iran
  • The first football, volleyball, bowling and golf stadium in Iran
  • The first transmitter of radio waves in Iran
  • The first sour gas of Iran
  • The first water piping in Iran
  • The first asphalt plant in Iran
  • The first gondola lift in Iran
  • The first sand factory in Iran
  • The first telegraph network in Iran
  • The first medical laboratory in Iran

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.amar.org.ir/english
  2. ^ Masjed Soleyman can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3074315" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  3. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 11 November 2011.
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ "Monthly Total Precipitation in Masjed Soleyman by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  7. ^ "Average relative humidity in Masjed Soleyman by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 8 April 2015.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ "No. Of days with precipitation equal to or greater than 1 mm in Masjed Soleyman by Month 1983–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 8 April 2015.[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ "Monthly total sunshine hours in Masjed Soleyman by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 8 April 2015.[permanent dead link]
  10. ^ "Louvre Museum Sb 7302".
  11. ^ "Louvre Museum Sb 7302".
  12. ^ Vassiliou, M. S. Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum Industry. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2009. Print.
  13. ^ Peter Frangipan (2015). The Silk Roads: A New History of the World. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 319. ISBN 9781101946336.
  14. ^ https://www.wired.com/2008/05/dayintech-0526/amp May 26, 1908: Mideast Oil Discovered — There Will Be Blood
  15. ^ "Iran's NIOC dismisses head of National Iranian South Oil Company". businessweek. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.