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Martin may either be a surname or given name.

Sant Martí i el pobre, Miquel March, museu de Belles Arts de València.JPG
Pronunciation English: /ˈmɑːrtɪn, -tən/
French: [maʁtɛ̃]
Spanish: [marˈtin]
German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn]
Swedish: [ˈmaʈːɪn]
Norwegian: [ˈmɑʈin]
Finnish: [ˈmɑrtin]
Czech: [ˈmarcɪn]
Gender Male
Word/name Latin
Meaning "Of Mars, Warlike, Warrior"
Region of origin Roman Empire
Related names Martyn, Martti, Morten, Marten, Maarten, Marta, Martino, Martina, Mark, Marcus,

Martin is a common given and family name in many languages. It comes from the Latin name Martinus, which is a late derived form of the name of the Roman god Mars, the protective godhead of the Latins, and therefore the god of war.[1] The meaning is usually rendered in reference to the god as "of Mars", or "of war/warlike" ("martial").

It has remained a popular given name in Christian times, in honor of Saint Martin of Tours; it is also the most common French surname. Along with its historic Catholic popularity, it has also been popular among Protestants due to Martin Luther. In addition, African American children are often given the name in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr.. Additionally, many Black Americans have the name Martin as a family name. Also, Martin is a popular first name chosen by Jews.

Contents

OriginEdit

 
St Martin of Tours, the patron saint of soldiers, leaves the Roman army. St Martin is one of the most familiar and recognizable Roman Catholic saints.

The name is a shorter version of the Latin name Martinus.

FranceEdit

With over 230,000 people holding the surname Martin in France, it is the most common French surname.[2] The origins of its frequency can be attributed to Saint Martin of Tours, who was the most popular French saint, but the reason is not clear.[3]

Martin was never a common given name (Christian name) in the Middle Ages, unlike Bernard or Thomas (which were later officialized and became common surnames, nowadays ranking second and third respectively). Onomastics have tried to find other reasons for Martin's popularity, by examining, for example, the repartition of place names, but this explanation also lacks empirical support.[3]

It can be a late surname connected with children of orphanages, like Alexandre, which was never a common first name in the Middle Ages but now appears quite frequently as a surname. Martin can represent charity towards orphans.

France[4] Belgium (Wallonia, 2008)[5]
1. Martin 1. Dubois
2. Bernard 2. Lambert
3. Dubois 3. Martin
4. Thomas 4. Dupont
5. Robert 5. Simon

However, this list hides strong regional differences in France and the increasing number of foreign names among the French citizens. Table based on births between 1966 and 1990:[6]

Basse-Normandie Alsace Brittany PACA Paris-IdF
1. Marie 1. Meyer 1. Le Gall 1. Martin 1. Martin
2. Martin 2. Muller 2. Thomas 2. Garcia (Spanish) 2. Da Silva (Port.)
3. Jeanne 3. Schmitt 3. Le Goff 3. Martinez (Spanish) 3. Perreira (Port.)
4. Duval 4. Schneider 4. Le Roux 4. Blanc 4. Petit
5. Lefèvre 5. Klein 5. Martin 5. Fernandez (Spanish) 5. Dos Santos (Port.)
6. Leroy 6. Weber 6. Simon 6. Lopez (Spanish) 6. Ferreira (Port.)
7. Hébert 7. Fischer 7. Tanguy 7. Roux 7. Rodrigues (Port.)
8. Guérin 8. Martin 8. Hamon 8. Sanchez (Spanish) 8. Dubois

SpainEdit

Martín, with an accent on the “i” and pronounced [mar 'tin] (mar-teen) is a common given name and is also among the most common surnames in Spain. Its Catalan variant is Martí and in Galician is Martiño. Jewish families in medieval Spain (Sephardic) Jews who remained in Spain and agreed to accept Christianity were asked to change their surnames. One of the names taken up by these Jewish conversos (originally known in Spain as Marranos, but preferred term is 'anusim' which is Hebrew for "forced") was “Martí” (also spelled "Marty"). Sephardic Jews also used Martin or Martinez, as a variation from the Hebrew name Mordecai.[7]

IrelandEdit

Surnames in Ireland are attested from the mid-10th century. Several distinct families featured the name as a surname element. They included Mac Giolla Mhártain, Ó Maol Mhartain, Ó Martain, Ó Máirtín, Mac Máirtín, Mac Máel Martain. Individuals included Echmílid mac Máel Martain (Bishop of Down to 1202), Giolla Ernain Ó Martain (Irish poet and Chief Ollam of Ireland, died 1218), and Fearghal Ó Martain, O.E.S.A. (Bishop of Killala from 1425 to 1432).

After the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, numerous unrelated bearers of the name settled in Ireland. Among the most well-known of the name were one of the Tribes of Galway.

EnglandEdit

 
Arms of FitzMartin, feudal barons of Barnstaple in Devon and Lords of Cemais in Wales: Argent, two bars gules

Before the Normans arrived in the 11th century, Martin was rare in England. See feudal barony of Barnstaple for the post-Conquest Anglo-Norman family. The surname became common in south of the Thames.

WalesEdit

An Anglo-Norman knight named Robert fitz Martin, born in the late 11th century, settled in England's West Country, on lands inherited from a grandfather, and later participated in the invasions of Wales, where he was awarded the barony of Cemais, located between Fishguard and Cardigan. Robert fitz Martin established the caput of his barony at Nanhyfer or Nevern. Robert's son William fitz Robert fitz Martin (born c. 1155) inherited the family's property and re-established family control over Cemais, which had been lost to the Welsh. The senior line became extinct in 1326, but cadet lines still flourish in Wales and England.

ScotlandEdit

There are several groups of Martins or Macmartins in Scotland. The MacMartins of Letterfinlay appear to have allied themselves to the Clan Cameron in the late 14th century, and finally merged with the Camerons after the Battle of Lochaber in 1429. The MacMartins, who became a sept of Clan Cameron, are said to have been amongst the most loyal and valuable followers of Cameron of Lochiel. In the Jacobite rising of 1745, the MacMartins were "out with" Lochiel's regiment.[8] According to the Oxford Companion to Scottish History, the MacMartins of Letterfinlay who were a sept of the Clan Cameron would have seen themselves as distinct within their own lands, but would have also seen themselves as Camerons if operating elsewhere outside of Lochaber.[9]

There is a branch of MacMartins from Strathclyde. The Martins in Skye are traditionally associated with Clan Donald, and the Lothians were home to a powerful 'de St Martin' family from the 12th century.

United StatesEdit

Martin was the sixteenth most frequently reported surname in the 1990 United States Census, accounting for 0.27% of the population.

HungaryEdit

Márton, the Hungarian form of the name, is commonly used as both a first name and surname.

ScandinaviaEdit

Martin is common as a given name in all three Scandinavian countries, and typically appears on the top 20 most popular male names lists in any given year. Martin is exclusively used as a given name in Scandinavia, not as a surname. However, derivative surnames as per Scandinavian naming tradition, such as Martinsen (in Norway and Denmark) and Martinsson (in Sweden), are common.

EstoniaEdit

Martin is a common male name in Estonia. Martin was the most popular male given name throughout the 1990s. The name currently remains as the second most popular male name in Estonia. [10]

The name also exists as a surname - With the variations of Martin, Martinsen, Martinson.

PortugalEdit

In Portugal, Martin is written "Martim". One famous Martin from Portuguese history is Martim Moniz.

Persons with the surnameEdit

Notable people sharing the surname "Martin" include:

Reduplicated nameEdit

There are persons with Martin as reduplicated name: Martin Martin, a Scottish writer and Andres Martin Martin, a Spanish gymnast.

Born before 1600Edit

Born 1600–1699Edit

Born 1700–1799Edit

Born 1800–1899Edit

Born 1900–1949Edit

Born since 1950Edit

Living with unknown birth yearEdit

Unknown living or dead with unknown birth yearEdit

Fictional charactersEdit

Derived surnamesEdit

They generally mean "descendant of Martin".

Given nameEdit

Those people who are known primarily by the name "Martin" are listed below.

First nameEdit

Middle nameEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Albert Dauzat, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de famille et prénoms de France, Larousse, Paris 1980. p. 420. New completed edition by Marie-Thérèse Morlet.
  2. ^ linternaute.com (French)
  3. ^ a b Marianne Mulon, Origine et histoire des noms de famille. Essais d'anthroponymie, éditions errance 2002. p 137–138 : D'où viennent donc tous ces Martin (Where do all these Martins come from?).
  4. ^ Noms de famille: les noms de famille les plus portés, l'origine de votre nom de famille (French)
  5. ^ Noms de famille les plus fréquents en 2008 – Belgique et Régions (Top 100)
  6. ^ Géopatronyme : Regional most commons surnames
  7. ^ Nelly Weiss. The Origin of Jewish Family Names. p. 216 Published by Lang, Peter Publishing, Incorporated. 2002.
  8. ^ Iain Moncreiffe, Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk, David Hicks (1982). The Highland Clans. pp. 48–51. ISBN 978-0-09-144740-3. 
  9. ^ Lynch, Michael. (2011). Oxford Companion to Scottish History. p. 95. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-923482-0.
  10. ^ [1]

External linksEdit