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Martha Gruening (1889–1937) was an American writer and civil rights activist.

She was born in Philadelphia, where her father was a well-known doctor, into a Jewish family who spoke German at home.[1] She graduated from Smith College in 1909. After college, Gruening went to Greenwich Village in New York, where she became a relentless political agitator. She wrote and edited The Dawn, a pacifist magazine, and was arrested for "disorderly conduct" after distributing pacifist literature in New York.[2] She served as the assistant secretary to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and wrote reports on national events for the association. She eventually moved to France and continued to advocate for the rights of African-American men and women until her death.[3][4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Susan C Dessel (24 October 2016). "Martha Gruening: 'Brick in a soft hat'". Dangerous Women Project. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  2. ^ Frances H. Early (1997). A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I. Syracuse University Press. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-0-8156-2764-7.
  3. ^ Early, Frances H. A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997. Print. 28-29.
  4. ^ "Revolt, They Said". www.andreageyer.info. Retrieved 2017-07-20.

External linksEdit

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