Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter and Small Rover
The Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter and Small Rover (HX-1) is a planned project by China to deploy an orbiter and rover on Mars. The mission is planned to be launched in July or August 2020 with a Long March 5 heavy lift rocket. Its stated objectives are to search for evidence of both current and past life, and to assess the planet's environment.
Mockup of the rover at the 69th International Astronautical Congress
|Mission type||Planetary science with an orbiter and rover|
|Mission duration||Orbiter: ≥ 1 Earth year|
Rover: 90 sols
|Spacecraft type||Orbiter, Rover|
|Launch mass||Total: 5,000 kg|
Orbiter: 3,175 kg
|Dimensions||Rover: 2.0 m × 1.65 m × 0.8 m|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||July 23 to August 5, 2020|
|Rocket||Long March 5|
|Launch site||Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site LC101|
|Contractor||China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation|
|Orbital insertion||2021 February 11 to February 24 |
|Landing date||2021 April 23(proposed)|
China's Mars program started in 2009 in a partnership with Russia. However, the Russian spacecraft Fobos-Grunt carrying a Chinese orbiter Yinghuo-1 crashed on 15 January 2012, days after lift-off. After that, China started its own Mars project.
The spacecraft is being developed by the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC), and managed by the National Space Science Centre (NSSC) in Beijing. The lander carrying the rover will use a parachute, retrorockets, and an airbag to achieve landing.
The priorities of the mission include finding both current and previous life, and evaluating the planet's surface and environment. Solo and joint explorations of the Mars orbiter and rover will produce maps of the Martian surface topography, soil characteristics, material composition, water ice, atmosphere, ionosphere field, and other scientific data will be collected. Simulated landings have been performed for the mission preparations by the Beijing Institute of Space Mechanics and Electricity.
This Mars mission would be a demonstration of technology needed for a Mars sample return mission proposed for the 2030s. Another plan involves the 2020 HX-1 mission to cache samples for retrieval in 2030.
The orbiter and rover will carry a total of 12 instruments:
- Medium Resolution Camera (MRC) with a resolution of 100 m from a 400 km orbit
- High Resolution Camera (HRC) with a resolution of 2 m from a 400 km orbit
- Mars Magnetometer (MM)
- Mars Mineral Spectrometer (MMS), to determine elementary composition
- Orbiter Subsurface Radar (OSR)
- Mars Ion and Neutral Particle Analyzer (MINPA)
- The Global Exploration Roadmap. NASA. International Space Exploration Coordination Group. January 2018.
- China's Deep Space Exploration Roadmap. 2018.
- "China Exclusive: China's aim to explore Mars". Xinhua News. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-24.
- "China shows first images of Mars rover, aims for 2020 mission". Reuters. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Jones, Andrew (9 February 2018). "China simulates Mars landing in preparation for 2020 mission". GBTimes. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- "Interview with Zhang Rongqiao, the man behind China's mission to Mars". Youtube. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Jones, Andrew (22 February 2016). "China is racing to make the 2020 launch window to Mars". GBTimes. Retrieved 2016-02-22.
- Berger, Eric (22 February 2016). "China pressing ahead with orbiter and lander mission to Mars". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- Lu, Shen (4 November 2016). "China says it plans to land rover on Mars in 2020". CNN News. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- The subsurface penetrating radar on the rover of China's Mars 2020 mission. B. Zhou, S. X. Shen, Y. C. Ji, etal. 2016 16th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). 13–16 June 2016.
- Nan, Wu (24 June 2014). "Next stop - Mars: China aims to send rover to Red Planet within six years". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- Jones, Andrew (21 March 2016). "China reveals more details of its 2020 Mars mission". GB Times. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
- Zhou; et al. (13–16 June 2016). "The subsurface penetrating radar on the rover of China's Mars 2020 mission". IEEE Xplore.
- China Plans To Land A Rover On Mars In 2020. Alexandra Lozovschi, Inquisitr. January 17, 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter and Small Rover.|