Mark Adam Hyman (born November 22, 1959)[citation needed] is an American physician and author.[1][2][3] He is the founder and medical director of The UltraWellness Center and was a columnist for The Huffington Post.[4][5] Hyman was a regular contributor to the Katie Couric Show until the show's cancellation in 2013.[6] He writes a blog called The Doctor’s Farmacy,[7] which examines many topics related to human health and welfare. He is the author of several books on nutrition and longevity, including Food Fix, Eat Fat, Get Thin, and Young Forever.

Mark Hyman
Hyman in 2018
Mark Adam Hyman

(1959-11-22) November 22, 1959 (age 64)
Occupation(s)Physician, author

Hyman is a proponent of functional medicine, a controversial form of alternative medicine.[citation needed] He is the board president of clinical affairs of the Institute for Functional Medicine.[6][8][9] He was the editor-in-chief of, and is a contributing editor to, Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, a peer-reviewed journal.[10] Hyman promotes a diet called peganism, which has been called a fad diet by some dietitians.[11][12]

Education edit

Hyman was born in New York[13] and graduated from Cornell University with a bachelor's degree in Asian Studies.[14] He received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Ottawa and completed his training at the Community Hospital of Santa Rosa in family medicine.[15]

Career edit

Hyman started his medical career as a family physician in rural Idaho and later as an emergency department physician in Massachusetts.[14][16][17] He was the co-medical director at Canyon Ranch in Lenox, Massachusetts, from 1996 to 2004.[14][18] He opened The UltraWellness Center in a small shopping mall in Lenox after leaving Canyon Ranch.[19]

Hyman is one of the most prominent proponents of functional medicine,[20] a controversial form of alternative medicine;[citation needed] there is no definitive clinical evidence of its effectiveness.[21] He is the board president of clinical affairs of the Institute for Functional Medicine,[6][8][9] and is a contributing editor and former editor-in-chief to the journal Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine.[10]

In 2009, Hyman testified before the United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions about integrative medical care.[4][22] Hyman also participated in a Partners In Health program to bring medical care to Haiti following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[1][23]

In December 2013, The Daniel Plan, a book Hyman co-authored with Pastor Rick Warren and Daniel Amen, became Number One on the New York Times bestseller list.[24][25] Hyman is the author of several books on nutrition and health, such as 10 Day Detox Diet.[26] Hyman was named the director of the Cleveland Clinic Center for Functional Medicine in September 2014.[27] He appeared as a featured expert in the 2014 documentary film Fed Up.[27][13]

He collaborated with Robert F. Kennedy Jr.'s 2014 book Thimerosal: Let the Science Speak, writing the preface in which he advocates for the removal of thimerosal from vaccines as a precautionary measure.[28] Hyman convinced Kennedy to remove controversial chapters incorrectly linking thimerosal to autism.[29][30] In 2016, Hyman joined environmentalists and civil rights leaders in calling for federal investigations into U.S. fluoridation policy, writing that communities of color are at particular risk of adverse health impacts.[31]

A 2014 New York Times article described Hyman’s relationship as a medical adviser to Bill and Hillary Clinton.[13]

Quackwatch lists Hyman's 2003 book Ultraprevention: The 6-Week Plan That Will Make You Healthy for Life as one of their non-recommended books due to promoting misinformation and containing unsubstantiated advice.[32]

Peganism edit

Hyman endorsed a low-carbohydrate high-fat diet in his books Eat Fat Get Thin and The Eat Fat, Get Thin Cookbook, published in 2016. In these books, Hyman disputes commonly held ideas about consuming dietary fat.[33] He says that saturated fat does not cause heart disease and obesity; processed carbohydrates do.[33][34][35] Hyman recommends his readers transition to a pegan diet.[33][34]

Hyman promoted the pegan diet, a plant-rich diet that combines principles of the paleo and vegan diets.[11][36] The pegan diet is gluten-free and encourages consumption of nonstarchy vegetables with grass-fed organic meats and low-mercury fish. The diet consists of 75% plant foods and limits fruits to low-glycemic berries.[11] The pegan diet opposes refined sugar and foods that can spike insulin production. The diet also opposes cow's milk but is not dairy free. Hyman allows the occasional organic goat or sheep milk, yogurt, kefir, grass-fed butter, ghee or cheese.[11] Hyman has stated that the pegan diet can be defined by one simple rule: "If God made it, eat it; if man made it, leave it."[11]

Hyman first wrote about the pegan diet in 2014 and outlined it in his book Food: What the Heck Should I Eat?, published in 2018.[37][38]

Reception edit

Peganism has been termed by some dietitians as a fad diet.[11][12] The diet's emphasis on vegetables and omega-3 fats is in accord to mainstream nutrition advice but has been criticized for limiting the consumption of beans and whole grains, which are associated with multiple health benefits such as reducing cardiovascular disease and cancer risk and supporting weight management.[11][39] The pegan diet is restrictive and may cause magnesium, iron or calcium deficiency. Dietitian Abbey Sharp has commented that it "would be shocking to me if anyone was able to maintain this diet in the long run without incurring serious psychological damage".[40]

A review in Publishers Weekly commented that "Pegan is a silly, paradoxical misnomer: no diet can be simultaneously paleo (meat, fats, and few vegetables/fruit) and vegan (with no animal products whatsoever). However, the diet’s recommendations are basically sound: fresh, locally sourced, preferably organic food; nothing refined or processed; and a focus on not raising blood sugar."[41]

Dietitian Carrie Dennett has written that "while the pegan diet is more moderate - and potentially easier to follow - than either of its dietary parents, it does restrict many nutritious foods for reasons that aren't quite supported by science."[11] A downside to the diet is that it can be costly for those with low incomes who cannot afford the expensive "grass-fed" and "pasture-raised" animal source foods that Hyman recommends.[11] Aisling Pigott, a dietitian and spokesperson for the British Dietetic Association, has suggested that the pegan diet is too restrictive to maintain and although some of its principles such as eating more plant-based foods and fewer processed foods are recommended for good health, "labeling this as a 'diet' is unethical and potentially dangerous and difficult to follow."[42]

Dietitian Alyssa Pike has disputed Hyman's claim that gluten should be avoided by people without a gluten allergy or intolerance and concluded that "the concept of this diet, combined with its number of restrictive rules, will likely make it hard to follow long-term and add to confusion about what to eat and why."[43]

Oncologist Adil Akhtar has commented that "the pegan diet has taken good things from the vegan diet and attached it to some of the good things from the paleo diet. Both of them emphasize eating whole, natural foods, and avoiding eating anything processed or anything artificial. If you look at the pegan diet, it's about 75% vegan. The only difference is the source of protein in the vegan diet. Vegans get protein from beans and legumes. On the pegan diet, you're allowed to tap into grass-fed, healthy animal meat".[44] Akhtar has noted that the pegan diet "looks quite close to the Mediterranean diet" and may be helpful to those who want to reduce their risk of developing cancer.[44]

Selected publications edit

  • — (2005). Ultraprevention: The 6-Week Plan that Will Make You Healthy for Life. New York: Atria Books. ISBN 978-0-7434-4883-3. OCLC 57448242.
  • — (2007). The Ultrametabolism Cookbook: 200 Delicious Recipes that Will Turn on Your Fat-Burning DNA. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-1-4165-4959-8. OCLC 156902321.
  • — (2008). The UltraMind Solution: Fix Your Broken Brain by Healing Your Body First: The Simple Way to Defeat Depression, Overcome Anxiety and Sharpen Your Mind. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-1-4165-4971-0. OCLC 297439691.
  • — (2008). Ultrametabolism: The Simple Plan for Automatic Weight Loss: Awakening the Fat-Burning DNA Hidden in Your Body. New York: Atria Books. ISBN 978-0-7432-7256-8. OCLC 213354732.
  • — (2009). The Ultrasimple Diet: Kick-Start Your Metabolism and Safely Lose Up to 10 Pounds in 7 Days. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-1-4391-7131-8. OCLC 351316362.
  • — (2012). The Blood Sugar Solution: The Ultrahealthy Program for Losing Weight, Preventing Disease, and Feeling Great Now. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Co. ISBN 978-0-316-12737-0. OCLC 639167583.
  • — (2014). The Blood Sugar Solution 10-Day Detox Diet: Activate Your Body's Natural Ability to Burn Fat and Lose Weight Fast. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-23002-5. OCLC 843858725.
  • — (2016). Eat Fat, Get Thin: Why the Fat We Eat is the Key to Sustained Weight Loss and Vibrant Health. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-33883-7. OCLC 911070119.
  • — (2018). Food: What the Heck Should I Eat? The No-nonsense Guide to Achieving Optimal Weight and Lifelong Health. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-33886-8.
  • — (2019). Food: What the Heck Should I Cook?. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-45313-4.
  • — (2020). Food Fix: How to Save our Health, Our Economy, Our Communities, and Our Planet - One Bite at a Time. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-45317-2. OCLC 1105151559.
  • — (2023). Young Forever. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0316453189.

References edit

  1. ^ a b "Haiti Relief Aid Unfurls". CBS. 17 January 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  2. ^ "HARDCOVER ADVICE & MISC". The New York Times. 8 April 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  3. ^ "Hardcover Advice & Misc". The New York Times. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  4. ^ a b Mark Hyman (26 February 2009). "Testimony of Mark Hyman, M.D." (PDF). Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  5. ^ "Mark Hyman". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  6. ^ a b c "Dr. Mark Hyman". KAC Productions. Archived from the original on September 25, 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  7. ^ "The Doctor's Farmacy". 17 July 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  8. ^ a b "Board of Directors". Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  9. ^ a b "Physician-author Mark Hyman". PBS. 27 March 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  10. ^ a b "Editorial Board". Alternative Therapies. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dennett, Carrie. (February 4, 2019). "Paleo and veganism have given birth to peganism. But is this new diet any good for you?". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  12. ^ a b "Here’s the latest diet fad called 'peganism'". Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  13. ^ a b c Amy Chozick (April 11, 2014). "He Tells the Clintons How to Lose a Little". The New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  14. ^ a b c Hyman, M. (July 2004). "Mark Hyman, MD practicing medicine for the future". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 10 (4): 82–89. PMID 15285279.
  15. ^ "Mark Hyman, MD". Cleveland Clinic.
  16. ^ "Turning Point: Q&A with Mark Hyman, MD". Kripalu. 7 April 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  17. ^ "Excerpt:The UltraMind Solution'". ABC. 14 January 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  18. ^ Len Sherman (ed.). "The Canyon Ranch Guide to Living Younger Longer". Canyon Ranch. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ Derek Gentile (26 January 2010). "Local couple provides medical relief for grieving Haitians". The Berkshire Eagle. Pittsfield, Massachusetts.
  20. ^ McHale, Fionnuala (October 23, 2018). "Functional medicine: Is it the future of healthcare or just another wellness trend?". Irish Independent.
  21. ^ Gorski, David (September 29, 2014). "Quackademia update: The Cleveland Clinic, George Washington University, and the continued infiltration of quackery into medical academia". Science–Based Medicine. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
  22. ^ "Full Committee Hearing — Integrative Care: A Pathway to a Healthier Nation". US Senate Committee. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  23. ^ Jenn Smith (11 January 2011). "Berkshire volunteers reflect on Haiti's road ahead". The Berkshire Eagle. Pittsfield, Massachusetts.
  24. ^ Anugrah Kumar. "Rick Warren's Bestseller 'Daniel Plan' Seeks to Change Lives, Not Just Food Habits". Christian Post. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  25. ^ "Rick Warren, co-authors discuss their diet program, "The Daniel Plan"". CBS News. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  26. ^ Pesce, Nicole Lyn (Feb 11, 2014). "'10 Day Detox Diet' author Mark Hyman tells how to end sugar addiction and clean up your diet". New York Daily News.
  27. ^ a b Townsend, Angela (22 September 2014). "Cleveland Clinic to open Center for Functional Medicine; Dr. Mark Hyman to be director". Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  28. ^ Functional Medicine (CS31) - YouTube. YouTube. McGill Office for Science and Society. 13 April 2019. Event occurs at 6:18. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  29. ^ Kloor, Keith (July 18, 2014). "Robert Kennedy Jr.'s new book raises questions, but are the answers clear?". The Washington Post.
  30. ^ Kaplan, Sarah (January 10, 2017). "The truth about vaccines, autism and Robert F. Kennedy Jr.'s conspiracy theory". The Washington Post.
  31. ^ SWIS News. Ref: 615 (April 2016). Retrieved 22 Jan 2017
  32. ^ "Nonrecommended Books". Quackwatch. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  33. ^ a b c O'Connor, Anahad. (2016). "Making a Case for Eating Fat". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  34. ^ a b "The Eat Fat, Get Thin Cookbook: More than 175 Delicious Recipes for Sustained Weight Loss and Vibrant Health". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  35. ^ Owen, Jordan. (2016). "Dr. Mark Hyman's New cookbook advises we can 'Eat Fat, Get Thin'". Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  36. ^ Rear, Jack. (2019). "Introducing the 'pegan diet' – like veganism, with added meat". The Telegraph. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  37. ^ "Why I am a Pegan – or Paleo-Vegan – and Why You Should Be Too!". Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  38. ^ "The 13 Pillars of the Pegan Diet". Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  39. ^ "For Your Information: Understanding the Pegan Diet By Judith C. Thalheimer, RD, LDN Today's Dietitian Vol. 17 No. 10 P. 20". Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  40. ^ "The Pegan Diet (Paleo Vegan) | A Dietitian’s Guide to Risks vs Benefits". Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  41. ^ "Food: What the Heck Should I Eat? The No-nonsense Guide to Achieving Optimal Weight and Lifelong Health". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  42. ^ Muzaffar, Maroosha. (2019). "New Millennial Diet: Vegan + Palo = Peganism". Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  43. ^ "What is the Pegan Diet?". Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  44. ^ a b Howley, Elaine K. (July 3, 2019). "What is the Pegan Diet?". U.S. News & World Report.

Further reading edit