Marine Protected Areas in Scotland

A map showing the location of Marine Protected Areas in Scottish waters.

In Scotland, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are areas of sea defined so as to protect to habitats, wildlife, geology, undersea landforms, historic shipwrecks, and to demonstrate sustainable management of the sea.[1] As of December 2018, approximately 22% of Scotland's seas were covered by the Scottish MPA network.[2]

DesignationEdit

 
The Loch Carron MPA is the site of the world's largest flame shell bed.[3]

As of December Scotland's MPA network comprises 231 sites protected by a variety of different conservation designations, many of which are the same as those used on land, such as Special Protection Areas (SPA) and Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI).[2][4] The legal framework differs depending on the designation: for example SSSIs are designated under the Nature Conservation (Scotland) Act 2004.[5] Where not designated under other conservation legislation MPAs are designated under one of two acts of parliament, depending on their location:

Sites are designated as MPAs under these acts for one of three purposes:[8]

  • Nature Conservation MPAs are defined to protect biodiversity
  • Historical MPAs are used to protect sites such as marine wrecks and artefacts
  • One Demonstration and Research MPA has been defined to test novel approaches to marine management

In addition to the statutory MPAs, five sites are recognised as forming part of the Scottish MPA network, being categorised as "other area based measures": such areas, although not specifically created for nature conservation purposes, are considered to contribute to the protection of marine biodiversity. The makeup of the current network is detailed in the table below:[2][4]

Purpose Designation Number
Nature Conservation Special Area of Conservation (SAC) 58
Nature Conservation Special Protection Area (SPA) 47
Nature Conservation Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) 65
Nature Conservation Ramsar 16
Nature Conservation Nature Conservation MPA 31
Total MPAs for nature conservation purposes 217
Demonstration and Research Demonstration and Research MPA 1
Historic Historic MPA 8
Other Area Based Measures 5
Total sites in Scottish MPA network 231

ManagementEdit

The lead body for management of the MPAs is Marine Scotland. For nature conservation sites within territorial waters Scottish Natural Heritage is responsible for developing the network and providing scientific advice to Scottish Government on the selection of sites, and providing advice to Marine Scotland on management once sites are designated. The Joint Nature Conservation Committee fulfils this role for sites in offshore waters, and also has a coordinating role for nature conservation in all the UK's offshore waters.[5] Historic Environment Scotland is responsible for historic MPAs.[9]

Activities undertaken in an MPA can be managed through voluntary measures, or by implementation of Marine Conservation Orders or Inshore Fishing Orders. Management measures (such as restrictions on the type of fishing gear that can be used) may be in place for all or part of an MPA, and may only apply at certain times of year.[8] Environmental groups have criticised the government for failing to enforce fishing rules around MPAs.[10]

List of MPAsEdit

These tables list those MPAs not covered by other designations (i.e. excluding SACs, SPAs, and SSSIs etc.) as of August 2019.[11][12]

Historic MPAsEdit

Name Size (ha) Date Type Advisory body
HMS Campania 7.1[13] 1 November 2013[14] Historic HES
HMS Dartmouth 0.8[15] 1 November 2013[16] Historic HES
Drumbeg 7.1[15] 18 March 2013[17] Historic HES
Duart Point 1.8[18] 1 November 2013[19] Historic HES
Iona I 2.5[20] 26 October 2016[21] Historic HES
Kinlochbervie 28.3[22] 1 November 2013[23] Historic HES
Mingary 19.6[24] 1 November 2013[25] Historic HES
Out Skerries 22.8[26] 1 November 2013[27] Historic HES

Nature Conservation MPAsEdit

Name Size (km2) Date Type Advisory body
Central Fladen 925 7 August 2014[28] Nature Conservation JNCC
Clyde Sea Sill 712 7 August 2014[29] Nature Conservation SNH
East Caithness Cliffs 114 7 August 2014[30] Nature Conservation SNH
East of Gannet and Montrose Fields 1839 7 August 2014[31] Nature Conservation JNCC
Faroe–Shetland Sponge Belt 5278 7 August 2014[32] Nature Conservation JNCC
Fetlar to Haroldswick 216 18 November 2016[33] Nature Conservation SNH
Firth of Forth Banks Complex 2130 7 August 2014[34] Nature Conservation JNCC
Geikie Slide and Hebridean Slope 2215 7 August 2014[35] Nature Conservation JNCC
Hatton-Rockall Basin 1256 7 August 2014[36] Nature Conservation JNCC
Loch Carron 23 19 May 2019[37] Nature Conservation SNH
Loch Creran 12 7 August 2014[38] Nature Conservation SNH
Loch Sunart 49 7 August 2014[39] Nature Conservation SNH
Loch Sunart to the Sound of Jura 741 7 August 2014[40] Nature Conservation SNH
Loch Sween 41 7 August 2014[41] Nature Conservation SNH
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh 37 7 August 2014[42] Nature Conservation SNH
Monach Isles 62 7 August 2014[43] Nature Conservation SNH
Mousa to Boddam 13 7 August 2014[44] Nature Conservation SNH
North-east Faroe–Shetland Channel 23682 7 August 2014[45] Nature Conservation JNCC
North-west Orkney 4365 7 August 2014[46] Nature Conservation JNCC
Norwegian Boundary Sediment Plain 164 7 August 2014[47] Nature Conservation JNCC
Noss Head 8 7 August 2014[48] Nature Conservation SNH
Papa Westray 33 7 August 2014[49] Nature Conservation SNH
Rosemary Bank Seamount 6927 7 August 2014[50] Nature Conservation JNCC
Small Isles 803 18 November 2016[51] Nature Conservation SNH
South Arran 280 7 August 2014[52] Nature Conservation SNH
The Barra Fan and Hebrides Terrace Seamount 4373 7 August 2014[53] Nature Conservation JNCC
Turbot Bank 251 7 August 2014[54] Nature Conservation JNCC
Upper Loch Fyne and Loch Goil 88 7 August 2014[55] Nature Conservation SNH
West Shetland Shelf 4083 7 August 2014[56] Nature Conservation JNCC
Wester Ross 599 7 August 2014[57] Nature Conservation SNH
Wyre and Rousay Sounds 16 7 August 2014[58] Nature Conservation SNH

Demonstration and Research MPAEdit

There is one Demonstration and Research MPA, in the waters surrounding Fair Isle. The MPA was designated on 9 November 2016.[59] The aims of this MPA designation are defined as being:

To demonstrate and research the use of an ecosystem approach, which includes the following -

a) the environmental monitoring of seabirds and of other mobile marine species;
b) the environmental monitoring of the factors which influence the populations of seabirds and of other mobile species;
c) the development and implementation of a local sustainable shellfish fishery;
d) the development of a research programme into local fisheries which includes research on species composition, size, distribution and temporal and spatial changes in fish stocks;

e) based upon the research undertaken under sub-paragraph (d), the development of a sustainable-use management programme for local fisheries.

— Scottish Government[60]

Other area based measuresEdit

Name Size (km2)
East Coast of Scotland (sand eels) 21,320[61]
West of Scotland (blue ling) 6,009[61]
Rosemary Bank (blue ling) 8,955[61]
West Rockall Mound 5,124[61]
North West Rockall 346[61]

Proposed NCMPAsEdit

During 2019 SNH commenced a consultation exercise to consider whether four new areas should be designated as Nature Conservation MPAs, with the having closed on 30 August 2019. The four sites being considered are:[62]

Two further Historic MPAs are also proposed as of 2019, with an Historic Environment Scotland consultation exercise having closed on 27 November.[63] The two proposed sites are:[64]

ReferencesEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • "Scottish MPA network - Parliamentary Report" (PDF). Scottish Government. December 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2019.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ "Scotland's Marine Protected Area network". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Scottish MPA network - Parliamentary Report. p. 11.
  3. ^ "Plan to give Loch Carron permanent protection". BBC. 2018-03-21. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  4. ^ a b Scottish MPA network - Parliamentary Report. p. 32.
  5. ^ a b "Different types of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Scotland" (PDF). Scottish Natural Heritage. 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  6. ^ Scottish MPA network - Parliamentary Report. p. 5.
  7. ^ Javier González-Álvarez (November 2012). "Valuing the Benefits of Designating a Network of Scottish MPAs in Territorial and Offshore Waters" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Possible Marine Protected Area Consultation - Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Scottish Natural Heritage. June 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  9. ^ "Scotland's Historic Marine Protected Areas". Historic Environment Scotland. 14 June 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  10. ^ "Fines to rogue fishermen fall and illegal fishing escapes prosecution". The Ferret. 2019-10-06. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
  11. ^ "SiteLink". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  12. ^ "Search". Historic Environment Scotland. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  13. ^ "Home".
  14. ^ "Campania Historic MPA (HMPA4)". Historic Environment Scotland. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  15. ^ a b "Home".
  16. ^ "Dartmouth Historic MPA (HMPA6)". Historic Environment Scotland. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  17. ^ "Drumbeg Historic MPA (HMPA1)". Historic Environment Scotland. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  18. ^ "Home".
  19. ^ "Duart Point Historic MPA (HMPA7)". Historic Environment Scotland. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  20. ^ "Home".
  21. ^ "Iona I (HMPA8)". Historic Environment Scotland. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  22. ^ "Home".
  23. ^ "Kinlochbervie Historic MPA (HMPA3)". Historic Environment Scotland. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  24. ^ url=http://portal.historicenvironment.scot/document/600000732
  25. ^ "Mingary Historic MPA (HMPA2)". Historic Environment Scotland. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  26. ^ "Home".
  27. ^ "Out Skerries Historic MPA (HMPA5)". Historic Environment Scotland. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  28. ^ "SiteLink: Central Fladen MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  29. ^ "SiteLink: Clyde Sea Sill MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  30. ^ "SiteLink: East Caithness Cliffs MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  31. ^ "SiteLink: East of Gannet and Montrose Fields MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  32. ^ "SiteLink: Faroe-Shetland Sponge Belt MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  33. ^ "SiteLink: Fetlar to Haroldswick MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  34. ^ "SiteLink: Firth of Forth Banks Complex MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  35. ^ "SiteLink: Geikie Slide and Hebridean Slope MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  36. ^ "SiteLink: Hatton-Rockall Basin MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  37. ^ "SiteLink: Loch Carron MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  38. ^ "SiteLink: Loch Creran MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  39. ^ "SiteLink: Loch Sunart MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  40. ^ "SiteLink: Loch Sunart to the Sound of Jura MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  41. ^ "SiteLink: Loch Sween MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  42. ^ "SiteLink: Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  43. ^ "SiteLink: Monach Isles MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  44. ^ "SiteLink: Mousa to Boddam MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  45. ^ "SiteLink: North-east Faroe-Shetland Channel MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  46. ^ "SiteLink: North-west Orkney MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  47. ^ "SiteLink: Norwegian Boundary Sediment Plain MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  48. ^ "SiteLink: Noss Head MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  49. ^ "SiteLink: Papa Westray MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  50. ^ "SiteLink: Rosemary Bank Seamount MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  51. ^ "SiteLink: Small Isles MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  52. ^ "SiteLink: South Arran MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  53. ^ "SiteLink: The Barra Fan and Hebrides Terrace Seamount MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  54. ^ "SiteLink: Turbot Bank MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  55. ^ "SiteLink: Upper Loch Fyne and Loch Goil MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  56. ^ "SiteLink: West Shetland Shelf MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  57. ^ "SiteLink: Wester Ross MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  58. ^ "SiteLink: Wyre and Rousay Sounds MPA(NC)". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  59. ^ "SiteLink".
  60. ^ Scottish MPA network - Parliamentary Report. p. 45}}
  61. ^ a b c d e Scottish MPA network - Parliamentary Report. p. 31.
  62. ^ "2019 possible Nature Conservation Marine Protected Areas consultation". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  63. ^ "Proposal to designate two historic marine protected areas: consultation. Appendix A". Scottish Government. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  64. ^ "Proposal to designate two historic marine protected areas: consultation. The Proposals)". Scottish Government. Retrieved 10 December 2019.

External linksEdit