Mariano Baptista

Mariano Baptista Caserta (16 July 1832 – 19 March 1907, Cochabamba) was a Bolivian politician who served as the 23rd President of Bolivia from 1892 to 1896 and as the 6th Vice President of Bolivia from 1884 to 1888. A member of the Conservative Party, he was renowned for his stirring oratorical style.

Mariano Baptista
Mariano Baptista.jpg
23rd President of Bolivia
In office
11 August 1892 – 19 August 1896
Vice PresidentSevero Fernández
Vacant[a]
Preceded byAniceto Arce
Succeeded bySevero Fernández
6th Vice President of Bolivia
First Vice President
In office
4 September 1884 – 15 August 1888
Serving with Jorge Oblitas
PresidentGregorio Pacheco
Preceded byAniceto Arce
Succeeded byJosé Manuel del Carpio
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship
In office
23 October 1888 – 26 January 1891
PresidentAniceto Arce
Preceded byJuan Francisco Velarde
Succeeded bySerapio Reyes Ortiz
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Government
In office
9 May 1873 – 4 May 1876
PresidentAdolfo Ballivián
Tomás Frías
Preceded byMelchor Terrazas
Succeeded byJorge Oblitas
Personal details
Born
Mariano Baptista Caserta

(1831-07-16)16 July 1831
Calchani, Cochabamba, Bolivia
Died19 March 1907(1907-03-19) (aged 74)
Cochabamba, Bolivia
Political partyConservative
Spouse(s)Gabina Terrazas
Parent(s)José Manuel Baptista
Petrona Caserta
EducationUniversity of Saint Francis Xavier
Signature

Political careerEdit

President of Bolivia during the 1892-96 period and much more agreeable and less severe than his predecessor Aniceto Arce, Baptista vowed to open up the political process and decompress the climate of mutual mistrust between Liberals and Conservatives. To this end, he proclaimed amnesty and did his best to rule transparently and by the rule of law. However, popular fatigue with the Conservatives' successful efforts at replicating themselves in power eroded his support. His reputation took another serious blow when ex-President Hilarión Daza, who had decided to return to Bolivia from exile to explain his controversial actions during the War of the Pacific, was murdered by his own guards upon entering the country from Chile via railway. His murder was never explained, and no one was punished. Most Bolivians felt that Daza's presence (and willingness to talk) discomforted many old wartime leaders of Conservative persuasion (including Arce) and reopened barely healed wounds. In sum, Daza's murder was hung around Baptista like an albatross for the rest of his life. Meanwhile, the political climate continued to deteriorate, presaging the coming of the end of Conservative rule.

Still, some important international treaties were signed during the Baptista administration, especially with Argentina in regard to the Puna de Atacama, with Paraguay concerning the disputed Chaco region, and others with Brazil and Peru. Baptista was also involved in the signing of the first (preliminary) peace treaty ending the War of the Pacific. He retired from politics after the end of his term and died in 1907 at the age of 74.

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The second vice presidency remains vacant due to the death of Juan Federico Zuazo before taking office.[1]

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ "Ley de 10 de agosto de 1892". Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (in Spanish). 10 August 1892. Retrieved 23 October 2021.