- Not to be confused with Maia Mitchell, Australian actress and singer.
Maria Mitchell [pronounced "mə-RYE-ə"] (August 1, 1818 – June 28, 1889) was an American astronomer, who in 1847 by using a telescope, discovered a comet, which as a result became known as "Miss Mitchell's Comet." She won a gold medal prize for her discovery, which was presented to her by King Frederick VI of Denmark. On the medal was inscribed "Non Frustra Signorum Obitus Speculamur et Ortus" in Latin (taken from Georgics by Virgil (Book I, line 257) (English: "Not in vain do we watch the setting and rising [of the stars]"). Mitchell was the first American woman to work as a professional astronomer.
Maria Mitchell, painting by H. Dasell, 1852
|Died||June 28, 1889 (aged 70)|
|Known for||Discovery of C/1847 T1|
First female U.S. professional astronomer
|Awards||King of Denmark's Cometary Prize Medal, 1848|
|Institutions||Nautical Almanac Office, Vassar College, Vassar College Observatory|
Maria Mitchell was born in Nantucket, a small island off the coast of Massachusetts. She was the great-great-great-great granddaughter of Peter Foulger and Mary Morrill Foulger, and through them was a first cousin four times removed of Benjamin Franklin. She had nine brothers and sisters. Her parents, William Mitchell and Lydia Coleman Mitchell, were Quakers. One of the tenets of the Quaker religion was intellectual equality between the sexes and Maria Mitchell thrived in the broader Nantucket community in which such equality was highly regarded.
Maria's parents, like other Quakers, valued education and insisted on giving her the same access to education as boys received. And Maria was fortunate that her father was a dedicated public school teacher who pursued an avid interest in mathematics and astronomy; he saw to it that Maria, who especially showed interest and talent, and all his children were indoctrinated with knowledge of astronomy. Additionally, Nantucket's importance as a whaling port meant that wives of sailors were left for months, sometimes years, to manage affairs at home while their husbands were at sea, thus fostering an atmosphere of relative independence and equality for the women who called the island home.
After attending Elizabeth Gardner small school in her earliest childhood years, Maria attended the North Grammar school, where William Mitchell was the first principal. Two years following the founding of that school, when Maria was 11, her father founded his own school on Howard Street. There, she was a student and also a teaching assistant to her father. At home, Maria's father taught her astronomy using his personal telescope. At age 12 1/2, she aided her father in calculating the exact moment of a solar eclipse.
Her father's school closed, and afterwards she attended Unitarian minister Cyrus Peirce's school for young ladies. Later, she worked for Peirce as his teaching assistant before she opened her own school in 1835. She made the decision to allow nonwhite children to attend her school, a controversial move as the local public school was still segregated at the time. One year later, she was offered a job as the first librarian of the Nantucket Atheneum, where she worked for 20 years.
"Miss Mitchell's Comet"Edit
At 10:50 pm on the night of October 1, 1847, using a Dollond refracting telescope with three inches of aperture and forty six inch focal length, Maria discovered Comet 1847 VI—modern designation C/1847 T1 and later known as "Miss Mitchell's Comet". Under her father's name Mitchell published a notice of her discovery in Silliman's Journal in January 1848. The following month, she submitted her calculation of the comet's orbit, ensuring her claim as the original discoverer. That year, she was celebrated at the Seneca Falls Convention for the discovery and calculation.
Some years previously, King Frederick VI of Denmark had established gold medal prizes to each discoverer of a "telescopic comet" (too faint to be seen with the naked eye). The prize was to be awarded to the "first discoverer" of each such comet (note that comets are often independently discovered by more than one person). Maria Mitchell won one of these prizes, and this gave her worldwide fame, since the only previous women to discover a comet were the astronomers Caroline Herschel and Maria Margarethe Kirch. Her discovery and recognition by the Danish government legitimized American astronomy in Europe, whose astronomers previously looked down on American astronomers.
Temporarily, a question of priority arose because Francesco de Vico had independently discovered the same comet two days later, but had reported it to European authorities first. The question was resolved in Mitchell's favor and she was awarded the prize in 1848 by the new king Christian VIII.
Mitchell began recording sun spots by eye in 1868, but from 1873, her students and she at Vassar College were able to make daily photographic records, allowing more accurate records. These were the first regular photographs of the sun, and they allowed her to explore the hypothesis that sun spots were cavities rather than clouds on the surface of the sun. For the total solar eclipse of July 1878, Mitchell and five assistants travelled with a 4-inch telescope to Denver for observations.
She became the first woman elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1848 and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1850. In 1881, reporting to the Association for the Advancement of Women, Mitchell expressed surprise that no women had been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences after her. Mitchell was also one of the first women elected to the American Philosophical Society (1869, at the same meeting Mary Somerville and Elizabeth Cabot Agassiz were elected). She later worked at the U.S. Nautical Almanac Office, calculating tables of positions of Venus, and traveled in Europe with Nathaniel Hawthorne and his family.
She became professor of astronomy at Vassar College in 1865, the first person appointed to the faculty. She was also named as director of the Vassar College Observatory. Thanks in part to Mitchell's guidance, Vassar College enrolled more students in mathematics and astronomy than Harvard University from 1865 to 1888. Though her students’ career options were limited, she never doubted the importance of their study of astronomy. “I cannot expect to make astronomers,” she said to her students, “but I do expect that you will invigorate your minds by the effort at healthy modes of thinking. When we are chafed and fretted by small cares, a look at the stars will show us the littleness of our own interests.”
After teaching at Vassar for some time, she learned that despite her reputation and experience, her salary was less than that of many younger male professors. Mitchell and Alida Avery, the only other woman on the faculty at that time, insisted on a salary increase, and got it. She taught at the college until her retirement in 1888, one year before her death.
In 1843, she left the Quaker faith and followed Unitarian principles. In protest against slavery, she stopped wearing clothes made of southern cotton. She was friends with various suffragists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and co-founded the Association for the Advancement of Women in 1873.
Mitchell became a celebrity following her discovery and awards, with hundreds of newspaper articles written about her in the subsequent decade. At her home in Nantucket, she entertained prominent academics of the time such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Herman Melville, Frederick Douglass, and Sojourner Truth.
Mitchell never married, but remained close to her immediate family throughout her life. After she retired from Vassar College in 1888, she lived in Lynn, Massachusetts, with her sister Kate and her family. Very few of her personal documents remain from before 1846. The Mitchell family believes she witnessed personal papers of fellow Nantucketers blown through the street by the Great Fire of 1846, and because fear of another fire persisted, she burned her own documents to keep them private.
Mitchell died of brain disease on June 28, 1889, at the age of 70, in Lynn, Massachusetts. She was buried in Lot 411, in Prospect Hill Cemetery, Nantucket. The Maria Mitchell Observatory in Nantucket is named in her honor. The observatory is part of the Maria Mitchell Association in Nantucket, which aims to preserve the sciences on the island. It operates a natural history museum, aquarium, Maria Mitchell's Home Museum, and the Science Library, as well as the observatory. She was also inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame, and was made a National Women's History Month Honoree for 1989 by the National Women's History Project. She was the namesake of a World War II Liberty ship, the SS Maria Mitchell. New York's Metro North commuter railroad (with its Hudson Line endpoint in Poughkeepsie near Vassar College) has a train named the Maria Mitchell Comet in her honor. On August 1, 2013, the search engine Google honored Maria Mitchell with a Google doodle showing her in cartoon form on top of a roof gazing through a telescope in search of comets.
- "Maria Mitchell Biography". Biography. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- "P. Vergilius Maro, Georgics, Book 1, line 257". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Stephanie Sammartino McPherson. Rooftop Astronomer: A Story about Maria Mitchell. Books.google.com. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- "Maria Mitchell". National Women's History Museum. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
- "Maria Mitchell Discovers a Comet". This Month in Physics History. American Physical Society. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- Howe, Julia Ward. Reminiscences, 1819 – 1899, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1900.
- Gormley, Beatrice. Maria Mitchell The Soul of an Astronomer, pp 4-6. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapids, MI, (1995), ISBN 0-8028-5264-5.
- Lisa Norling (2000). Captain Ahab Had a Wife: New England Women and the Whale Fishery, 1720-1870. UNC Press. p. 52. ISBN 0807848700.
- Among The Stars: The Life of Maria Mitchell. Mill Hill Press, Nantucket, MA. 2007
- "Maria Mitchell". 5.uua.org. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- Gormley, Beatrice. Maria Mitchell: The Soul of an Astronomer. Eerdmans Publishing Co, MI. 1995.
- Renée L. Bergland (2008). Maria Mitchell and the Sexing of Science: An Astronomer Among the American Romantics. Beacon Press. p. 29. ISBN 0807021423.
- Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie, Joy Dorothy Harvey, ed. (2000). The biographical dictionary of women in science: Vol. 2: L–Z. Taylor & Francis. p. 901. ISBN 9780415920407.
Professional experience: Nantucket Atheneum, librarian (1836–1856)
- Tappan, Eva March, Heroes of Progress: Stories of Successful Americans, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1921. Cf.pp.54-60
- AJS, 2nd Ser., v. 5, 1848, p. 83, Wm. Mitchell, On the Comet of October 1st, 1847.
- Maria Mitchell, Life, Letters, and Journals, compiled by Phebe Mitchell Kendall, 1896, p. 9 & 19.
- Gormley, Beatrice. Maria Mitchell The Soul of an Astronomer, p 47. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, Grand Rapids, MI, (1995), ISBN 0-8028-5264-5.
- "Miss Maria Mitchell and the King of Denmark". The National Era (newspaper), March 22, 1849". News.google.com. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- Bergland, Renée (2008). Maria Mitchell and the Sexing of Science. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8070-2142-2.
- "Maria Mitchell's Gold Medal - Maria Mitchell Association". www.mariamitchell.org.
- Waxman, Olivia (August 18, 2017). "Think This Total Solar Eclipse Is Getting a Lot of Hype? You Should Have Seen 1878". Time. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter M" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory (1978). "Maria Mitchell: The Advancement of Women in Science". New England Quarterly. 51 (1): 39–63.
- "Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz, live and works". Women-philosophers.com. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- "Maria Mitchell". Vassar Encyclopedia. Vassar College. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- 1963-, Bergland, Renée L., (2008). Maria Mitchell and the sexing of science : an astronomer among the American romantics. Boston: BeaconPress. p. 176. ISBN 9780807021422. OCLC 180851908.
- "Miss Mitchell's Comet". The Attic. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
- "Maria Mitchell Salary Dispute". Vassar Encyclopedia. Vassar College. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- Gail M. Beaton (November 15, 2012). Colorado Women: A History. University Press of Colorado. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-60732-207-8.
- Q., Van der Does, Louise (1999). Renaissance women in science. Simon, Rita J. (Rita James), 1931-2013. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America. ISBN 0761814809. OCLC 41674415.
- 1963-, Bergland, Renée L., (2008). Maria Mitchell and the sexing of science : an astronomer among the American romantics. Boston: Beacon Press. p. 74. ISBN 9780807021422. OCLC 180851908.
- 1963-, Bergland, Renée L., (2008). Maria Mitchell and the sexing of science : an astronomer among the American romantics. Boston: Beacon Press. p. 82. ISBN 9780807021422. OCLC 180851908.
- Beatrice Gormley (2004). Maria Mitchell: The Soul of an Astronomer. Eerdmans Young Readers. pp. 116–118. ISBN 0802852645.
- Renée L. Bergland (2008). Maria Mitchell and the Sexing of Science: An Astronomer Among the American Romantics. Beacon Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-8070-2142-2.
Great Fire of 1846 and seeing personal documents
- "Prospect Hill Cemetery, Nantucket, Massachusetts". Prospecthillcemetery.com. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- "Maria Mitchell - Retirement and a Return to Lynn". Maria Mitchell Association. Archived from the original on September 3, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
- Hoffleit, Dorrit (2001). "The Maria Mitchell Observatory--For Astronomical Research and Public Enlightenment" (pdf). The Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. 30 (1): 62. Bibcode:2001JAVSO..30...62H.
- "Biographies". National Women's History Project. August 1, 2017.
- "Maria Mitchell's 195th Birthday". Google.com. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Khan, Amina (August 1, 2013). "Google doodle: Maria Mitchell, first pro female astronomer in U.S." Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Barber, Elizabeth (August 1, 2013). "Google Doodle honors Maria Mitchell, first American female astronomer (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- "Notice of a reward by the King of Denmark for the discovery of Comet", MNRAS 2 (1832) 59
- "Elements of Miss Mitchell's Comet", MNRAS 8 (1848) 130
- "Discontinuance of the King of Denmark's comet medal", AJ 1 (1850) 56 (due to First war of Schleswig)
- Works by Maria Mitchell at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Maria Mitchell at Internet Archive
- Kendall, Phebe Mitchell. Maria Mitchell: Life, Letters, and Journals. Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1896. (out of print; compiled by her sister)
- M. W. Whitney, In Memoriam, (Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1889)
- M. K. Babbitt, Maria Mitchell as her students Knew her, (Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1912)
- Albers, Henry editor "Maria Mitchell, A Life in Journals and Letters" College Avenue Press, Clinton Corners, NY, 2001. (Henry Albers was the Fifth Maria Mitchell Professor of Astronomy at Vassar College.)
- Torjesen, Elizabeth Fraser, Comet Over Nantucket: Maria Mitchell and Her Island: The Story of America's First Woman Astronomer, (Richmond, IN: Friends United Press, 1984)
- Renée Bergland, Maria Mitchell and the Sexing of Science: An Astronomer Among the American Romantics, Beacon Press, Boston, 2008.
- Wright, Helen, Sweeper in the Skies: The Life of Maria Mitchell, (College Avenue Press, Clinton Corners, NY, 1997. ISBN 1-883551-70-6. (Commemorative Edition of 1949 edition. Wright was born in Washington, DC and served as assistant in Astronomy Dept. at Vassar and later US Naval Observatory and Mt. Wilson Observatory.Wrote bios of Geo. Hale and Palomar Observatory & w. Harold Shapley co-ed of Treasury of Science)
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Mitchell, Maria.|
- Encyclopædia Britannica biographical information
- Works by Maria Mitchell at Open Library
- Maria Mitchell Association
- Unitarian Universalist Biography of Maria Mitchell
- Prospect Hill Cemetery
- Bibliography from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
- Episode 5: Maria Mitchell from Babes of Science podcasts
- Maria Mitchell at Find a Grave
- Michals, Debra. "Maria Mitchell". National Women's History Museum. 2015.