Margaret Brown (née Tobin; July 18, 1867 – October 26, 1932), posthumously known as the "Unsinkable Molly Brown", was an American socialite and philanthropist. She was a survivor of the RMS Titanic, which sank in 1912, and she unsuccessfully urged the crew in Lifeboat No. 6 to return to the debris field to look for survivors.
July 18, 1867
Hannibal, Missouri, U.S.
|Died||October 26, 1932 (aged 65)|
New York City, U.S.
|Resting place||Cemetery of the Holy Rood, Westbury, New York|
|Other names||Margaret Tobin Brown, Maggie Brown, Molly Brown, Mrs. James J. Brown|
|Known for||Survivor of the Titanic sinking|
(m. 1886; separated 1909)
During her lifetime, her friends called her "Maggie", but by her death, obituaries referred to her as the "Unsinkable Mrs. Brown". Gene Fowler referred to her as "Molly Brown" in his 1933 book Timberline. The following year, she was referred to as the "Unsinkable Mrs. Brown" and "Molly Brown" in newspapers.
Early life Edit
Margaret Tobin is believed by scholars to have been born on July 18, 1867, in a hospital near the Mississippi River in Hannibal, Missouri, on Denkler's Alley.[a] The three-room cottage is now the Molly Brown Birthplace and Museum on 600 Butler Street in Hannibal. Her parents were Irish Catholic immigrants John Tobin and Johanna (Collins) Tobin.[b] Her siblings were Daniel Tobin, Michael Tobin, William Tobin, and Helen Tobin. Both of Margaret's parents had previously been married to other spouses who had died. Brown had two half-sisters: Catherine Bridget Tobin, by her father's first marriage, and Mary Ann Collins, by her mother's first marriage. Called Maggie by her family, she attended her maternal aunt's school, Mary O'Leary's grammar school, which was across the street from her home. Nearby was also the Hannibal Gas Works where her father worked as a laborer. Their neighborhood was a tight-knit Irish Catholic community, where people traveled westward through the town for the gold fields.: 63
At age 18, Margaret relocated to Leadville, Colorado, with her siblings Daniel Tobin, Mary Ann Collins Landrigan, and Mary Ann's husband John Landrigan. Margaret and her brother Daniel shared a two-room log cabin, and she found work sewing carpets and draperies at a dry goods store, Daniels, Fisher and Smith. Daniel was a miner.
Marriage and children Edit
In Leadville, she met and married James Joseph Brown (1854–1922), nicknamed "J.J.", an imaginative, self-educated man. He was not a rich man, and she married J.J. for love. After his death she said,
I wanted a rich man, but I loved Jim Brown. I thought about how I wanted comfort for my father and how I had determined to stay single until a man presented himself who could give to the tired older man the things I longed for him. Jim was as poor as we were and had no better chance. I struggled hard with myself in those days. I loved Jim, but he was poor. Finally, I decided that I'd be better off with a poor man whom I loved than with a wealthy one whose money had attracted me. So I married Jim Brown.: 44–45
Margaret and J.J. married in Leadville Annunciation Church on September 1, 1886. They had two children: Lawrence Palmer Brown (1887–1949), known as Larry, and Catherine Ellen Brown (1889–1969), known as Helen.: 51, 52, 117 They also raised three of their nieces: Grace, Florence, and Helen Tobin.: xxiv
Mining success Edit
The Brown family acquired great wealth when in 1893, J.J.'s mining engineering efforts proved instrumental in the exploration of a substantial ore seam at the Little Jonny Mine.: 56–57 His employer, Ibex Mining Company, awarded him 12,500 shares of stock and a seat on the board. In Leadville, Margaret helped by working in soup kitchens to assist miners' families.
In 1894, the Browns bought a $30,000 Victorian mansion in Denver now known as the Molly Brown House. In 1897, they built a summer house, Avoca Lodge in Southwest Denver near Bear Creek, which gave the family more social opportunities. Margaret became a charter member of the Denver Woman's Club, whose mission was the improvement of women's lives by continuing education and philanthropy. Adjusting to the trappings of a society lady, Brown became immersed in the arts and fluent in French, German, Italian, and Russian. Brown co-founded a branch in Denver of the Alliance Française to promote her love of French culture.: 34, 145–146 She lobbied for women's right to vote.[c]
J.J. was not interested in the social life that Brown enjoyed and the couple began to drift apart. After 23 years of marriage, Margaret and J.J. privately signed a separation agreement in 1909. She received a $700 monthly allowance (equivalent to $23,000 in 2022) to continue her travels and political work.: 167
Brown assisted in fundraising for Denver's Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, which was completed in 1911. She also worked with Judge Ben Lindsey to help destitute children and establish one of the United States' first juvenile courts.
Passenger on the Titanic Edit
Brown spent the first months of 1912 in Paris, visiting her daughter and as part of the John Jacob Astor IV party, until she received word from Denver that her eldest grandchild, Lawrence Palmer Brown Jr., was ill. She immediately booked passage on the first available liner leaving for New York, the RMS Titanic.: 1–2 Originally, her daughter Helen was supposed to accompany her, but Helen, who had studied at the Sorbonne in Paris, decided to take a side trip to London with friends.: 2–3 Brown boarded the Titanic as a first-class passenger on the evening of April 10, conveyed aboard the tender SS Nomadic at Cherbourg, France,: 3–4 and sailed for New York City that night.
The Titanic sank early on April 15, 1912, at around 2:20 a.m., after striking an iceberg at around 11:40 p.m. the previous night. Brown helped other people board the lifeboats but was finally persuaded to abandon ship in lifeboat no. 6. More than 1,500 aboard the "unsinkable ship" perished; there were a total of 2,224 people on the ship.
After her death in 1932, Brown was called "Molly Brown" and "The Unsinkable Mrs. Brown" by authors because she helped in the ship's evacuation, taking an oar herself in her lifeboat and urging the lifeboat crew to go back and save more passengers. Her urgings were met with opposition from Quartermaster Robert Hichens, the crewman in charge of lifeboat 6. Hichens was fearful that if they were to go back, the lifeboat would either be pulled down due to suction, or those in the water would swamp the boat in an effort to get in. After several attempts to urge Hichens to turn back, Brown threatened to throw him overboard.
Upon being rescued by the ship RMS Carpathia, Brown proceeded to organize a committee with other first-class survivors. The committee worked to secure basic necessities for the second- and third-class survivors, and even provided informal counseling.
Later life and death Edit
In 1914, six years before the Nineteenth Amendment granted women the right to vote, Brown ran for Colorado's U.S. Senate seat, but she ended her campaign to serve abroad as the director of the American Committee for Devastated France during World War I. Also in 1914, she contributed to miners and their families during the 1914 Ludlow coal mine disaster and she helped organize the International Women's Rights conference that year, which was held in Newport, Rhode Island.
During and after World War I, she worked in France with the Red Cross and later with the American Committee for Devastated France to help wounded French and American soldiers and rebuild areas behind the front line. For her work organizing female ambulance drivers, nurses, and food distributors, Brown was awarded the French Legion of Honor in 1932.
J.J. Brown died on September 5, 1922.: 220 Margaret told newspapers, that although she had met royalty and other great people around the world, "I've never met a finer, bigger, more worthwhile man than J.J. Brown.": 217 J.J. Brown left vast, yet complicated, real estate, mining, and stock holdings. It was unknown to the Browns and their lawyers how much was left in the estate. Prior to J.J.'s death, he had transferred a large amount of money to his children. Their children were also unaware how much money Margaret had, but were displeased at the large amounts she spent on charity. Margaret Brown and her children fought in court for six years to settle the estate.: 220–221
In the 1920s, Margaret Brown focused her energy on personal passions, especially the theater. She died in her sleep at 10:55 p.m. on October 26, 1932, at age 65, in New York City's Barbizon Hotel. Subsequent autopsy revealed a brain tumor. She was buried next to J.J. at St. Brigid's cemetery, now known as Cemetery of the Holy Rood, in Westbury, New York, following a small ceremony on October 31, 1932, attended by close friends and family. There was singing, but no eulogy.
Margaret's fame as a Titanic survivor helped her promote the philanthropic and activism issues she felt strongly about. She was concerned about the rights of workers and women, education and literacy for children, historic preservation, and commemoration of the bravery and chivalry displayed by the men aboard the Titanic.
Her Denver, Colorado home has been a museum since 1971. Tours and programs share the story of a woman once known as “Molly” Brown, but the true story of Margaret Tobin Brown reveals a leader and activist whose lasting legacy shows the impact one can have when a community rallies around a common cause.
- Thelma Ritter (1953) (Titanic). Brown's name was changed to Maude Young, and her Colorado gold mining fortune became a Montana lead mining fortune.
- Cloris Leachman (1957) (Telephone Time) ("The Unsinkable Molly Brown")
- Tucker McGuire (1958) (A Night to Remember)
- Tammy Grimes (1960) (The Unsinkable Molly Brown) (Broadway musical) Grimes won a Tony Award for her performance.
- Debbie Reynolds (1964) (The Unsinkable Molly Brown). Reynolds received an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress.
- Cloris Leachman (1979) (S.O.S. Titanic) (TV movie)
- Fionnula Flanagan (1983) (Voyagers!) ("Voyagers of the Titanic")
- Marilu Henner (1996) (Titanic) (TV miniseries)
- Kathy Bates (1997) (Titanic)
- Judy Prestininzi (2003) (Ghosts of the Abyss) (Documentary)
- Linda Kash (2012) (Titanic) (TV series/2 episodes)
- Beth Malone (2020) (The Unsinkable Molly Brown) (Off Broadway revival)
See also Edit
- The street was also known as Denkler Alley and Denklers Alley.
- Her father, John Tobin, was said to be an abolitionist who supported the Underground Railroad. According to Kelli Atter, director of the Molly Brown House Museum, "the [Tobin] children grew up believing it was their civic duty to help Irish Catholics and African Americans, both highly marginalized groups at the time". According to the Molly Brown House Museum and the Molly Brown from Hannibal book, John Tobin was believed by family lore to be an abolitionist in Virginia and Underground Railroad supporter. Irish immigrants were often supporters of the Underground Railroad in Virginia, which was a slave state. By 1860, Tobin lived in Hannibal, Missouri, which was a major "gateway to freedom" on the Underground Railroad. John Tobin served in the Union militia in Missouri, which was a slave state.
- Brown gave parties that were attended by Denver socialites, but it has been said that she was unable to gain entry into the most elite group, Sacred 36, who attended exclusive bridge parties and dinners held by Louise Sneed Hill. She was rejected primarily because she was Roman Catholic and Irish. After surviving the sinking of the RMS Titanic, though, she was invited to lunches by socialites.
- Barczewski, Stephanie L. (January 1, 2004). Titanic: A Night Remembered. A&C Black. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-1-85285-434-8.
- "Quiet Services Held for 'Unsinkable Mrs. Brown'". The San Bernardino County Sun. November 1, 1932. p. 2. Retrieved September 4, 2022.
- "Books and Things – Gene Fowler's "Timber Line" book mentions Molly Brown". The Charleston Daily Mail. November 2, 1933. p. 6. Retrieved May 1, 2023.
- "Deeds of Heroism Seemed the Natural Action of "The Unsinkable Mrs. Brown"". The Kansas City Times. January 11, 1934. p. 16. Retrieved May 1, 2023.
- "Margaret Tobin Brown" (PDF). Molly Brown House Museum. Retrieved September 2, 2022.
- Marks, Lisa (June 29, 2017). "Celebrating Molly Brown on her 150th birthday". Hannibal Magazine.
- "Molly Brown – American parvenue". Britannica. Retrieved September 2, 2022.
- "Molly Brown Birthplace". Visit Hannibal. Retrieved September 4, 2022.
- Harbold, Laura (May 2007). "BEYOND Unsinkable". The National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
- Malcomb, Andrea (June 30, 2019). "Irish Diaspora and Colorado". Molly Brown House Museum. Retrieved August 16, 2023.
- Marks, Ken; Marks, Lisa (2013). Molly Brown from Hannibal, Missouri: Her Life in the Gilded Age. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 22, 35, 41. ISBN 978-1-61423-924-6.
- Harper, Kimberly. "Molly Brown (1867–1932)". Historic Missourians. State Historical Society of Missouri. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
- Iversen, Kristen (1999). Molly Brown: Unraveling the Myth. Boulder: Johnson Books.
- "Collection: Margaret "Molly" Tobin Brown Papers – Identifier WH53 – Microfilm Mflm175". Denver Public Library Archives, Western History and Genealogy. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
- Sigillito, Gina (April 24, 2012). The Daughters Of Maeve: 50 Irish Women Who Changed World. Kensington Publishing Corp. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-8065-3609-5.
- Landau, Elaine (2001). Heroine of the Titanic: The Real Unsinkable Molly Brown. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-395-93912-3.
- National Mining Hall of Fame and Museum (January 3, 2007). "Ibex Mining Company buildings". Mines Repository. Retrieved September 4, 2022.
- Kinder, Libby (June 26, 2020). "Such a Fine Sight to See: Setting the record straight at Margaret Tobin Brown's lavish home in downtown Denver". Gazette Cheyenne Edition. Retrieved September 4, 2022.
- "Molly Brown | American parvenue". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
- "Margaret "Molly" Tobin Brown". Colorado Women's Hall of Fame. Retrieved September 6, 2022.
- Jeanne Varnell (1999). Women of Consequence: The Colorado Women's Hall of Fame. Big Earth Publishing. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-55566-214-1.
- "High Society and the Mining Hall of Fame". Colorado Central Magazine. September 1, 2005. Retrieved August 16, 2023.
- Pak, Eudie (August 2, 2019). "Molly Brown and 11 Other Famous Titanic Passengers". Biography. Retrieved September 4, 2022.
- Cimino, Eric (Fall 2017). "Carpathia's Care for Titanic's Survivors". Voyage, Journal of the Titanic International Society. 101: 28.
- Elias, Megan (2002). Colorado: The Centennial State. Gareth Stevens. ISBN 978-0-8368-5130-4.
- "Mrs Margaret Brown (Molly Brown) (née Tobin)". Encyclopedia Titanica. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- "Thunder Mesa Riverboat Landing". Disneyland Paris. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
Further reading Edit
- Margaret Brown at Find a Grave
- Molly Brown House Museum, Denver
- "Louise Sneed Hill and Denver's "Sacred Thirty-Six" - Fairmount Cemetery". Fairmount Cemetery. April 23, 2013. Archived from the original on July 2, 2018.