Marcin Knackfus

Marcin Knackfus (Lithuanian: Martynas Knakfusas, c. 1742 – c. 1821) was a Polish–Lithuanian Neoclassical architect of German descent. Born near Warsaw, he worked in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and particularly in its capital Vilnius. He was a tutor of Laurynas Gucevičius.[1]

Vilnius University Observatory, one of the best examples of early Neoclassicism in Lithuania

Knackfus was influenced by other Polish–German architects of late Baroque (Ephraim Schröger and Szymon Bogumił Zug) and early Neoclassicism (Domenico Merlini and Johann Christian Kammsetzer).[2] He moved to Vilnius around 1768. Knackfus served as captain of the Army of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and lectured at military engineering school.[3] Between 1773 and 1777 he taught courses in theory and practical application of architecture at Vilnius University.[4] He participated in the 1794 Kościuszko Uprising. Fearing persecutions of the Tsarist authorities, he retreated to Suvalkija and largely retired.[5]

His works include Verkiai Palace (1769–1781),[6] Palace of de Reuss in front of the Daukantas Square (1775),[7] expansion of Astronomical Observatory of Vilnius University (1782–1788),[8] late Baroque churches of Troškūnai (1774–1787) and Kurtuvėnai (1783–1792),[9] Vilnius Botanical Garden (1784),[3] altar for All Saints Church, Vilnius (1787),[9] St. Bartholomew Church in Užupis (1788),[10] supervision of the construction of the Green Bridge (1789),[11] church in Trakai (1789–1790),[9] Tyzenhaus Palace (around 1790), archives of the Lithuanian Tribunal (1790),[12] residential palace (presently used by Vilnius Conservatory of Juozas Tallat-Kelpša; 1790),[13] manor and park in Paežeriai, Vilkaviškis district (1794),[5] parish school in Troškūnai (1796),[5] Basanavičius street in Vilnius (1798).[14]

Knackfus worked with numerous nobles, including Bishops Ignacy Jakub Massalski and Ignacy Krasicki, Field Hetman Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, voivode Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł, Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski, Grand Marshal Stanisław Lubomirski.[15]

ReferencesEdit

Notes
  1. ^ Čerbulėnas (1994), p. 295
  2. ^ Čerbulėnas (1994), pp. 275–276
  3. ^ a b Čerbulėnas (1986), p. 346
  4. ^ Čerbulėnas (1994), p. 273
  5. ^ a b c Čerbulėnas (1994), p. 279
  6. ^ Drėma (1991), p. 383
  7. ^ Drėma (1991), p. 324
  8. ^ Klimka (2003), p. 651
  9. ^ a b c Čerbulėnas (1994), p. 276
  10. ^ Drėma (1991), p. 358
  11. ^ Drėma (1991), p. 376
  12. ^ Drėma (1991), p. 120
  13. ^ Drėma (1991), p. 171
  14. ^ Čerbulėnas (1994), p. 208
  15. ^ Čerbulėnas (1994), p. 487
Bibliography
  • Čerbulėnas, Klemensas (1986). "Knakfusas, Martynas". In Jonas Zinkus; et al. (eds.). Tarybų Lietuvos enciklopedija. Vol. 2. Vilnius: Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija. LCCN 86232954. (in Lithuanian)
  • Čerbulėnas, Klemensas (1994). Lietuvos architektūros istorija: Nuo XVII a. pradžios iki XIX a. vidurio (in Lithuanian). Vol. II. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla. ISBN 5-420-00583-2.
  • Drėma, Vladas (1991). Dingęs Vilnius (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Vaga. ISBN 5-415-00366-5.
  • Klimka, Libertas (2003). "Overview of the History of Vilnius University Observatory". Baltic Astronomy. 12 (4): 649. Bibcode:2003BaltA..12..649K. doi:10.1515/astro-2017-00101. ISSN 1392-0049. S2CID 140171682.