Maoist insurgency in Turkey

The Maoist insurgency in Turkey, referred by the Maoists as the People's War (Turkish: Halk savaşı), is an ongoing low-level insurgency in eastern Turkey between the Turkish government and Maoist rebels that began in the early 1970s. The insurgency declined in the late 1980s and 1990s and has been sidelined by the larger Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present). Low-level armed attacks continue to be carried out by Maoist insurgent groups, the most significant of which are the Liberation Army of the Workers and Peasants of Turkey (TİKKO) (the armed wing of the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist) and the People's Liberation Army (HKO) and People's Partisan Forces (PHG), both armed wings of the Maoist Communist Party.

Maoist insurgency in Turkey
Date24 April 1972 – present
(52 years, 1 month and 3 weeks)
Location
Turkey, mainly in Tunceli Province
Status Ongoing
Belligerents
Government of Turkey

TKP/ML

MKP-HKO-PHG
Maoist Party Centre
Commanders and leaders

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
(2014–present)
Yaşar Güler
(2023–present)
Metin Gürak
(2023–present)
Ali Yerlikaya
(2023–present)

Former:

İbrahim Kaypakkaya Executed
Süleyman Cihan 
Kazım Çelik 
Mehmet Demirdağ 


Cüneyt Kahraman 
Cafer Cangöz 
Nubar Ozanyan 
Units involved

Turkish Armed Forces

Turkish Gendarmerie

Special Forces Command
General Directorate of Security


Strength
Unknown Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

Background

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On 24 April 1972, the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist (TKP/ML, sometimes incorrectly referred to as Partizan after the name of one of its publications) was formed by a radical group led by İbrahim Kaypakkaya, and intended to wage a people's war. However, a year later Kaypakkaya was captured, tortured and killed. In 1978, it had its first conference, affirming its plan for guerrilla warfare, although the idea of armed rebellion remained in theory with little progress made to fruition.[1] The TKP/ML was involved in political violence between left and right wing groups in the 1970s.

In the late 1980s, the TKP/ML suffered from a series of splits following the party's second congress. In 1993, the TKP/ML attempted unsuccessfully to reunify with the Maoist Communist Party (Turkey)

On 17 May 1985, the TKP/ML broadcast a propaganda message to millions of television viewers in Istanbul, replacing the soundtrack for the evening news.[2]

Insurgency

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1970-80s

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TKP/ML's military wing, the Liberation Army of the Workers and Peasants of Turkey (TİKKO), carried out militant and guerrilla actions in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, mainly in the Tunceli Province, whose inhabitants saw the Maoist guerrilla war as revenge for the repression of the Dersim rebellion in 1938.[3] TİKKO reached its height during this period, carrying out guerrilla warfare in the mountainous areas of the Tunceli and Black Sea regions.[4]

2000s

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In 2000, Turkish security forces launched operations against TİKKO insurgents in the provinces of Tokat and Sivas. Discovering 12 hideouts, they recovered nine machine guns, four rocket launchers, grenades, and explosives, as well as 10 tonnes of food and medicine.[5]

  • On 11 December 2000, TİKKO insurgents open fire on a police special task force, killing two and wounding 12.[6]
  • In 2001, police captured five insurgents and weapons including two 9K111 Fagot anti-tank missiles.[7]
  • In March 2009, Tamer Bilici, a doctor in service during a 2000 hunger strike in Kandıra F-type prison, was "in front of his house punished with death" by MKP-HKO for being a public enemy because he was blamed for the deaths and permanent disabilities of inmates.[8] In September 2009 MKP-HKO claimed responsibility for the death of a retired colonel, Aytekin İçmez.[9]

2010s

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2010–2014

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  • Tunceli: On 29 June 2010, two guerrillas of the TİKKO were killed in the mountains of Tunceli by the Turkish state forces.
  • Tunceli: On 2 February 2011, five guerrillas of TİKKO in Tunceli died as a result of an avalanche.[10][11]
  • Tunceli: On 15 November 2012, 24 guerrillas of HKO were surrounded and captured in Tunceli.[12][13]
  • Tunceli: On 26 July 2013, the control building of a hydroelectric power plant regulator was bombed in the countryside of Tunceli Province by TİKKO militants.[14]
  • Tunceli: 14 March 2014, TİKKO guerrillas attacked a police station in Tunceli. TKP/ML declared that the attack was revenge for the death of Berkin Elvan.[15][16]
  • Tunceli: On 8 July 2014, TİKKO guerrillas stopped a truck carrying five workers to a base station at Altınyüzük and set the vehicle on fire.[17][18]
  • Tunceli: On 15 August 2014, TiKKO guerrillas attacked a Gendarmerie Station in Ovacik. No casualties were reported.

2015–2018

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  • In June 2015, MKP-PHG killed former colonel Fehmi Altinbilek.
  • Tunceli: On 22 July, TİKKO guerrillas attacked a Gendarmerie Station in Hozat. No casualties were reported.
  • Tunceli: 10 October, guerrillas of the PKK and the TKP / ML-TİKKO attacked the military base of Geyiksuyu in the province of Tunceli.[19]
  • Tunceli: On 15 October, TİKKO guerrillas attacked the military base of Amukta, in Hozat county.[20]
  • Tunceli: On 21 October, three TİKKO guerrillas died in a clash with TSK in Ovacık.[21] The funeral of guerrillas was attended by hundreds of people, who sang songs and shouted revolutionary slogans.[22]
  • Tunceli: 9 May 2016, two TİKKO guerrillas were killed in Geyiksuyu, Tunceli during a clash with TSK Soldiers.
  • Tunceli: During 24–28 November, twelve guerrillas of TKP/ML TİKKO died during an army operation at Aliboğazı region of the Tunceli province.[23]
  • Istanbul: On 10 February 2017, TİKKO fighters set fire to the AKP headquarter in Pendik district.[24]
  • Tunceli: On 18 June, MKP-HKO guerrillas attacked the military base of Kuşluca in Tunceli, Halkin Günlüğü claimed the attack killed two soldiers and wounded one.[25]
  • Tunceli: On 1 August, three MKP-HKO guerrillas were killed in a clash with TSK in Ovacık.[26][27]
  • Tunceli: 18 August, two MKP-HKO guerrillas died when they were surrounded in Hozat by the armed forces.[28][29]
  • Tunceli: On 26 September, two MKP-HKO guerrillas were killed by TSK soldiers in Ovacık.[30][31][32]
  • On 16 November, four MKP-HKO guerrillas were killed in clashes with TSK.[citation needed]
  • Tunceli: On 24 April 2018, two female TİKKO guerrillas were killed and another was captured by TSK Soldiers in.[citation needed]
  • Tunceli: On 5/6 August, six TİKKO guerrillas were killed by the Turkish Army.[citation needed]
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The TKP-ML came to be the most influential socialist organisation within Dersim's society to the point that they became an organic component of their politico-cultural collective belonging.[33] Individuals supported by ideological descendants of the TKP-ML in Dersim received a third of votes in elections in 2009.[34]

In culture

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See also

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References

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  1. ^ "History of the Communist Movement in Turkey". www.bannedthought.net. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  2. ^ A World to Win Magazine, 1985, "TKP/ML seizes the airwaves 8PM News Break"
  3. ^ Construction of a Nation: The Early Years of the Turkish Republic and Dersim Events
  4. ^ Turkey and the War on Terror: "For Forty Years we Fought Alone", page 27
  5. ^ "Hürriyet Daily News". Archived from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  6. ^ "RAND - NSRD - Projects - RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents". Smapp.rand.org. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  7. ^ "Hürriyet Daily News". Archived from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  8. ^ "MKP: F Tipi katillerinden biri cezalandırıldı". Sosyalistforum.net. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  9. ^ Hüseyin TÜCCAR- Erdoğan PAÇİN (30 September 2009). "MKP-HKO emekli albayı öldürdü". Sabah. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  10. ^ "To the Press and the Public: 5 martyrs of TKP/ML-TİKKO died in Tunceli" (PDF). Bannedthought.net. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  11. ^ Mike Ely. "Turkey: Five Communist Fighters Killed in Avalanche". Kasama Project. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  12. ^ "24 MKP/HKO Militanı Teslim Oldu İddiası". Dersim News, Dersim Haber, Dersim, Tunceli Haber, Dersim Haber Sitesi, Dersim Haberleri, Tunceli Haberleri,Dersim 38, Kırmancki, Zazaca, Dersimce, Alevi Haberleri, Pülümür, Hozat, Ovacık, Mazgirt, Nazımiye, Çemişgezek, Erzincan, Erzincan Haber, Varto, Varto Haber, Kiğı, Kiğı Haber, Bingöl, Bingöl Haber, Gündem, Haber, Haberler, Avrupa Haber, Alevi Haber, Alevi Haberleri. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  13. ^ "Arkadaşlar, siz de teslim olun askerler bize çok iyi davranıyor". Dersimnews.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  14. ^ "Hydroelectric Plant Regulator Bombed in Tunceli". Bianet - Bagimsiz Iletisim Agi. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  15. ^ "TİKKO'dan Berkin Elvan için misilleme eylemi". BestaNûçe Bestanuce.com. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  16. ^ Özgür Gelecek. "Gerilladan Berkin Elvan için misilleme eylemi". Ozgurgelecek.nl. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  17. ^ Özgür Gelecek. "Dersim'de gerilladan baz istasyonu eylemi". Ozgurgeleck.net. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  18. ^ "Communist terrorist group sets truck ablaze in eastern Turkey". dailysabah.com. 9 July 2014. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  19. ^ "Turquie : La guérilla maoïste et la guérilla kurde mènent une opération conjointe". Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  20. ^ "TKP/ML -TİKKO'dan Ankara şehitlerinin anısına eylem - ATİK Online". www.atik-online.net. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  21. ^ "Özgür Gelecek - Paşêroja Azad - Günlük Haber Bülteni - YDG: Halk Savaşçıları Ölümsüzdür! Mücadeleniz, Mücadelemizdir!". www.ozgurgelecek.org. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  22. ^ Seyri Sokak (4 November 2015). "Mercan şehitleri:Cengiz, Hakan, Özgüç". Retrieved 11 September 2017 – via YouTube.
  23. ^ "Özgür Gelecek - Paşêroja Azad - Günlük Haber Bülteni - TİKKO Rojava "12'leri anmak, onların boş kalan mevzilerini doldurmaktır"". ozgurgelecek1.net. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  24. ^ "Özgür Gelecek - Paşêroja Azad - Günlük Haber Bülteni - TİKKO militanları Kürdistan için AKP binasını ateşe verdi". www.ozgurgelecek.org. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  25. ^ "MKP/HKO gerillalarından eylem!". Archived from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  26. ^ "MKP/HKO'dan Ovacık muharebesine ilişkin açıklama!". Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  27. ^ "Ovacık'ta 3 MKP/HKO gerillası şehit düştü". Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  28. ^ "Hozat'ta iki MKP/HKO gerillası ölümsüzleşti". Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  29. ^ "MKP/HKO gerillaları ölümsüzlük yolculuğunda". Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  30. ^ "Dersim-Ovacık'ta 2 MKP/HKO gerillası ölümsüzleşti". Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  31. ^ "Özgür Gelecek | Paşêroja Azad | Günlük Haber Bülteni | Ovacık'ta 2 MKP/HKO gerillası ölümsüzleşti". wayback.archive-it.org.
  32. ^ "Ovacık'ta ölümsüzleşen HKO savaşçılarının isimleri netleşti!". Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  33. ^ Sözen, Ü. (2019). Culture, Politics and Contested Identity among the “Kurdish” Alevis of Dersim: The Case of the Munzur Culture and Nature Festival. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 6(1), 65. https://www.jstor.org/stable/48710205
  34. ^ Sözen, Ü. (2019). Culture, Politics and Contested Identity among the “Kurdish” Alevis of Dersim: The Case of the Munzur Culture and Nature Festival. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 6(1), 65. https://www.jstor.org/stable/48710205
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