Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla

Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla (22 March 1833 – 13 June 1895) was a Spanish politician. He served as Prime Minister of Spain for a little over ten weeks, in the summer of 1871, and again for eight months, between June 1872 and February 1873.

Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla
Ruiz Zorrilla, de Laurent.jpg
Photographed by J. Laurent
Prime Minister of Spain
In office
24 July 1871 – 5 October 1871
MonarchAmadeo
Preceded byFrancisco Serrano
Succeeded byJosé Malcampo
In office
16 June 1872 – 12 February 1873
MonarchAmadeo
Preceded byFernando Fernández de Córdova (acting)
Succeeded byEstanislao Figueras
Personal details
Born22 March 1833
Burgo de Osma, Spain
Died13 June 1895 (aged 62 years)
Burgos, Spain
Political partyProgressive Party
Radical Democratic Party
Progressive Republican Party
Signature

BiographyEdit

Born in Burgo de Osma, he was educated at Valladolid and studied law at the Central University of Madrid, where he leaned towards radicalism in politics. In 1856, he was elected deputy and soon attracted notice among the most advanced Progressists and Democrats.[1]

Ruiz Zorrilla took part in the revolutionary propaganda that led to the military movement in Madrid on 22 June 1866. He had to take refuge in France for two years, like his fellow conspirators, but he returned to Spain when the revolution of 1868 took place. He was one of the members of the first cabinet after the revolution, and in 1869, under the regency of Marshal Serrano, he became Minister of Grace and Justice. In 1870, he was elected President of the Congress of Deputies and seconded Juan Prim in offering the throne to Amadeus of Savoy. He went to Italy as President of the Commission and carried, to the Prince at Florence, the official news of his election.[1]

Initiated as Freemason in the Mantuana Lodge in Madrid by July 1870, Ruiz Zorrilla (symbol: Cavour; degree: 33) barely took days to become Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Spain [es] Grand Lodge in a process full of irregularities, serving in that capacity until 1 January 1874.[2] Ruiz Zorrilla did not actually preside over nor attend the meetings, and successively delegated the chair of the lodge to Simón Gris Benítez, Manuel Llano y Persi [es] and José Carvajal.[3]

On the arrival of Amadeus in Spain, Ruiz Zorrilla became Minister of Public Works for a short time before resigning in protest against Serrano and Topete entering the councils of the new king. Six months later, in 1871, he was invited by Amadeus to form a cabinet, and he continued to be the principal councillor of the king until February 1873, when the monarch abdicated.[1][4]

After the departure of Amadeus, Ruiz Zorrilla advocated the establishment of a republic, but he was not called upon either by the Federal Republicans to help them during 1873 or by Marshal Serrano in 1874 to join Martos and Sagasta in his cabinet. Immediately after the Restoration of the monarchy, early in 1875, Ruiz Zorrilla again went to France.[1]

He was for nearly 18 years the soul of the republican conspiracies, the prompter of revolutionary propaganda and the chief inspirer of intrigues concerted by discontented military men of all ranks. He gave so much trouble to the Madrid governments that they organized a watch over him with the assistance of the French government and police, especially when it was discovered that the two military movements of August 1883 and September 1886 had been prepared and assisted by him. During the last two years of his life, he became less active. Failing health and the loss of his wife had decreased his energies, and the Madrid government allowed him to return to Spain some months before he died at Burgos, of heart disease.[1]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Chisholm 1911, p. 1039.
  2. ^ López Casimiro 2013, p. 616; Sánchez Casado 2009, p. 180; Álvarez Lázaro 1987, pp. 28–29
  3. ^ Álvarez Lázaro 1987, p. 29–30.
  4. ^ "Sexenio Revolucionario (30.09.1868 / 31.12.1874)". Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.

ReferencesEdit

Citations
Bibliography
Attribution
Government offices
Preceded by
Minister of Development
1868–1869
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Grace of Justice
1869–1870
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of the Congress of Deputies
1870–1871
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Development
1871
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of the Council of Ministers
1871
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Governation
1871
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of the Council of Ministers
1872–1873
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Governation
1872–1873
Succeeded by
Masonic offices
Preceded by
Carlos Magnán
Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Spain [es]
1870–1874
Succeeded by
Juan de la Somera