Mankayan, officially the Municipality of Mankayan (Ilocano: Ili ti Mankayan; Tagalog: Bayan ng Mankayan), is a 1st class municipality in the province of Benguet, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 37,233 people. [3]

Mankayan
Municipality of Mankayan
Lepanto Mines Airstrip
Lepanto Mines Airstrip
Flag of Mankayan
Official seal of Mankayan
Motto(s): 
North to the Future of Benguet
Map of Benguet with Mankayan highlighted
Map of Benguet with Mankayan highlighted
OpenStreetMap
Mankayan is located in Philippines
Mankayan
Mankayan
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 16°51′24″N 120°47′36″E / 16.8567°N 120.7933°E / 16.8567; 120.7933Coordinates: 16°51′24″N 120°47′36″E / 16.8567°N 120.7933°E / 16.8567; 120.7933
CountryPhilippines
RegionCordillera Administrative Region
ProvinceBenguet
District Lone district
Founded1955
Barangays12 (see Barangays)
Government
[1]
 • TypeSangguniang Bayan
 • MayorFrenzel A. Ayong
 • Vice MayorJoseph Denver B. Tongacan
 • RepresentativeNestor B. Fongwan
 • Electorate20,852 voters (2019)
Area
 • Total130.48 km2 (50.38 sq mi)
Elevation
1,338 m (4,390 ft)
Highest elevation
2,214 m (7,264 ft)
Lowest elevation
666 m (2,185 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [3]
 • Total37,233
 • Density290/km2 (740/sq mi)
 • Households
8,062
Economy
 • Income class1st municipal income class
 • Poverty incidence10.35% (2018)[4]
 • Revenue₱175,268,339.49 (2020)
 • Assets₱334,594,585.92 (2020)
 • Expenditure₱170,584,450.59 (2020)
 • Liabilities₱28,917,760.34 (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityBenguet Electric Cooperative (BENECO)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
2608
PSGC
IDD:area code+63 (0)74
Native languagesKankanaey
Ibaloi
Ilocano
Tagalog

The municipality is known as a mining town, being the location of several mines, including the Lepanto Consolidated Mining Company.[5][6]

EtymologyEdit

The name "Mankayan" is derived from Nancayan, the Hispanic term of the native name of the place, Nangkayang (which means "high up in the mountain").[5][6]

HistoryEdit

Pre-colonial periodEdit

Nangkayang was once a heavily forested area. The natives of the surrounding settlements of Panat and Bag-ongan mined gold through the labon system, after its reported discovery in a river. Copper was later discovered by the end of the 16th century in Kamangga-an (location of present-day Lepanto).[6]

Spanish periodEdit

By the 1800s, the Spanish colonial government sent expeditions to survey the mines. On February 3, 1850, an expedition led by engineer Don Antonio Hernandez confirmed the presence of copper in Mankayan.

In 1852, Lepanto was established by the Spanish as a comandancia politico-militar,[6][7] composed of several rancherias which included Mankayan.[5]

Seven different mines were discovered in the Mankayan-Suyoc region during Admiral Pedro Durán de Monforte's 1667 expedition, and Simón de Anda's administration (1770-1776) mentioned Igorot copperware. In 1833, Galvey sent ore samples from Gambang ("copper"), Suyoc, and Mankayan, to the governor. The first Spanish mining claim on the Cordillera was made by Tomás Balbas y Castro on 26 March 1856,[8] and established a mining company called the Sociedad Minero-Metalurgica Cantabro Filipino de Mancayan.[5] The company ceased operations in 1875.[6]

American periodEdit

Under the American rule, Mankayan remained under the jurisdiction of Lepanto, and later Lepanto-Bontoc until the latter's dissolution. Mankayan was later annexed to the sub-province of Benguet as a municipal district in 1913.[5][6]

The mining boom in Mankayan began in 1933, with American Victor Lednickey establishing the Lepanto Consolidated Mining Company on September 26, 1936.[5][6]

Second World WarEdit

In 1942, following the outbreak of the war, the Lepanto Consolidated Mining Company, together with the Suyoc Consolidated Mining Company, were taken over by the Japanese Mitsui Mining Company, which renamed the mines into "Mitsui Mankayan Copper Mines". The Mitsui Company controlled the mines until 1945.[5][6][9]

Post-war eraEdit

After the war, the Lepanto Consolidated Mining Company resumed the mining operations.[5][6]

Mankayan was converted from a municipal district into a regular municipality on June 16, 1955, by virtue of Republic Act 1302.[10][11]

In 2018, in order to preserve the highly artistic gangsa-making intangible heritage of the Mankayan elders, the cultural masters of the town converged and began teaching the younger generations the process and importance of gangsa-making to their way of life, effectively preserving indigenous gong culture in the town.[12]

GeographyEdit

Mankayan is on the north-western tip of Benguet. It is bordered by Bakun on the west, Buguias on the southeast, Tadian and Bauko on the east, and Cervantes on the north-west.

Mankayan is 94 kilometres (58 mi) from Baguio, 89 kilometres (55 mi) from La Trinidad, and 344 kilometres (214 mi) from Manila.

According to the Philippine Statistics Authority, the municipality has a land area of 130.48 square kilometres (50.38 sq mi)[13] constituting 4.71% of the 2,769.08-square-kilometre- (1,069.15 sq mi) total area of Benguet.

BarangaysEdit

Mankayan is politically subdivided into 12 barangays.[14] These barangays are headed by elected officials: Barangay Captain, Barangay Council, whose members are called Barangay Councilors. All are elected every three years.


PSGC Barangay Population ±% p.a.
2020[3] 2010[15]
141111001 Balili 17.6% 6,537 6,236 0.47%
141111002 Bedbed 2.8% 1,058 864 2.03%
141111003 Bulalacao 8.6% 3,205 3,349 −0.44%
141111004 Cabiten 5.7% 2,129 1,854 1.38%
141111005 Colalo 3.4% 1,268 1,232 0.29%
141111006 Guinaoang 6.0% 2,249 1,855 1.93%
141111008 Paco 15.4% 5,744 6,035 −0.49%
141111009 Palasaan 6.3% 2,358 2,348 0.04%
141111010 Poblacion 6.9% 2,572 3,084 −1.79%
141111011 Sapid 8.6% 3,218 3,271 −0.16%
141111012 Tabio 10.4% 3,855 3,792 0.16%
141111013 Taneg 4.7% 1,760 1,666 0.55%
Total 37,233 35,586 0.45%

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Mankayan, Benguet
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 20
(68)
22
(72)
23
(73)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
21
(70)
23
(73)
Average low °C (°F) 13
(55)
14
(57)
15
(59)
17
(63)
18
(64)
18
(64)
18
(64)
18
(64)
18
(64)
17
(63)
16
(61)
15
(59)
16
(61)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 35
(1.4)
46
(1.8)
63
(2.5)
117
(4.6)
402
(15.8)
400
(15.7)
441
(17.4)
471
(18.5)
440
(17.3)
258
(10.2)
94
(3.7)
68
(2.7)
2,835
(111.6)
Average rainy days 9.9 11.1 13.9 18.9 26.0 27.3 28.9 28.5 26.1 19.7 14.5 12.8 237.6
Source: Meteoblue [16]

DemographicsEdit

Population census of Mankayan
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 118—    
1918 2,977+24.01%
1939 6,865+4.06%
1948 5,742−1.97%
1960 13,812+7.59%
1970 21,780+4.65%
1975 24,123+2.07%
1980 25,684+1.26%
1990 32,889+2.50%
1995 34,699+1.01%
2000 34,502−0.12%
2007 34,563+0.02%
2010 35,586+1.07%
2015 35,953+0.20%
2020 37,233+0.69%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[17][15][18][19]

In the 2020 census, Mankayan had a population of 37,233. [3] The population density was 290 inhabitants per square kilometre (750/sq mi).

EconomyEdit


GovernmentEdit

Mankayan, belonging to the lone congressional district of the province of Benguet, is governed by a mayor designated as its local chief executive and by a municipal council as its legislative body in accordance with the Local Government Code. The mayor, vice mayor, and the councilors are elected directly by the people through an election which is being held every three years.

Elected officialsEdit

Members of the Municipal Council
(2019–2022)[27]
Position Name
Congressman Nestor B. Fongwan[a]

Eric G. Yap (since January 20, 2020)[29]

Mayor Frenzel A. Ayong
Vice-Mayor Joseph Denver B. Tongacan
Councilors Aldrin S. Camiling
Julio Joey C. Culliao
Baylon P. Galuten
Balodoy M. Totanes
Hector B. Gacita
Alejandro N. Wagian
Norberto N. Anasan
Alexander A. Dapiawen

EducationEdit

Public schoolsEdit

As of 2014, Mankayan has 35 public elementary schools and 9 public secondary schools.[30][31][32]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Died on December 18, 2019.[28]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Municipality of Mankayan | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d Census of Population (2020). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  4. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. 15 December 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Municipality of Mankayan". Province of Benguet (official website). Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Municipality of Mankayan, Benguet". Department of the Interior and Local Government - Cordillera Administrative Region (official website). 29 April 2013. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  7. ^ "History: Benguet Province". Province of Benguet (official website). Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  8. ^ Scott, William (1974). The Discovery of the Igorots. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. pp. 57–60, 245–246. ISBN 9711000873.
  9. ^ Bagamaspad, Anavic; Hamada-Pawid, Zenaida (1985). A People's History of Benguet. Baguio Printing & Publishing Company, Inc. p. 299.
  10. ^ "R.A. No. 1302: An Act to Convert the Municipal District of Mankayan, Sub-province of Benguet, Mountain Province, into a Municipality". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  11. ^ "R.A. No. 1302: An Act to Convert the Municipal District of Mankayan, Sub-province of Benguet, Mountain Province, into a Municipality". PhilippineLaw.info. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  12. ^ http://pia.gov.ph/news/articles/1004356
  13. ^ "Province: Benguet". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  14. ^ "Municipal: Mankayan". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  15. ^ a b Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  16. ^ "Mankayan: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Meteoblue. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  17. ^ Census of Population (2015). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  18. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
  19. ^ "Province of Benguet". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  20. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  21. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/NSCB_LocalPovertyPhilippines_0.pdf; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  22. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2003%20SAE%20of%20poverty%20%28Full%20Report%29_1.pdf; publication date: 23 March 2009; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  23. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2006%20and%202009%20City%20and%20Municipal%20Level%20Poverty%20Estimates_0_1.pdf; publication date: 3 August 2012; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  24. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2012%20Municipal%20and%20City%20Level%20Poverty%20Estima7tes%20Publication%20%281%29.pdf; publication date: 31 May 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  25. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/City%20and%20Municipal-level%20Small%20Area%20Poverty%20Estimates_%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015_0.xlsx; publication date: 10 July 2019; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  26. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. 15 December 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  27. ^ "2019 National and Local Elections" (PDF). Commission on Elections. Retrieved March 12, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  28. ^ Cimatu, Frank (December 19, 2019). "Benguet Representative Nestor Fongwan dies at 68". Rappler.com. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
  29. ^ "House names party-list solon as Benguet caretaker". Philippine News Agency. January 22, 2020. Retrieved March 12, 2022.
  30. ^ "Masterlist of Public Elementary Schools for the School year 2012- 2013". Department of Education (Philippines), July 15, 2013. Archived from the original (XLSX) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  31. ^ a b "Masterlist of Secondary Schools (School Year 2013- 2014)". Department of Education (Philippines), July 4, 2013. Archived from the original (XLSX) on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  32. ^ a b "Masterlist of Public Schools SY 2013-2014". Department of Education (Philippines), 22 October 2014. Archived from the original (XLSX) on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2014.

External linksEdit