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Author and period of compositionEdit

There is some controversy about the exact date of this work. S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar believed it must have been composed before the 4th century because the text speaks of a united army of Cheras and Pandyas attacking a Chola viceroy at Kanchi.[4] Paula Richman believes it was composed in the 6th century CE.[5] According to Hikosaka, Manimekalai was written between A.D. 890 and 950, an inference based on linguistic assessment.[6]

The aim of the author, Seethalai Saathanar (or Cīttalai Cāttanār) was to compare Buddhism favourably with the other prevailing religions in South India in order to propagate Buddhism. He criticizes and exposes the weaknesses of the other contemporary Indian religions, while praising the Buddha's Teaching, the Dharma, as the most perfect religion.

The EpicEdit

As a continuation of Silappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்), this epic describes how Manimekalai, the beautiful daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi,[7] follower of local deities later included in Hinduism, converted to Buddhism. According to the poem, Maṇimekalai studies the six systems of philosophy of Hinduism and other prevalent religions of the time and compares them to the teachings of the Buddha. She is most impressed with Buddhism which treats everyone equal with loving kindness and fraternity. Later, upon hearing doctrinal expositions from the Buddhist teacher Bhikshu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, she becomes a dedicated Bhikshuni or Buddhist nun. Manimekhalai fully practices the Buddha's teachings and attains the highest stage of Buddhist spiritual knowledge or attainment, i.e. she became an arhant. The Manimekhalai poem thus is an example of female spiritual empowerment within a culture wherein otherwise there were few options for women. Pandit Iyothee Thass (1845-1914) revealed more about Manimekalai as "Arachchelvi" (Female Arhant) and documented some original poems written by Seeththalai Saththanar, which are not available in the Manimekalai as edited by U.V. Swaminatha Iyer who allegedly left out some of the original poems.

The epic gives much information on the history of Tamil Nadu, Buddhism and its place during that period, contemporary arts and culture, and the customs of the times. The exposition of the Buddhist doctrine in the poem deals elegantly with the Four Noble Truths (ārya-satyāni), Dependent Origination (pratītyasamutpāda), mind (citra) and Buddhist practices like virtue (Śīla) and non-violence (ahimsa).[8][9]


The poem is set in both the harbour town of Kāveripattinam, the modern town of Poompuhar in Tamil Nadu, and in Nainatheevu of Nāga Nadu, a small sandy island of the Jaffna Peninsula in modern Sri Lanka. The story runs as follows: The dancer-courtesan Manimekalai is pursued by the amorous Cholan prince Udayakumāran, but rather wants to dedicate herself to a religious celibate life. The sea goddess Manimekala Theivam or Maṇimekhalā Devī puts her to sleep and takes to the island Maṇipallavam (Nainatheevu). After waking up and wandering about the island Maṇimekalai comes across the Dharma-seat, the seat on which Buddha had taught and appeased two warring Naga princes, which was placed there by the God Indra. Those who worship it miraculously know their previous life. Manimekalai automatically worships it and recollects what had happened in her previous life.

She then meets the guardian goddess of the Dharma seat, Deeva-Teelakai (Dvīpa Tilakā) who explains to her the significance of the Dharma seat and lets her acquire the magic never-failing begging bowl (cornucopia) called Amṛta Surabhi (”cow of abundance”), which will always provide food to alleviate hunger. The goddess also predicts that Bhikshu Aravaṇa Aḍigal in her native town will teach her more. Manimekalai then used the mantra which the sea goddess had given her and returns to Kāveripaṭṭinam, where she meets the Bhikshu Aravaṇa Aḍigal, who expounds her the Buddha's Teaching and advises her about the nature of life. She then becomes a Buddhist nun or Bhikshuni and practices to rid herself from the bondage of birth and death and attain Nirvāṇa.[10]

Notable charactersEdit

  • Manimekalai - The daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi, who was born with bravery and virtues.
  • Udayakumaran - The Chola King, who was madly in love with Manimekalai. He was a foolish king, who wanted things done only in the way he wanted them to be.
  • Sudhamati - Manimekalai's most faithful and trustworthy friend.
  • Manimekalā - The sea goddess who protects the heroine.
  • Deeva Teelakai - Guardian Goddess of the Dharma seat. She was born in the town of Puhar and got married to a merchant. Her husband once traveled to trade. Even after so many days he didn't return. Feared and worried that her husband might have died she tries to give away her life. (Not by suicide but by doing "sathiya paritchai" i.e. praying to God to take away her life due to the death of her husband). Suddenly she hears a voice from the sky which says that her husband is alive and he will come back. But Deeva Teelakai expresses her disinterest in a family life and her interest in spirituality. She then gets the Amirta Surabhi and was also guided by the voice to travel to the Dharma seat and protect it until she meets her destiny.

Disappearance of Kāveripaṭṭinam or PuhārEdit

The poem relates that the town Kāveripattinam or Puhār was swallowed up by the sea (i.e. destroyed by a tsunami or flood) due to the Cholan King not holding the annual Indra festival and thereby causing the wrath of the sea goddess Manimekalā. This account is supported by archaeological finds of submerged ruins off the coast of modern Poompuhar.[11][12] Ancient ruins of a 4th-5th century Buddhist monastery, a Buddha statue, and a Buddhapāda (footprint of the Buddha) were also found in another section of the ancient city, now at Pallavanesvaram.[13] The town of Kāveripaṭṭinam is believed to have disappeared between the 3rd and the 6th century CE.[14]

Buddhist School AffiliationEdit

The work contains no direct references to Mahāyāna as propagated by Nagarjuna, etc., and appears to be a work of an early Buddhist, Sravakayana school such as the Sthavira or Sautrantika school. The emphasis on "the path of the Pitakas of the Great One" (i.e. Tipitaka or Dvipiṭaka) and the exposition of Dependent Origination, etc., in Chapter 30, could suggest that it is work of the Sautrantika school.[15] A.K. Warder instead suggests that the poem may be affiliated with the Theravada school.

In the conclusion of the poem, Aravaṇa Aḍigal encourages full liberation from the three roots of evil—greed, hatred and delusion (rāga, dosa, moha). The final sentence of the poem states that Maṇimekhalai strove to rid herself of the bondage of birth. This emphasis on liberation from the defilements (kilesa), ending the cycle of birth, old age and death (samsara), and becoming an arahant, also suggests that the author of the poem was affiliated to an early Sravakayana Buddhist school.[16] Aiyangar (p. 80) suggests that the Buddhist logic as expounded by Aravaṇa Aḍigal in Chapter 29 of the Maṇimekhalai antedates the logic of Dignāga and his school.

Survival of TextEdit

The Manimekhalai is the only extant Tamil Buddhist literary work of what once was an extensive literature. The reason for its survival is probably its status as the sequel to the Silapathikaram or Sīlappadhikāram.[5] Tamil Nadu produced many Buddhist teachers who made valuable contributions to Tamil, Pali and Sanskrit literature. Reference to their works is found in Tamil literature and other historical records.

Lost Tamil Buddhist works are the poem Kuṇḍalakesī by Nāgaguttanār, the grammar Vīrasoliyam, the Abhidhamma work Siddhāntattokai, the panegyric Tiruppadigam, and the biography Bimbisāra Kadai.[17]


The first translation of Manimekalai by R. B. K. Aiyangar, was published in Maṇimekhalai in its Historical Setting.[18] Extracts of this were republished in Hisselle Dhammaratana's Buddhism in South India [17] A more recent translation of the poem was done by Alain Daniélou with the collaboration of T.V. Gopala Iyer.[19]

There is also a Japanese translation by Shuzo Matsunaga, published in 1991.

Publishing in modern timesEdit

A palm leaf manuscript with ancient Tamil text.

U. V. Swaminatha Iyer (1855-1942 CE) resurrected the first three epics of Tamil literature from appalling neglect and wanton destruction of centuries.[20] He reprinted this literature present in the palm leaf form to paper books.[21] Ramaswami Mudaliar, a Tamil scholar first gave him the palm leaves of Civaka Cintamani to study.[20] Being the first time, Swaminatha Iyer had to face a lot of difficulties in terms of interpreting, finding the missing leaves, textual errors and unfamiliar terms.[20] He went for tiring journeys to remote villages in search of the missing manuscripts. After years of toil, he published Civaka Cintamani in book form in 1887 CE followed by Silapadikaram in 1892 CE and Manimekalai in 1898 CE.[20] Along with the text, he added a lot of commentary and explanatory notes of terms, textual variations and approaches explaining the context.[20]

Criticism and ComparisonEdit

To some critics, Manimekalai is more interesting than Silappadikaram, but in terms of literary evaluation, it seems inferior.[22] The story of Manimekalai with all its superficial elements seems to be of lesser interest to the author himself whose aim was pointed toward spreading Buddhism.[22] In the former, ethics and religious doctrine are central, while in the latter poetry and storyline dominate. Manimekalai also criticizes Hinduism while preaching the ideals of Buddhism as it downplays human interests in favor of supernatural features. The narration in akaval meter moves on in Manimekalai without the relief of any lyric, which are the main features of Silappadikaram.[23]

Manimekalai in puritan terms is not an epic poem, but a grave disquisition on philosophy.[24] There are effusions in the form of a song or a dance, which style may not go well with western audiences as they are assessed to be inspired on the spur of the moment.[25] According to Calcutta review, the three epics on the whole have no plot and no characterization for an epic genre.[24] The plot of Civaka Cintamani is monotonous and deficient in variety in strength and character and does not stand the quality of an epic.[24]

Ramayana ReferenceEdit

Like the Silappatikaram, this epic also makes several references to the Ramayana, such as a setu (bridge) being built by monkeys in canto 5, line 37 (however the location is Kanyakumari rather than Dhanushkodi). In another reference, in canto 17, lines 9 to 16, the epic talks about Rama being the incarnate of Trivikrama or Netiyon, and he building the setu with the help of monkeys who hurled huge rocks into the ocean to build the bridge. Further, canto 18, lines 19 to 26, refers to the illegitimate love of Indra for Ahalya the wife of Rishi Gautama(Pandian, 1931, p.149)(Aiyangar, 1927, p.28).[26][27][28] This seems to indicate that the story of the Ramayana was familiar in the Tamil lands before the Kamba Ramayanam of the 12 Century.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Manimekalai - Original Text in Tamil
  2. ^ Manimekalai - English transliteration of Tamil original
  3. ^ Mukherjee 1999, p. 277
  4. ^ S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar, Maṇimekhalai in its Historical Setting, London, 1928, pp. vii–viii, xxvi-xxvii
  5. ^ a b Paula Richman, ”Cīttalai Cāttanār, Manimekhalai” summary in Karl H. Potter ed.,The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Buddhist philosophy from 350 to 600 A.D. New Delhi, 2003, pp.458.
  6. ^ Hikosaka 1989.
  7. ^ Bhanu, Sharada (1997). Myths and Legends from India - Great Women. Chennai: Macmillan India Limited. pp. 7–9. ISBN 0-333-93076-2.
  8. ^ Rao Bahadur Krishnaswāmi Aiyangar, Maṇimekhalai in its Historical Setting, London, 1928, p.185, 201, etc.. Available at [1]
  9. ^ Paula Richman, ”Cīttalai Cāttanār, Manimekhalai” summary in Karl H. Potter ed.,The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Buddhist philosophy from 350 to 600 A.D. New Delhi, 2003, pp.457–462.
  10. ^ Hisselle Dhammaratana, Buddhism in South India, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, 1964. Available at Buddhist Publication Society Online Library [2]
  11. ^ Gaur A. S. and Sundaresh, Underwater Exploration off Poompuhar and possible causes of its Submergence, 1998, Puratattva, 28: 84-90. Available online at [3]
  12. ^ Marine archaeological explorations of Tranquebar-Poompuhar region on Tamil Nadu coast, Rao, S.R.. Journal of Marine Archaeology, Vol. II, July 1991, pp. 5–20. Available online at [4]
  13. ^ Marine archaeological explorations of Tranquebar-Poompuhar region on Tamil Nadu coast., Rao, S.R.. Journal of Marine Archaeology, Vol. II, July 1991, pp. 6. Available online at [5]
  14. ^ ”Indian town sees evidence of ancient tsunami”, Associated Press report, Poompuhar,1/14/2005. Available online at [6]
  15. ^ Rao Bahadur Krishnaswāmi Aiyangar, Maṇimekhalai in its Historical Setting, London, 1928, p.xxvii, p. 85, 104, 188. Available at [7]
  16. ^ Aiyangar p. 230.
  17. ^ a b Hisselle Dhammaratana, Buddhism in South India, Kandy, 1964. Available online at Buddhist Publication Society Online Library Buddhism in South India.
  18. ^ Rao Bahadur Krishnaswāmi Aiyangar, Maṇimekhalai in its Historical Setting, London, 1928. Available at [8]
  19. ^ Alain Daniélou & Iyer, Manimekhalai: the Dancer with the Magic Bowl by Shattan, New York, 1989.
  20. ^ a b c d e Lal 2001, pp. 4255-4256
  21. ^ M.S. 1994, p. 194
  22. ^ a b Zvelebil 1974, p. 141
  23. ^ Zvelebil 1974, p. 142
  24. ^ a b c University of Calcutta 1906, pp. 426-427
  25. ^ Paniker 2003, p. 7
  26. ^ Pandian, Pichai Pillai (1931). Cattanar's Manimekalai. Madras: Saiva Siddhanta Works. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  27. ^ Aiyangar, Rao Bahadur Krishnaswami (1927). Manimekhalai In Its Historical Setting. London: Luzac & Co. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  28. ^ Shattan, Merchant-Prince (1989). Daniélou, Alain (ed.). Manimekhalai: The Dancer With the Magic Bowl. New York: New Directions.


  • N. Balusamy, Studies in Manimekalai, Madurai: Athirai Pathippakam, 1965.
  • Brenda E.F. Beck. The three twins : the telling of a South Indian folk epic, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1982.
  • Alain Danielou, translator, with the collaboration of T.V. Gopala Iyer, Manimekhalai: the dancer with the magic bowl, New Delhi: Penguin Books, 1993.
  • Hisselle Dhammaratana, Buddhism in South India, Kandy, 1964. Available online at Buddhist Publication Society Online Library Buddhism in South India
  • Gaur A. S. and Sundaresh, Underwater Exploration off Poompuhar and possible causes of its Submergence, 1998, Puratattva, 28: 84-90. Available online at [9]
  • Hikosaka, Shu (1989), Buddhism in Tamilnadu: a new perspective, Madras: Institute of Asian Studies
  • K. Kailasapathy, Tamil Heroic Poetry, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.
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