Man'en (万延) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Ansei and before Bunkyū. This period spanned the years from March 1860 through February 1861.[1] The reigning emperor was Kōmei-tennō (孝明天皇).

Change of eraEdit

  • March 18, 1860 (Man'en 1 (万延元年)): The new era name was created to mark the destruction caused by a fire at Edo Castle and the assassination of Ii Naosuke (also known as "the disturbance" or "the incident" at the Sakurada-mon).[2] The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Ansei 7.

The new era name is derived from an hortatory aphorism to be found in The Book of the Later Han: "With 100,000,000,000 descendants, your name will forever be recorded" (豊千億之子孫、歴万載而永延).

Events of the Man'en eraEdit

  • 1860 (Man'en 1): First Western professional photographer to establish residence in Japan, Orrin Freeman began living in Yokohama[3]
  • 1860 (Man'en 1): First foreign mission to the United States.[4]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Man'en" Japan Encyclopedia, p. 607, p. 607, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File Archived 2012-05-24 at
  2. ^ Satow, Ernest Mason et al. (1905). Japan 1853-1864, Or, Genji Yume Monogatari, p. 38.
  3. ^ Hannavy, John. (2007). Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Photography, Vol. 1, p. 770., p. 770, at Google Books
  4. ^ Press release: "First Japanese Diplomatic Mission to U.S. Is Subject of May 24 Lecture," Library of Congress, April 16, 2010.


  • Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 48943301
  • Satow, Ernest Mason and Baba Bunyei. (1905). Japan 1853-1864, Or, Genji Yume Monogatari. Tokyo: Naigai suppan kyokai (内外出版協會). OCLC 1384148

External linksEdit

Preceded by
Ansei (安政)
Era or nengō
Man'en (万延)

18 March 1860 – 29 March 1861
Succeeded by
Bunkyū (文久)