Malhun (Arabic الملحون / ALA-LC: al-malḥūn), meaning "the melodic poem", is a form of music that originated in Morocco.[1] It is a kind of urban, sung poetry that comes from the exclusively masculine working-class milieu of craftsmen's guilds.

Origins edit

The mǝlḥun first emerged as a pure literary creation, as a poetic genre today known in Morocco under the name of "qasida" (meaning "poem") (Arabic: القصيدة) or "zajal" (Arabic: الزجل). It developed in the Tafilalet oases of southern Morocco in the fifteenth century before it spread to other parts of the Maghreb.[1]

The Mal’aba of Al-Kafif az-Zarhuni (ملعبة الكفيف الزرهوني) is considered to be the oldest known form of the Malhun, dating back to the Marinid dynasty era (14th century). The Mal’aba describes the union's attempt of the Maghreb by the sultan Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Othman. Written in Moroccan Arabic, it represents the origins of the modern Malhun. Ibn Khaldun mentions it at the end of his Muqaddimah as one of the main lyrical epics of the art called "Mala'ib" (ملاعب).[citation needed]

Music edit

The qasida (qṣīda in Moroccan Arabic) of the malhun is based on two essential elements: the overtures preceding it and the parts of which it is composed: aqsam (Arabic: الأقسام) verses sung solo interrupted by the harba refrain (meaning launch) (Arabic: الحربة). Harba, the origin of which goes back to the 16th century, is a refrain taken up between the verses. Another refrain called drīdka (Arabic: الدريدكة) is a simplified form of the harba, taking off from an accelerated rhythm to announce the end of a qasida.[2]

Famous figures edit

Among the former authors of melhun, there is Abdelaziz al-Maghrawi and Abderrahman El Majdoub (died 1568) who was famous for his mystical quatrains. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Morocco saw a great number of poets who, whether from Fez, Meknes or Marrakech, spread popular poetry using the melhun. Examples are Kaddour El Alamy and Thami Midaghri.[3]

In modern days, prominent figures include [4] Haj Houcine Toulali (1924-1998), Fatima Hadad,,[5] and Zohra Al Fassiya.[6] Fatima Hadad started an association in 2004 named Jawg Huwwat fann al-malhun for enthusiasts of Malhun.[7]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b Mounira Soliman, Popular Culture in the Middle East and North Africa: A Postcolonial Outlook, p.58 (Routledge 2013) – ISBN 9780415509725
  2. ^ Jan Laurens Hartong, Musical Terms Worldwide: A Companion for the Musical Explorer, p.157 (Semar Publishers Srl, 2006) – ISBN 9788877780904
  3. ^ Farid Ababou, "Thami Mdaghri", in Horizons Maghrébins, n° 43 (2000), pp 50–55
  4. ^ Akyeampong, Emmanuel Kwaku; Gates (Jr.), Henry Louis (2012-02-02). Dictionary of African Biography. OUP USA. p. 580. ISBN 978-0-19-538207-5.
  5. ^ Saïd El Meftahi, Houssein Toulali, le chantre du Melhoun, ou une vie entière dédiée à l'Art,, Oct. 13th 2005
  6. ^ Siham Jadraoui, Hommage à la grande chanteuse Zohra El Fassia, Aujourd'hui Le Maroc, Oct. 12th 2009 (archive on
  7. ^ colaborador. "Fatima Hadad (1969)". Biografias de Mulheres Africanas (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2022-09-16.

External links edit