Malay Indonesians (Malay: orang Melayu Indonesia; Jawi: اورڠ ملايو ايندونيسيا) are ethnic Malays living throughout Indonesia as one of the indigenous peoples of the island nation. Indonesia has the second largest ethnic Malay population after Malaysia. Indonesian, the national language of Indonesia, is a standardized form of Riau-Johor Malay. There were a number of Malay kingdoms in Indonesia that covered the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan, such as Srivijaya, Melayu Kingdom, Sultanate of Deli, Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura, Riau-Lingga Sultanate, Sultanate of Bulungan, Pontianak Sultanate, and the Sultanate of Sambas.
|5,365,399 (2010 estimate)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Local Malay, Indonesian|
|Sunni Islam (predominantly)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Malaysian Malays, Malay Singaporeans, Minangkabau, Acehnese, Banjarese, Betawi, Thai Malays|
Sumatra is the homeland of the Malay languages, which today spans all corners of Insular Southeast Asia. The Indonesian language, which is the country's official language and lingua franca, was based on Riau-Lingga (or Johor-Riau) Malay. The Malay language has a long history, which has a literary record as far back as the 7th century AD. A famous early Malay inscription, the Kedukan Bukit Inscription, was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on 29 November 1920, at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi. It is a small stone of 45 by 80 cm. It is written in Old Malay, a possible ancestor of today's Malay language and its variants. Most Malay languages and dialects spoken in Indonesia are mutually unintelligible with Standard Indonesian. The most widely spoken are Palembang Malay (3.2 million), Jambi Malay (1 million), Bengkulu Malay (1.6 million) and Banjarese (4 million) (although not considered to be a dialect of Malay by its speakers; its minor dialect is typically called Bukit Malay). Besides the proper Malay languages, there are several languages closely related to Malay such as Minangkabau, Kerinci, Kubu and others. These languages are closely related to Malay, but their speakers do not consider their languages to be Malay. There are many Malay-based creoles spoken in the country especially in eastern Indonesia due to contacts from the western part of Indonesia and during colonial rule where Malay replaced Dutch as a lingua franca. The most well-known Malay creoles in Indonesia are Ambonese Malay, Betawi, Manado Malay and Papuan Malay.
Sub-ethnic groups of Indonesian MalaysEdit
Malay ethnic groups in IndonesiaEdit
The Malay people in Indonesia fall into various sub-ethnicities with each having its own distinct linguistic variety, history, clothing, traditions, and a sense of common identity. According to 2000 census, Malay Indonesians include:
- Batin Malays
- Berau Malays
- Pontianak Malays
- Riau Malays
- Jambi Malays
- Palembang Malays
- Bengkulu Malays
- Asahan/Batu Bara Malays
- Deli Asahan Malays (including Medan Malays)
- Langkat Malays
- Sambas Malays
- Tamiang Malays
- Bangka-Belitung Malays
and various other smaller sub-groups.
Besides Malays proper, there are various ethnic groups throughout Sumatra, Java and Borneo which share close cultural, linguistic and historical ties with Malays but are classified separately by the Indonesian census, these are;
- Betawi people (Jakarta)
- Banjar people (South Kalimantan, classified as Malays until 2000 census)
- Kutai people (East Kalimantan)
- Kerinci people (Jambi)
- Minangkabau people (West Sumatra, some still consider themselves Malays)
- Duano' (Riau)
- Lom people (Bangka-Belitung)
- Senganan people (various Dayak ethnic groups who converted to Islam and adopted Malay culture)
- Bulungan people (North Kalimantan, Kayan group that adopted Malay culture and Islamic identity)
- Orang Laut (Riau Islands)
- Tonyoy-Benuaq people
- Talang Mamak people (Riau)
- Pekal people (Bengkulu)
- Kaur people (Bengkulu, mostly identified themselves as Malays but classified as a separate ethnic group)
- Lembak people (Bengkulu and South Sumatra, many considered themselves as Malays or Lubuklinggau Malays)
- Serawai people (Bengkulu, also known as Serawai Malays)
- Kubu people (Jambi and South Sumatra)
- Lubai people
- Rambang people
Notable Malay IndonesiansEdit
- Andrea Hirata, Indonesian author
- Raja Ali Haji, a 19th-century historian, member of the royal house of Riau-Lingga and Selangor and National Hero of Indonesia
- Abdul Somad, an Indonesian Islamic imam and scholar from Asahan, Sumatera who resides in Riau
- Tuanku Sultan Otteman II – a former Sultan of Deli, in which the kingdom's capital was Medan, in North Sumatra.
- Sultan Ma'mun Al Rashid Perkasa Alamyah – 9th Sultan of Deli Sultanate
- Sultan Hamid II – former Sultan of the Pontianak Sultanate
- Pangeran Ratu Winata Kusuma of Sambas – heir to the Sultanate of Sambas
- Sultan Syarif Kasim II – 12th Sultan of Siak Sultanate
- Marzuki Alie – speaker of the People's Representative Council, 2009–2014 term
- Hatta Rajasa – the Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs in the Second United Indonesia Cabinet. Previously, he was the State Secretary, Minister of Transport and Minister for Research and Technology in the Mutual Assistance Cabinet (2001–2004).
- Amir Hamzah – an Indonesian poet and National Hero of Indonesia.
- Hamzah Haz – an Indonesian politician. He is the head of the United Development Party (PPP) and served as the ninth Vice-President from 2001 until 2004.
- Yusril Ihza Mahendra – former chairman of the Crescent Star Party
- Alex Noerdin – the 15th Governor of South Sumatra
- Muhammad Lukman Edy – the former Minister for Acceleration of Disadvantaged Regions in 2007/2009
- Muhammad Sani – the 2nd Governor of Riau Island
- Rizal Nurdin – the 15th Governor of North Sumatra
- Rusli Zainal – the 13th Governor of Riau
- Tantowi Yahya – Indonesian TV presenter turned politician.
- "Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama, Dan Bahasa Sehari-Hari Penduduk Indonesia". Badan Pusat Statistik. 2010. Retrieved 2017-07-18.
- "Propinsi Kalimantan Barat - Dayakologi". Retrieved 2012-09-07.
- Sneddon 2003, The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society, p. 69–70
- Kamus Saku Bahasa Indonesia, p. 272, PT Mizan Publika, ISBN 9789791227834
- Tedjasukmana, Jason (June 25, 2010). "Sex Video Scandal and Indonesia's Porn Obsession". TIME magazine. Retrieved 25 June 2010.