Maksimilijan Vrhovac

Maksimilijan Vrhovac (23 November 1752 in Karlovac – 16 December 1827 in Zagreb) was the bishop of Zagreb. He was one of the ideological architects of the Croatian national revival, and is notable for founding the Maksimir Park in 1787,[1] one of the first major public parks in Southeast Europe.[2] Vrhovac was a member of the Freemasons.[3]

Maksimilijan Vrhovac
BishopMaksimilijan Vrhovac.JPEG
Born(1752-11-23)November 23, 1752
DiedDecember 16, 1827(1827-12-16) (aged 75)
Zagreb, Kingdom of Croatia, Austrian Empire
Other namesMaximilianus Verhovacz
OccupationCatholic bishop
Known forone of the ideological architects of the Croatian national revival

FamilyEdit

His father, Aleksa,[4] was captain of the frontier-guards near the Austrian-Ottoman border. For his merit, he was awarded with nobility by the Austrian empress Maria Theresia.

EducationEdit

After he graduated school in Graz, Vrhovac joined the army, but soon left when he realized that he did not qualify for this occupation. Instead, he joined the seminary in Zagreb.[5]

Vrhovac studied in Vienna and Bologna, and became a vice-rector, and later rector, at the seminary in Zagreb, as well as a professor of dogma at the Academy in Zagreb. Emperor Joseph II promoted him to rector of the seminary in Pest before he returned to Croatia as a bishop.

Promoter of "Illyrian" languageEdit

In 1808, Vrhovac requested the Croatian Parliament to open his library to the public. In the 1810s, he worked on translating the Bible into the Kajkavian Croatian language. Other contributors in the program were Antun Vranić, Ivan Nepomuk Labaš, Ivan Gusić, Ivan Birling, Stjepan Korolija, and Tomaš Mikloušić. In 1810, he visited Vienna. During his stay, Jernej Kopitar requested that Vrhovac organize a collection of local songs, but this attempt was not successful.[6]

To promote the Ilyrian language, Vrhovac established a printing house and printed books on the Kajkavian and Štokavian dialects.[7]

Vrhovac continued to pursue his own perception of the language and people. After Napoleon captured the territory of Austria-Hungary, he issued a proclamation in 1813 to "natives across Sava" (Serbo-Croatian: prekosavskim domorocima), emphasizing that there were no more borders between Croats in Croatia, Dalmatia, and the Coastal region.[8] After the defeat of Napoleon in Russia and the return of Austria-Hungary to its borders from 1806, the court in Vienna resented Vrhovac for his earlier behavior.[9] Vrhovac was a distinguished opponent of the expansion of Hungarian influence to South Slavs.[10]

In 1814, Vrhovac's cannon Mahanović, following the instructions of Vrhovac, published a work titled Observationes circa croaticam ortho-graphiam without taking in consideration the position regarding čakavian being only a dialect of Croatian as presented by Jernej Kopitar.[11] Nevertheless, Mahanović did somewhat follow the idea of Kopitar to develop a unified orthography for all South Slavic languages.[12]

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ "Vrhovac, Maksimilijan | Hrvatska enciklopedija".
  2. ^ Patrick Taylor, ed. (2006). The Oxford Companion to the Garden. Oxford University Press. pp. 295–6. ISBN 0-19-866255-6.
  3. ^ Trencsényi, Balázs; Janowski, Maciej; Baar, Monika; Falina, Maria; Kopecek, Michal (26 February 2016). A History of Modern Political Thought in East Central Europe: Volume I: Negotiating Modernity in the 'Long Nineteenth Century'. Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-19-105695-6. Maksimilijan Vrhovac (1752–1829), a staunch proponent of Enlightenment ideas and member of a Masonic lodge
  4. ^ Od godine 1790 do 1836. Tisak dioničke tiskare. 1903. p. 48. Maksimilijan Vrhovac se rodio 23. studenoga 1752. u Karlovcu od oca Alekse, koji je bio kapetan.
  5. ^ (Strižić 2001, p. 109):"MAKSIMILIJAN VRHOVAC (23. studenoga 1752. - 16. prosinca 1827.), zagrebački ... Škole je Vrhovac završio u Grazu, a potom je stupio u vojsku, iz koje je brzo izašao, uvidjevši da nije stvoren za vojnički poziv. Polazi zagrebačko sjemenište ..."
  6. ^ (Lunt 1970, p. 15): "When the Croatian Bishop Maximilian Vrhovac visited Vienna in 1810, Kopitar persuaded him to ask his parish priests to write down the local songs, but evidently this approach to collecting was unsuccessful "
  7. ^ (Cvrlje 2004, p. 180):"Vrhovac je za promicanje ilirskog jezika osnovao tiskaru u kojoj je tiskao mnoge knjige i obrednik na kajkavskom i štokavskom. ... štokavski govor nazivao je slavenskosrpskim, a kasnije samo srpskim, pa je hrvatsku štokavsku književnost nazvao literaturom katoličkih Sloveno-Srba, a kajkavski ..."
  8. ^ Pisana riječ u Hrvatskoj. Muzejski prostor. 1986. p. 99.
  9. ^ Pisana riječ u Hrvatskoj. Muzejski prostor. 1986. p. 99.
  10. ^ (Čulinović 1952, p. 15):"Maksimilijan Vrhovac, zagrebački biskup (1752 — 1827) istaknuti protivnik mađarskog prodora"
  11. ^ (Cvrlje 2004, p. 180)
  12. ^ Rasprave Instituta za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje. Institut. 2004.

ReferencesEdit