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Magnus Hirschfeld (14 May 1868 – 14 May 1935) was a German Jewish physician and sexologist educated primarily in Germany; he based his practice in Berlin-Charlottenburg. An outspoken advocate for sexual minorities, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee. Historian Dustin Goltz characterized this group as having carried out "the first advocacy for homosexual and transgender rights".[1]

Magnus Hirschfeld
Magnus Hirschfeld 1929.jpg
Hirschfeld in 1929
Born (1868-05-14)14 May 1868
Kolberg, Prussia
Died 14 May 1935(1935-05-14) (aged 67)
Nice, France
Residence Germany, France
Known for Institut für Sexualwissenschaft, Scientific Humanitarian Committee

Contents

Early lifeEdit

Hirschfeld was born in Kolberg (now Kołobrzeg, Poland), in an Ashkenazi Jewish family, the son of a highly regarded physician and 'Medizinalrat' Hermann Hirschfeld. In 1887–1888 he studied philosophy and philology in Breslau, then from 1888 to 1892 medicine in Strasbourg, Munich, Heidelberg, and Berlin. In 1892 he earned his doctoral degree.

After his studies, he traveled through the United States for eight months, visiting the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and living from the proceeds of his writing for German journals. During his time in Chicago, Hirschfeld become involved with the homosexual sub-culture in that city.[2] Struck by the essential similarities between the homosexual sub-cultures of Chicago and Berlin, Hirschfeld first developed his theory about the universality of homosexuality across the world, as he researched in books and newspaper articles about the existence of gay sub-cultures in Rio de Janeiro, Tangier, and Tokyo.[2] Then he started a naturopathic practice in Magdeburg; in 1896 he moved his practice to Berlin-Charlottenburg.

Hirschfeld first began interested in the subject of gays rights when he noticed that many of his gay patients were committing suicide.[3] In the German language, the word for suicide is selbstmörder ("self-murder"), and the word has has much more judgemental and condemnatory connotations than its English language equivalent suicide does, making the very subject of suicide itself a taboo in 19th century Germany.[4] In particular, Hirschfeld mentioned as a reason for his gay rights activism, the story of one of his patients, a young Army officer suffering from depression who had killed himself in 1896, and left behind a suicide note saying despite his best efforts, he could not end his desires for other men, and so had ended his life out of his guilt and shame.[5] In his suicide note, the officer mentioned he lacked the "strength" to tell his parents the "truth", and spoke of his shame of "that which nearly strangled my heart"-the officer could not bring himself to use the word homosexuality, which was only "that" in his note.[4] However, the officer mentioned at the end of his suicide note: "The thought that you [Hirschfeld] could contribute a future when the German fatherland will think of us in more just terms sweetens the hour of my death".[6] Hirschfeld had been treating the officer for depression in 1895-96, and the use of the term "us" had led to speculation of a relationship between the two. However, the officer's use of sie, the formal German word for you, instead of the informal du, suggests Hirschfeld's relationship with his patient was strictly professional.[6] At the same time, Hirschfeld was greatly affected at the same time by the trial of Oscar Wilde, which he often referred to his writings.[7] Hirschfeld was struck by the number of his gay patients who had suizidialnarden ("scars left by suicide attempts"), and often found himself trying to give his patients a reason to live.[8]

Sexual rights activismEdit

Scientific Humanitarian CommitteeEdit

Magnus Hirschfeld found a balance between practicing medicine and writing about his findings. Between 1 May-15 October 1896, the Grosse Berliner Gewerbeastellung ("Great Industrial Exhibition of Berlin) took place, which featured 9 "human zoos" where people from Germany's colonies in New Guinea and Africa were put on display for the visitors to gawk at.[9] Such exhibitions of colonial peoples were common at industrial fairs, and later after Qingdao, the Mariannas and Caroline islands became part of the German empire, Chinese, Chamorros and Micronesians all joined the Africans and New Guineans displayed in the "human zoos". Hirschfeld, who was keenly interested in sexuality in other cultures, visited the Grosse Berliner Gewerbeastellung and subsequently other exhibitions to inquire of the people in the "human zoos" via interpreters about the status of sexuality in their cultures.[10] It was in 1896 after talking to the people displayed in the "human zoos" at the Grosse Berliner Gewerbeastellung that Hirschfeld began writing what became his 1914 book Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes ("The Homosexuality of Men and Women"), an attempt at comprehensively surveying homosexuality around the globe as part of an effort to prove homosexuality occurred in every culture.[11]

After several years as a general practitioner in Magdeburg, in 1896 he issued a pamphlet, Sappho and Socrates, on homosexual love (under the pseudonym Th. Ramien). In 1897, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee with the publisher Max Spohr, the lawyer Eduard Oberg, and the writer Franz Joseph von Bülow. The group aimed to undertake research to defend the rights of homosexuals and to repeal Paragraph 175, the section of the German penal code that since 1871 had criminalized homosexuality. They argued that the law encouraged blackmail. The motto of the Committee, "Justice through science", reflected Hirschfeld's belief that a better scientific understanding of homosexuality would eliminate social hostility toward homosexuals.

Within the group, some of the members rejected Hirschfeld's (and Ulrichs's) view that male homosexuals are by nature effeminate. Benedict Friedlaender and some others left the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee and formed another group, the "Bund für männliche Kultur" or Union for Male Culture, which did not exist long. It argued that male-male love is an aspect of virile manliness rather than a special condition.

Under Hirschfeld's leadership, the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee gathered over 5000 signatures from prominent Germans on a petition to overturn Paragraph 175. Signatories included Albert Einstein, Hermann Hesse, Käthe Kollwitz, Thomas Mann, Heinrich Mann, Rainer Maria Rilke, August Bebel, Max Brod, Karl Kautsky, Stefan Zweig, Gerhart Hauptmann, Martin Buber, Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Eduard Bernstein.

The bill was brought before the Reichstag in 1898, but was supported only by a minority from the Social Democratic Party of Germany. August Bebel, a friend of Hirschfeld from his university days, agreed to sponsor the attempt to repeal Paragraph 175.[12] Hirschfeld considered what would, in a later era, be described as "outing": forcing out of the closet some of the prominent and secretly homosexual lawmakers who had remained silent on the bill. He arranged for the bill to be reintroduced and in the 1920s it began to make some progress, before the takeover of the Nazi Party ended hopes for such reform.

As part of his efforts to counter popular prejudice, Hirschfeld spoke out about the taboo subject of suicide and was the first to present statistical evidence that homosexuals were more likely to commit suicide or attempt suicide than heterosexuals.[13] Hirschfeld had written up questionnaires that could filled out anonymously about homosexuality and suicide, and on basis of the response, Hirschfeld estimated that 3 out of every 100 gays committed suicide every year, that a quarter of gays had attempted suicide at some point in their lives, and the other three-quarters had suicidal thoughts at some point, which he used to argue that for homosexuals life was literally unbearable.[13]

A figure frequently mentioned by Hirschfeld to illustrate the "hell experienced by homosexuals" was Oscar Wilde, who was a very known author in Germany and whose trials in 1895 had been well covered by the German press.[14] Hirschfeld visited Cambridge University in 1905 to meet Wilde's son, Vyvyan Holland, and was struck by how his son had changed his surname to avoid being associated with his father.[14] Hirschfeld noted "the name Wilde" has since his trial sounded like "an indecent word, which causes homosexuals to blush with shame, women to avert their eyes, and normal men to be outraged".[14] During his visit to Britain, Hirschfeld was invited to a secret ceremony in the English countryside where a "group of beautiful young male students" from Cambridge gathered together wearing Wilde's prison number, C33, as a way of symbolically linking his fate to theirs to read out aloud Wilde's poem The Ballad of Reading Gaol.[7] Hirschfeld found the reading of The Ballad of Reading Gaol to be "markerschütternd" (an untranslatable German word literally meaning "bone-shattering", i.e something that is emotionally devastating), going on to write that the poem reading was "the most earth-shattering outcry that has ever been voiced by a downtrodden soul about its own torture and that of humanity".[7] By the end of the reading of The Ballad of Reading Gaol, Hirshfeld felt "quiet joy" as he was convinced that despite the way that Wilde's life had been ruined, that something good would come of it.[7]

In 1905, Hirschfeld joined the Bund für Mutterschutz (League for the Protection of Mothers), the feminist organization founded by Helene Stöcker.[15] He campaigned for the decriminalisation of abortion, and against policies that banned female teachers and civil servants from marrying or having children.[further explanation needed] Both Hirschfeld and Stöcker believed that there was a close connection between the causes of gay rights and women's rights, and Stöcker was much involved in the campaign to repeal Paragraph 175 while Hirschfeld campaigned for the repeal of Paragraph 218, which had banned abortion.[15]

Hirschfeld's views about the homosexuality as being normal and natural made him a highly controversial figure at the time, involving him with vigorous debates with other academics, who saw homosexuality as something unnatural and wrong.[16] One of Hirschfeld's leading critics was Austrian Baron Christian von Ehrenfels, who advocated radical changes to society and sexuality to combat the supposed "Yellow Peril", and saw Hirshfeld's theories as a challenge to his view of sexuality.[16] Ehrenfels argued that there were a few "biologically degenerate" homosexuals who lured otherwise "healthy boys" into their lifestyle, making homosexuality into a choice and a wrong one at that time.[16]

At same time, Hirschfeld became involved in a debate with a number of anthropologists about the supposed existence of Hottenttenschürze ("Hottentot apron"), namely the belief that the Khoikhoi (known to Westerners as Hottentots) women of southern Africa had abnormally enlarged labias, which made them inclined towards lesbianism.[17] Hirschfeld argued there was no evidence that the Khoikhoi women had abnormally large labias, whose supposed existence had fascinated so many Western anthropologists at the time, and that other than being black, the bodies of Khoikhoi women were no different from German women.[17] One Khoikoi woman, Sarah Baartman, the "Hottentot Venus", did have abnormally large buttocks and a labia, and had been exhibited as a popular freak show in Europe in the early 19th century, which was the origin of this belief about the Khoikhoi women. Hirschfeld wrote: "The differences appear minimal compared to what is shared" between Khoikhoi and German women.[17] Turning the argument of the anthropologists on their head, Hirschfeld argued that if same-sex relationships were common among Khoikhoi women, and if the bodies of Khoikhoi women were essentially the same as Western women, then Western women must have the same tendencies. Hirschfeld's theories about a spectrum of sexuality existing in all of the world's cultures implicitly undercut the binary theories about the differences between various races that was the basis of the claim of white supremacy.[17] However, the German scholar Heike Bauer wrote that Hirschfeld's theories about the universality of homosexuality paid little attention to cultural contexts, and criticized him for his remarks that Hausa women in Nigeria were well known for their lesbian tendencies and would had been executed for their sapphic acts before British rule, as assuming that imperialism was always good for the colonized.[18]

Eulenburg affairEdit

Hirschfeld played a prominent role in the Harden–Eulenburg affair of 1906-09, which turned to be the most explosive sex scandal of Imperial Germany. During the libel trial in 1907 when General Kuno von Moltke sued the journalist Maximilian Harden after the latter had run an article accusing Moltke of having a homosexual relationship with the politically powerful Prince Philipp von Eulenburg, who was the Kaiser's best friend, Hirschfeld testified for Harden. Hirschfeld in his role as an expert witness testified that Moltke was gay, and thus what Harden had written was true.[19] The homosexual Hirschfeld — who passionately wanted to make homosexuality legal in Germany — believed that proving that Army officers like Moltke were gay would help his case for legalization, and as such he also testified that he believed there was nothing wrong with Moltke.[19]

Most notably, Hirschfeld testified that "homosexuality was part of the plan of nature and creation just like normal love."[20] Hirschfeld's testimony caused outrage all over Germany. The Die Vossische Zeitung newspaper condemned Hirschfeld in an editorial as "a freak who acted for freaks in the name of pseudoscience".[19] The Die Mūnchener Neuesten Nachrichten newspaper declared in an editorial: "Dr. Hirschfeld makes public propaganda under the cover of science which does nothing but poison our people. Real science should fight against this!".[19] A notable witness at the trial was Lilly von Elbe, the former wife of Moltke who testified that her husband had only made love to her twice in their entire marriage.[21] Elbe spoke with remarkable openness for the period of her sexual desires and her frustration with a husband who was only interested in having sex with Eulenburg.[22] Elbe's testimony was marked by moments of low comedy when it emerged that she had taken to attacking Moltke with a frying pan in vain attempts to make him have sex with her.[23] The fact that General von Moltke was unable to defend himself from his wife's attacks was taken as proof that he was deficient in his masculinity, which many saw as confirming his homosexuality. At the time, the subject of female sexuality was taboo, and Elbe's testimony was very controversial, with many saying that Elbe must in some way be mentally ill because of her willingness to acknowledge her sexuality.[24] At the time, it was generally believed that women should not have any sort of sexuality, and the idealized woman was seen as a "chaste" and "pure" in her asexuality. Letters to the newspapers at the time from both men and women overwhelmingly condemned Elbe for her "disgusting" testimony concerning her sexuality.[24] As an expert witness, Hirschfeld also testified that female sexuality was natural, and Elbe was just a normal woman who was in no way mentally ill.[19] After the jury ruled in favor of Harden, Judge Hugo Isenbiel was enraged by the jury's decision, which he saw as expressing approval for Hirschfeld. He overturned the verdict under the grounds that homosexuals "have the morals of dogs" and insisted that this verdict could not be allowed to stand.[19]

After that verdict was overturned, a second trial found Harden guilty of libel.[19] At the second trial, Hirschfeld again testified as an expert witness, but this time, he was much less certain than he had been at the first trial about Moltke's homosexuality.[25] Hirschfeld testified that Moltke and Eulenburg had an "intimate" friendship that was homoerotic in nature, but was not sexual as he had testified at the first trial.[26] Hirschfeld also testified that through he still believed that female sexuality was normal, but that Elbe was suffering from hysteria caused by a lack of sex, and so the court should discount her stories about a sexual relationship between Moltke and Eulenburg.[25] Hirschfeld had been threatened by the Prussian government with having his medical license revoked if he testified as an expert witness again along the same lines that he had at the first trial, and possibly prosecuted for violating Paragraph 175.[25] The trial was a libel suit against Harden by Moltke, but much of the testimony had concerned Eulenburg, whose status as the best friend of Wilhelm II meant that the scandal was threatening to bring in the Kaiser.[25] Moreover, far from bringing about increased tolerance as Hirschfeld had expected, the scandal had led to a major homophobic and anti-Semitic backlash, and Hirschfeld's biographer Elena Mancini speculated that Hirschfeld wanted to bring to an end an affair that was hindering rather helping the cause for gay rights.[25]

Because Eulenburg was a prominent anti-Semite and Hirschfeld was a Jew, during the affair, the völkisch movement came out in support of Eulenburg, whom they portrayed as an Aryan heterosexual framed by false allegations of homosexuality by Hirschfeld and Harden.[27] Various völkisch leaders, most notably the radical anti-Semitic journalist Theodor Fritsch used the Eulenburg affair as a chance to "settle the accounts" with the Jews, and as such, Hirschfeld as a homosexual and a Jew was vilified relentlessly by the völkisch newspapers.[28] Outside of Hirschfeld's house in Berlin, posters were affixed by völkisch activists which read "Dr. Hirschfeld A Public Danger: The Jews are Our Undoing!".[29] In Nazi Germany, the official interpretation of the Eulenburg affair was that Eulenburg was a straight Aryan whose career was destroyed by false claims of being gay by Jews like Hirschfeld.[27] After the scandal had ended, Hirschfeld concluded that, far from helping the gay rights movement as he hoped, the ensuing backlash had set back the movement.[30] The conclusion drawn by the German government was the opposite of the one that Hirschfeld wanted; the fact that prominent men like General von Moltke and Eulenburg were gay did not lead the government to repeal Paragraph 175 as Hirschfeld had hoped, and instead the government decided that Paragraph 175 was being enforced with insufficient vigor, leading to a crackdown on homosexuals that was unprecedented, and would not be exceeded until the Nazi era.[22]

World War IEdit

In 1914, Hirschfeld was swept up by the national enthusiasm for Burgfrieden ("Peace within a castle under siege") as the sense of national solidarity was known where all almost Germans rallied to the Fatherland.[31] Initially pro-war, Hirschfeld started to turn against the war in 1915, moving towards a pacifistic position.[32] By 1916, Hirschfeld was writing pacifistic pamphlets calling for the immediate end of the war.[32]

Interwar periodEdit

In 1921 Hirschfeld organised the First Congress for Sexual Reform, which led to the formation of the World League for Sexual Reform. Congresses were held in Copenhagen (1928), London (1929), Vienna (1930), and Brno (1932).

 
Conrad Veidt and Hirschfeld as Paul Körner and the Doctor in Different from the Others

Hirschfeld was both quoted and caricatured in the press as a vociferous expert on sexual matters; during his 1931 tour of the United States, the Hearst newspaper chain dubbed him "the Einstein of Sex". He identified as a campaigner and a scientist, investigating and cataloging many varieties of sexuality, not just homosexuality. He developed a system which categorised 64 possible types of sexual intermediary ranging from masculine heterosexual male to feminine homosexual male, including those he described under the term transvestite (Ger. Transvestit), which he coined in 1910 to describe people who in the 21st century might be referred to as transgender or transsexual.

Anders als die AndernEdit

Hirschfeld co-wrote and acted in the 1919 film Anders als die Andern ("Different From the Others"), in which Conrad Veidt played one of the first homosexual characters ever written for cinema. The film had a specific gay rights law reform agenda; after Veidt's character is blackmailed by a male prostitute, he eventually comes out rather than continuing to make the blackmail payments. His career is destroyed and he is driven to suicide.

Institut für SexualwissenschaftEdit

 
Memorial plaque in Berlin-Tiergarten

Under the more liberal atmosphere of the newly founded Weimar Republic, Hirschfeld purchased a villa not far from the Reichstag building in Berlin for his new Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute of Sexual Research), which opened on 6 July 1919. In Germany, the Reich government made laws, but the Länder governments enforced the laws, meaning it was up to the Länder governments to enforce Paragraph 175. Until the November Revolution of 1918, Prussia had a three-class voting system that effectively disfranchised most ordinary people, and allowed the Junkers to dominate Prussia. After the November Revolution, universal suffrage came to Prussia, which become a stronghold of the Social Democrats. The SPD believed in repealing Paragraph 175, and the Social Democratic Prussian government ordered the Prussian police not to enforce Paragraph 175, making Prussia into a haven for homosexuals all over Germany. The Institute housed Hirschfeld's immense archives and library on sexuality and provided educational services and medical consultations; the clinical staff included psychiatrists Felix Abraham and Arthur Kronfeld, gynecologist Ludwig Levy-Lenz, dermatologist and endocrinologist Bernhard Schapiro, and dermatologist Friedrich Wertheim.[33] The Institute also housed the Museum of Sex, an educational resource for the public, which is reported to have been visited by school classes. Hirschfeld himself lived at the Institution on the second floor with his lover, Karl Giese together with his sister Recha Tobias.[34]

People from around Europe and beyond came to the Institute to gain a clearer understanding of their sexuality. Christopher Isherwood writes about his and W. H. Auden's visit in his book Christopher and His Kind; they were calling on Francis Turville-Petre, a friend of Isherwood's who was an active member of the Scientific Humanitarian Committee. Other celebrated visitors included German novelist and playwright Gerhart Hauptmann, German artist Christian Schad, French writers René Crevel and André Gide, Russian director Sergei Eisenstein, and American poet Elsa Gidlow.[33]

In addition, a number of noted individuals lived for longer or shorter periods of time in the various rooms available for rent or as free accommodations in the Institute complex. Among the residents were Isherwood and Turville-Petre; literary critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin; actress and dancer Anita Berber; Marxist philosopher Ernst Bloch; Willi Münzenberg, a member of the German Parliament and a press officer for the Communist Party of Germany; Dörchen Richter, one of the first transgender patients to receive sex reassignment surgery at the Institute, and Lili Elbe.[33] Hirschfeld had coined the term transvestite in 1910 to describe what today would be called trans-gender people, and the institution became a haven for the transgender, where Hirschfeld offered them shelter from abuse, performed surgeries, and gave otherwise unemployable trans-gender people jobs, albeit of a menial type, mostly as "maids".[35]

The Institute and Hirschfeld's work are depicted in Rosa von Praunheim's feature film Der Einstein des Sex (The Einstein of Sex, Germany, 1999; English subtitled version available). Although inspired by Hirschfeld's life, the film is fictional. It contains invented characters and incidents and attributes motives and sentiments to Hirschfeld and others on the basis of little or no historical evidence. Hirschfeld biographer Ralf Dose notes, for instance, that "the figure of 'Dorchen' in Rosa von Praunheim's film The Einstein of Sex is complete fiction."[33]

World TourEdit

In March 1930 saw the downfall of the Social Democratic chancellor Hermann Müller and the beginning of "presidential" governments that were responsible only to President Paul von Hindenburg, moving German politics into more much right-wing authoritarian direction. Under the rule of Chancellor Heinrich Brüning and even so under his successor, Franz von Papen, the state become increasing hostile towards gay rights campaigners like Hirschfeld, who began to spend more and more time abroad.[36] In 1930, Hirschfeld predicated that there was no future for people like himself in Germany and he would have to move abroad.[37] In November 1930, Hirschfeld arrived in New York, ostensibly on a speaking tour about sex, but in fact to see if it was possible for him to settle in the United States.[36] Significantly, in his speeches on his American tour, Hirschfeld when speaking in German called for the legalization of homosexuality, but when speaking in English did not mention the subject of homosexuality, instead urging Americans to be more open-minded about heterosexual sex.[38] The New York Times described Hirschfeld as having come to America to "study the marriage question" while the German language New Yorker Volkszeitung newspaper described Hirschfeld as wanting to "discuss love's natural turns"-the phrase "love's natural turns" was Hirschfeld's way of presenting his theory there was a variety of human sexuality, all of which were "natural".[39] Hirschfeld realized that most Americans did not want to hear about his theory of homosexuality as natural, and knowing of a strong xenophobic tendency in the United States, where foreigners who seen as trouble-makers were unwelcome, had chosen to tailor his message to American tastes..[40]

In an interview with the Germanophile American journalist George Sylvester Viereck for the Milwaukee Sentinel done in late November 1930 that epitomised his "straight turn" in America, Hirschfeld was presented as a sex expert whose knowledge could improve the sex lives of married American couples.[40] The Milwaukee Sentinel was part of the newspaper chain owned by William Randolph Hearst, which initially promoted Hirschfeld in America, reflecting the old adage that "sex sells". In the interview with Viereck, Hirschfeld was presented as the wise "European expert on romantic love" who had come to teach heterosexual American men how to enjoy sex, claiming there was a close connection between sexual and emotional intimacy.[41] Clearly intending to flatter the egos of a heterosexual American male audience, Hirschfeld praised the drive and ambition of American men, who were so successful at business, but stated that American men needed to divert some of their energy to their sex lives.[41]. Hirschfeld added he had seen signs that American men were now starting to develop their "romantic sides" as European men had long since done, and he come to the United States to teach American men how to love their women properly.[41] When Viereck objected that the U.S was in the middle of the Great Depression, Hirschfeld replied he was certain that United States would soon recover, thanks to the relentless drive of American men.[41]

At least part of the reason for his "straight turn" was financial; a Dutch firm had been marketing Titus's Pearls pills, which were presented in Europe as a cure for "scattered nerves" and in the United States as an aphrodisiac, and had been using Hirschfeld's endorsement to help with advertising campaign there.[42] Most Americans knew of Hirschfeld only as the "world known authority on sex" who had endorsed the Titus's Pearls pills, which were alleged to improve orgasms for both men and women.[42] Since Hirschfeld's books never sold well, the money he was paid for endorsing the Titus's Pearls pills were a major source of income for him, which he was to lose in 1933 when the manufacturer of the pills ceased using his endorsement in order to stay in the German market.[42] In an second interview with Viereck in February 1931, Hirschfeld was presented by him as the "Einstein of Sex", which was again part of the marketing effort of Hirschfeld's "straight turn" in America.[42] At times, Hirschfeld returned to his European message, when he planned to deliver a talk at the bohemian Dil Pickle Club in Chicago on "homosexuality with beautiful revealing pictures", which was banned by city as indecent.[43] Unfortunately for Hirschfeld, the Hearst newspapers which specialized in taking a sensationalist, right-wing populist line on the news, dug up his statements in Germany calling for gay rights, causing a sudden shift in tone from more or less friendly to hostile, and which effectively ended any chance of Hirschfeld be allowed to stay in the United States.[42]

After his American tour, Hirschfeld went to Asia. Hirschfeld had been invited to Japan by Keizō Dohi, a German-educated Japanese doctor who spoke fluent German and who worked at Hirschfeld's institute for a time in the 1920s.[44] In Japan, Hirchfeld again tailored his speeches to local tastes, saying nothing about gay rights, and merely argued that a greater frankness about sexual matters would prevent venereal diseases.[44] Hirschfeld sought out an old friend, a S.Iwaya, a Japanese doctor who lived in Berlin in 1900-02 and who joined the Scientific-Humanitarian committee during his time there.[45] Iwaya took Hirschfeld to the Meiji-za to introduce him to the Kabuki theater.[45] Hirschfeld become very interested in the Kabuki theater, where the female characters are played by men, which for him indicated that Western ideas about masculinity were a cultural construct, and not biological.[45] One of the Kabuki actors, speaking to Hirschfeld via Iwaya who served as the translator, was most insistent about asking him if he really looked like a woman on stage and was he effeminate enough as an actor.[45] Hirschfeld noted no-one in Japan looked down upon the Kabuki actors who played female characters, who on the contrary were popular figures with the public.[45] Hirschfeld also met a number of Japanese feminists such as Shidzue Katō and Fusae Ichikawa, whom he praised for their efforts to give Japanese women the right to vote, and greatly annoyed the Japanese government which did not appreciate a foreigner criticizing the denial of female suffrage.[46] Shortly before leaving Tokyo for China, Hirschfeld expressed the hope that his host and translator, Wilhelm Grundert, the director of the German-Japanese Cultural Institute, be made a professor at a German university.[45] Grundert joined the Nazi Party in 1933, in 1936 was made a professor of Japanese studies at the University of Hamburg and in 1938 become the chancellor of Hamburg university, and all the while denounced his former friend Hirschfeld as a "pervert".[45] In Shanghai, Hirschefeld began a relationship with a 23 year-old Chinese man studying sexology, Tao Li, who remained his partner for the rest of his life.[47] Hirschfeld promised Tao that he would introduce him to German culture, saying he wanted to take him to a "Bavarian beer hall" to show him how German men drank.[48] Tao's parents who knew about their son's sexual orientation and accepted his relationship with Hirschfeld threw a farewell party when the two left China with Tao's father expressing the hope that his son would become the "Hirschfeld of China".[49]

After staying in the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia), where Hirschfeld caused an uproar by comparing Dutch imperialism to slavery, Hirschfeld arrived in India in September 1931.[46] In Allahabad, Hirschfeld met Jawaharlal Nehru and gave speeches supporting the Indian independence movement, stating "it is one of the biggest injustices in the world that one of the oldest civilized nations...cannot rule independently".[50] However, Hirschfeld's Indian speeches were mainly concerned with attacking the 1927 book Mother India by the white supremacist American author Katherine Mayo, where she painted an unflattering picture of sexuality in India as brutal and perverted, as "England-friendly propaganda".[51] As Mayo's book had caused much controversy in India, Hirschfeld's speeches defending Indians against her accusations were well received.[51] Hirschfeld was very interested in the subject of Indian sexuality or as he called it "the Indian art of love".[46] Hirschfeld's main guide to India was Girindrasekhar Bose, and in general Hirshfeld's contacts were limited to the English-speaking Indian elite, as he did not speak Hindi or any of the other Indian languages.[52] While staying in Patna, Hirschfeld drew up a will naming Tao as his main beneficiary and asking if should die, Tao should takes his ashes to be buried at the Institute for Sexual Research in Berlin.[48]

In Egypt, where Hirschfeld and Tao traveled to next, Hirschfeld wrote "to the Arabs...homoerotic love practice is something natural and that Mohammad could not change this attitude".[53] In Cairo, Hirschfeld and Tao met the Egyptian feminist leader Huda Sha'arawi-who stopped wearing the Muslim veil in 1923 and popularized going unveiled-which for Hirschfeld illustrated how gender roles could change.[46] In a rebuke to Western notions of superiority, Hirschfeld wrote "the average ethical and intellectual levels of the Egyptians was equal to that of the European nations".[53] Hirschfeld's visit to the Palestine Mandate (modern Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) marked one of the few times when he publicly referred to his Jewishness, saying as a Jew it was greatly moving to visit Jerusalem.[54] Hirschfeld was not a religious Jew, stating that Gottesfurcht ("fear of God"-i.e religious belief) was irrational, but did feel a certain sentimental attachment to Palestine.[54] In general, Hirschfeld was supportive of Zionism, but expressed concern about he regarded as certain chauvinist tendencies in the Zionist movement and deplored the adoption of Hebrew as the lingua franca, saying if only the Jews of Palestine spoke German rather than Hebrew, he would had stayed.[54] In March 1932, Hirschfeld arrived in Athens, where he told journalists that regardless if Hindenburg or Hitler won the presidential election that month, he probably would not return to Germany, saying both men were equally homophobic.[55]

Later life and exileEdit

 
On 10 May 1933, Nazis in Berlin burned works by leftists and other authors considered "un-German", including thousands of books looted from the library of Hirschfeld's Institut für Sexualwissenschaft.

On 20 July 1932, the Chancellor Franz von Papen carried out a coup that deposed the Braun government in Prussia, and appointed himself the Reich Commissioner for Prussia. Papen, a conservative Catholic who long been a vocal critic of gays rights, ordered the Prussian police to start enforcing Paragraph 175 and to crack down in general on "sexual immorality" in Prussia.[56] The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft remained open, but under Papen's rule, the police began to harass people associated with it. On 30 January 1933, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler Chancellor. When the Nazis took power, they attacked Hirschfeld's Institute on 6 May 1933, and burned many of its books as well as its archives. On the morning of 6 May, a group of university students belonging to the National Socialist Student League stormed into the institution, shouting "Brenne Hirschfeld!" ("Burn Hirschfeld!") and began to beat up the staff and smash up the institution.[57] In the afternoon, the SA came to the institute, carrying out a more systematic attack, carrying away the documents for a book-burning four days later.[57] In the evening, the Berlin police arrived to announce that the institution was now closed forever.[57]

By the time of the book burning, Hirschfeld had long since left Germany for a speaking tour that took him around the world; he never returned to Germany. In March 1932 he stopped briefly in Athens, spent several weeks in Vienna and then settled in Zurich, Switzerland in August 1932.[58] While there, he worked on a book recounting his experiences and observations from his world tour, published in 1933 as Die Weltreise eines Sexualforschers (Brugg, Switzerland: Bözberg-Verlag, 1933). It was published in an English translation in the United States under the title Men and Women: The World Journey of a Sexologist (New York City: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1935) and in England under the title Women East and West: Impressions of a Sex Expert (London: William Heinemann Medical Books, 1935).

Hirschfeld had stayed near Germany, hoping to return to Berlin if the political situation improved. With the Nazi regime's unequivocal rise to power and with work completed on his tour book, he decided to go into exile in France. On his 65th birthday, 14 May 1933, Hirschfeld arrived in Paris, where he lived in a luxurious apartment building at 24 Avenue Charles Floquet, facing the Champ de Mars.[58] A year-and-a-half later, in November 1934 he moved south to Nice on the Mediterranean coast.[59] Throughout his stay in France, he continued researching, writing, campaigning and working to establish a French successor to his lost institute in Berlin.[58] Hirschfeld lived in Paris with Li and Giese.[60] In 1934, Giese was involved in a dispute by a swimming pool that Hirschfeld called a "trifling" that led the French authorities to expel him.[60] Giese's fate left Hirschfeld very depressed.[60]

The last of Hirschfeld's books published during his lifetime, L'Ame et l'amour, psychologie sexologique [The Human Spirit and Love: Sexological Psychology] (Paris: Gallimard, 1935), was published in French in late April 1935;[61] it was his only book that was never published in a German-language edition. In the preface, he described his hopes for his new life in France:

In search of sanctuary, I have found my way to that country, the nobility of whose traditions, and whose ever-present charm, have already been as balm to my soul. I shall be glad and grateful if I can spend some few years of peace and repose in France and Paris, and still more grateful to be enabled to repay the hospitality accorded to me, by making available those abundant stores of knowledge acquired throughout my career.[62]

DeathEdit

 
Gloria Mansions I, 63 Promenade des Anglais, Nice, The apartment complex where Magnus Hirschfeld died on May 14, 1935.
 
Hirschfeld's tomb in the Caucade Cemetery in Nice, France, photographed the day before the 75th anniversary of his death.

On his 67th birthday, 14 May 1935, Hirschfeld died of a heart attack in his apartment at the Gloria Mansions I building at 63 Promenade des Anglais in Nice.[59] His body was cremated, and the ashes interred in a simple tomb in the Caucade Cemetery in Nice.[58] The upright headstone in gray granite is inset with a bronze bas-relief portrait of Hirschfeld in profile by German sculptor and decorative artist Arnold Zadikow (1884–1943), who like Hirschfeld was a native of the town of Kolberg. The slab covering the tomb is engraved with Hirschfeld's Latin motto, "Per Scientiam ad Justitiam" ("through science to justice").[33][63] (The Caucade Cemetery is likewise the location of the grave of surgeon and sexual-rejuvenation proponent Serge Voronoff — whose work Hirschfeld had discussed in his own publications.)

On 14 May 2010, to mark the 75th anniversary of Hirschfeld's death, a French national organization, the Mémorial de la Déportation Homosexuelle (MDH), in partnership with the new LGBT Community Center of Nice (Centre LGBT Côte d'Azur), organized a formal delegation to the cemetery. Speakers recalled Hirschfeld's life and work and laid a large bouquet of pink flowers on his tomb; the ribbon on the bouquet was inscribed "Au pionnier de nos causes. Le MDH et le Centre LGBT" ("To the pioneer of our causes. The MDH and the LGBT Center").[64]

LegacyEdit

American Henry Gerber, attached to the Allied Army of Occupation following World War I, became impressed by Hirschfeld and absorbed many of the doctor's ideas. Upon his return to the United States, Gerber was inspired to form the short-lived Chicago-based Society for Human Rights in 1924, the first known gay rights organization in the nation.[65] In turn, a partner of one of the former members of the Society communicated the existence of the society to Los Angeles resident Harry Hay in 1929; Hay would go on to help establish the Mattachine Society in 1950, the first national homosexual rights organization to operate for many years in the United States.

 
Bust of Magnus Hirschfeld in the Schwules Museum, Berlin

In 1979, the Irish National Gay Federation established the Hirschfeld Centre, Ireland's first gay and lesbian community centre. Although badly damaged by a 1987 fire, the centre continued to house the Gay Community News magazine until 1997.[66]

In 1982, a group of German researchers and activists founded the Magnus Hirschfeld Society (Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft e.V.) in West Berlin, in anticipation of the then-approaching 50th anniversary of the destruction of Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Science. Ten years later, the society established a Berlin-based center for research on the history of sexology.[67] The society's stated goals are the following:[67]

  • To study the history of research on sexuality and gender, of the sexual reform movement and of related scholarly disciplines and life reform movements.
  • To help establish research on sexuality and gender within academic institutions.

Since the late 20th century, researchers associated with the Magnus Hirschfeld Society have succeeded in tracking down previously dispersed and lost records and artifacts of Hirschfeld's life and work. They have brought together many of these materials at the society's archives in Berlin.[68][69] At an exhibition at the Schwules Museum in Berlin from 7 December 2011 to 31 March 2012, the society publicly displayed a selection of these collections for the first time.[70]

The German Society for Social-Scientific Sexuality Research established the Magnus Hirschfeld Medal in 1990. The Society awards the Medal in two categories, contributions to sexual research and contributions to sexual reform.

The Hirschfeld Eddy Foundation, established in Germany in 2007, is named for Hirschfeld and lesbian activist FannyAnn Eddy.

In August 2011, after 30 years of advocacy by the Magnus Hirschfeld Society and other associations and individuals, the Federal Cabinet of Germany granted 10 million euros to establish the Magnus Hirschfeld National Foundation (Bundesstiftung Magnus Hirschfeld), a foundation to support research and education about the life and work of Magnus Hirschfeld, the Nazi persecution of homosexuals, German LGBT culture and community, and ways to counteract prejudice against LGBT people; the Federal Ministry of Justice (Germany) was expected to contribute an additional 5 million euros, bringing the initial endowment of the foundation to a total of 15 million euros.[71][72][73]

Portrayals in popular cultureEdit

 
U.S. first edition of Robert Hichens, That Which Is Hidden (Doubleday, Doran, 1940).

Magnus Hirschfeld has been portrayed in a number of works of popular culture both during his lifetime and subsequently. Following is a sampling of genres and titles:

CaricatureEdit

Hirschfeld was a frequent target of caricatures in the popular press during his lifetime. Historian James Steakley reproduces several examples in his German-language book Die Freunde des Kaisers. Die Eulenburg-Affäre im Spiegel zeitgenössischer Karikaturen (Hamburg: MännerschwarmSkript, 2004). Additional examples appear in the French-language book Derrière "lui" (L'Homosexualité en Allemagne) (Paris: E. Bernard, [1908]) by John Grand-Carteret.

Film and televisionEdit

  • Different from the Others (Germany, 1919); directed by Richard Oswald; cowritten by Oswald and Magnus Hirschfeld. Hirschfeld appears in a cameo playing himself. Karl Giese, the young man who subsequently became Hirschfeld's lover, also had a part in the film.
  • Race d'Ep: Un Siècle d'Images de l'Homosexualité (France, 1979); directed by Lionel Soukaz; cowritten by Soukaz and Guy Hocquenghem; released in the United States under the title The Homosexual Century. An experimental film portraying 100 years of homosexual history in four episodes, one of which focuses on Hirschfeld and his work. French gay writer Pierre Hahn played the role of Hirschfeld.[74][75][76]
  • Desire: Sexuality in Germany, 1910–1945 (United Kingdom, 1989); directed by Stuart Marshall. A feature-length documentary tracing the emergence of the homosexual subculture and the homosexual emancipation movement in pre-World War II Germany—and their destruction by the Nazi regime.[77] According to film historian Robin Wood, Marshall "treats the burning of Hirschfeld's library and the closing of his Institute of Sexual Science as the film's...central moment...."[78]
  • A segment on Hirschfeld appears in episode 19 of Real Sex, first shown on HBO on February 7, 1998.
  • The Einstein of Sex (Germany, 1999); directed by Rosa von Praunheim. A fictional biopic inspired by Hirschfeld's life and work.
  • Paragraph 175 (film) (USA, 2000); directed by Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman (filmmaker). A feature-length documentary on the persecution of homosexuals during the Nazi regime. The first part of the film provides a brief overview of the history of the homosexual emancipation movement in Germany from the late-19th century through the early 1930s, with Hirschfeld and his work prominently featured.[78]
  • Several episodes of the second season of the Amazon television series Transparent (USA, 2014-) include a portrayal of Hirschfeld and his institute, with its residents played by extras and recurring actors from the series proper. Hirschfeld himself is played by Bradley Whitford.

FictionEdit

  • Robert Hichens (1939). That Which Is Hidden (London: Cassell & Company). U.S. Edition: New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, 1940. The novel opens with the protagonist visiting the tomb of a famed Austrian sex expert, Dr. R. Ellendorf, in a cemetery in Nice. At the tomb, he meets the late doctor's protégé, a Chinese student named Kho Ling. The character of Ling refers to the memory of his mentor at numerous points in the novel. From the description of the settings and the characters, Ellendorf clearly was inspired by Hirschfeld, and Ling by Hirschfeld's last partner and heir, Li Shiu Tong (Tao Li).[79]
  • Arno Schmidt. Zettels Traum (1970). Hirschfeld is quoted often in this novel about sexuality.
  • Nicolas Verdan (2011). Le Patient du docteur Hirschfeld (Orbe, Switzerland: Bernard Campiche). A French-language spy thriller inspired by the sacking of Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Science by the Nazis.

WorksEdit

 
Was muss das Volk vom Dritten Geschlecht wissen!, 1901
 
Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen, 1914
 
Filmposter for Hirschfeld's Gesetze der Liebe, 1927

Hirschfeld's works are listed in the following bibliography, which is extensive but not comprehensive:

  • Steakley, James D. The Writings of Magnus Hirschfeld: A Bibliography. Toronto: Canadian Gay Archives, 1985.

The following have been translated into English:

  • The Transvestites: The Erotic Drive to Cross-Dress (1910), Prometheus Books; translated by Michael A. Lombardi-Nash (1991).
  • Homosexuality of Men and Women (1914);[80] translated by Michael A. Lombardi-Nash, 2000 [81]
  • The Sexual History of the World War (1930), New York City, Panurge Press, 1934; significantly abridged translation and adaptation of the original German edition: Sittengeschichte des Weltkrieges, 2 vols., Verlag für Sexualwissenschaft, Schneider & Co., Leipzig & Vienna, 1930. The plates from the German edition are not included in the Panurge Press translation, but a small sampling appear in a separately issued portfolio, Illustrated Supplement to The Sexual History of the World War, New York City, Panurge Press, n.d.
  • Men and Women: The World Journey of a Sexologist (1933); translated by O. P. Green (New York City: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1935).
  • Sex in Human Relationships, London, John Lane The Bodley Head, 1935; translated from the French volume L'Ame et l'amour, psychologie sexologique (Paris: Gallimard, 1935) by John Rodker.
  • Racism (1938), translated by Eden and Cedar Paul. This denunciation of racial discrimination was not influential at the time, although it seems prophetic in retrospect.[82]
Autobiographical
  • Hirschfeld, Magnus. Von einst bis jetzt: Geschichte einer homosexuellen Bewegung 1897-1922. Schriftenreihe der Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft Nr. 1. Berlin: rosa Winkel, 1986. (Reprint of a series of articles by Hirschfeld originally published in Die Freundschaft, 1920–21).
  • M.H. [Magnus Hirschfeld], "Hirschfeld, Magnus (Autobiographical Sketch)," in Victor Robinson, Encyclopaedia Sexualis, New York City: Dingwall-Rock, 1936, pp. 317–321.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Goltz, Dustin (2008). "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Movements", In Lind, Amy; Brzuzy, Stephanie (eds.). Battleground: Women, Gender, and Sexuality: Volume 2, pp. 291 ff. Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-313-34039-0
  2. ^ a b Bauer 2007, p. 21.
  3. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 37.
  4. ^ a b Bauer 2017, p. 40.
  5. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 39.
  6. ^ a b Bauer 2017, p. 41.
  7. ^ a b c d Bauer 2017, p. 55.
  8. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 48.
  9. ^ Bauer 2007, p. 22.
  10. ^ Bauer 2007, p. 22-23.
  11. ^ Bauer 2007, p. 23.
  12. ^ Bauer 2007, p. 25.
  13. ^ a b Bauer 2017, p. 49.
  14. ^ a b c Bauer 2017, p. 54.
  15. ^ a b Bauer 2007, p. 80.
  16. ^ a b c Dickinson 2002, p. 272.
  17. ^ a b c d Bauer 2007, p. 30.
  18. ^ Bauer 2007, p. 30-31.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Mancini, Elena Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement, London: Macmillan, 2010 page 100
  20. ^ Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 page 128.
  21. ^ Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 page 103.
  22. ^ a b Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 pages 103-104
  23. ^ Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 page 104
  24. ^ a b Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 pages 103-105.
  25. ^ a b c d e Mancini, Elena Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement, London: Macmillan, 2010 page 101.
  26. ^ Mancini, Elena Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement, London: Macmillan, 2010 page 101.
  27. ^ a b Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 page 169
  28. ^ Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 pages 169-170
  29. ^ Mancini, Elena Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement, London: Macmillan, 2010 page 101
  30. ^ Domeier, Norman The Eulenburg Affair: A Cultural History of Politics in the German Empire, Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 2015 page 139
  31. ^ Mancini, Elena Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement, London: Macmillan, 2010 page 111
  32. ^ a b Mancini, Elena Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement, London: Macmillan, 2010 page 112
  33. ^ a b c d e Ralf Dose, Magnus Hirschfeld: The Origins of the Gay Liberation Movement (New York City: Monthly Review Press, 2014); ISBN 978-1-58367-437-6.
  34. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 81.
  35. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 84-85.
  36. ^ a b Bauer 2017, p. 104.
  37. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 104 & 106.
  38. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 104=105.
  39. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 104-105.
  40. ^ a b Bauer 2017, p. 105.
  41. ^ a b c d Bauer 2017, p. 106.
  42. ^ a b c d e Bauer 2017, p. 107.
  43. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 107-108.
  44. ^ a b Bauer 2017, p. 111.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g Bauer 2017, p. 112.
  46. ^ a b c d Bauer 2017, p. 113.
  47. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 107 & 110.
  48. ^ a b Bauer 2017, p. 118.
  49. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 110.
  50. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 113-115.
  51. ^ a b Bauer 2017, p. 115.
  52. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 114.
  53. ^ a b Bauer 2017, p. 119.
  54. ^ a b c Bauer 2017, p. 120.
  55. ^ Bauer 2017, p. 121.
  56. ^ Marhoefer, Laurie Sex and the Weimar Republic: German Homosexual Emancipation and the Rise of the Nazis, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015 pages 185-187.
  57. ^ a b c Bauer 2017, p. 80.
  58. ^ a b c d Charlotte Wolff, Magnus Hirschfeld: A Portrait of a Pioneer in Sexology (London: Quartet Books, 1986). ISBN 0-7043-2569-1
  59. ^ a b Hans P. Soetaert & Donald W. McLeod, "Un Lion en hiver: Les Derniers jours de Magnus Hirschfeld à Nice (1934-1935)" in Gérard Koskovich (ed.), Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935): Un Pionnier du mouvement homosexuel confronté au nazisme (Paris: Mémorial de la Déportation Homosexuelle, 2010).
  60. ^ a b c Bauer 2017, p. 124.
  61. ^ Gérard Koskovich, "Des Dates clés de la vie de Magnus Hirschfeld", in Koskovich (ed.), Magnus Hirschfeld (1868–1935).
  62. ^ Magnus Hirschfeld, Sex in Human Relationships (London: John Lane The Bodley Head, 1936), pp. xix-xx; translated from the original French edition by John Rodker.
  63. ^ Donald W. McLeod & Hans P. Soetaert, "'Il regarde la mer et pense à son idéal': Die letzten Tage von Magnus Hirschfeld in Nizza, 1934–1935"; Mitteilungen der Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft, no. 45 (July 2010): pages 14–33.
  64. ^ Frédéric Maurice, "Magnus Hirschfeld, vedette posthume du festival 'Espoirs de Mai' à Nice,'"[permanent dead link] Têtu.com (16 May 2010).
  65. ^ Bullough, p. 25
  66. ^ "Our History". Nlgf.ie. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  67. ^ a b Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft (n.d.), "Short informations about the society," Magnus Hirschfeld Society website; retrieved 2011-29-10.
  68. ^ Dose, Ralf (2012-06-18). "Thirty Years of Collecting Our History, or How to Find Treasure Troves"; LGBT ALMS Blog; retrieved 3 July 2012.
  69. ^ McLeod, Donald W. (2012-07-02). "Serendipity and the Papers of Magnus Hirschfeld: The Case of Ernst Maass"; LGBT ALMS Blog; retrieved 3 July 2012.
  70. ^ Litwinschuh, Jörg (2011-11-30). "Schwules Museum presents 'Hirschfeld Finds'"; website of the Bundesstiftung Magnus Hirschfeld; retrieved 2012-07-02.
  71. ^ Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft E.V. (2011-08-31). Untitled press release.
  72. ^ For background on the campaign to establish the foundation, see "Aktionsbündnis Magnus-Hirschfeld-Stiftung" (in German) on the website of the Magnus Hirschfeld Society.
  73. ^ Litwinschuh, Jörg (2011-11-30). "Magnus Hirschfeld Foundation established"; website of the Bundesstiftung Magnus Hirschfeld; retrieved 2 July 2012.
  74. ^ Murray, Raymond (1994). Images in the Dark: An Encyclopedia of Gay and Lesbian Film and Video (Philadelphia: TLA Publications), page 430.
  75. ^ "The Homosexual Century"; IMDb.
  76. ^ Sibalis, Michael (2001). "Hahn, Pierre (1936–81)," in Robert Aldrich & Gary Wotherspoon (eds.), Who's Who in Contemporary Gay & Lesbian History From World War II to the Present Day (London & New York: Routledge), pages 175f.
  77. ^ Marshall, Stuart (1991). "The Contemporary Political Use of Gay History: The Third Reich," in Bad Object Choices (eds.), How Do I Look? Queer Film and Video (Seattle, Bay Press).
  78. ^ a b Wood, Robin (2002). "Gays and the Holocaust: Two Documentaries," in Shelley Hornstein & Florence Jacobowitz, Image and Remembrance: Representation and the Holocaust (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press).
  79. ^ Bauer, J. Edgar (2006-11). "Magnus Hirschfeld: Panhumanism and the Sexual Cultures of Asia"; Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context, No. 14; see note 71.
  80. ^ Hirschfeld, Magnus. Die Homosexualität Des Mannes Und Des Weibes. Berlin: L. Marcus, 1914. Print.
  81. ^ Hirschfeld, Magnus. The Homosexuality of Men and Women. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2000. Print.
  82. ^ Dose, Ralf (2014). Magnus Hirschfeld : the origins of the gay liberation movement. p. 10. ISBN 9781583674390. 

Further readingEdit

BiographiesEdit

  • Bauer, Heike. The Hirschfeld Archives: Violence, Death and Modern Queer Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2017. DOI: https://hcommons.org/deposits/item/hc:15083/
  • Domeier, Norman: „Magnus Hirschfeld“, in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2016-04-07. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15463/ie1418.10887.
  • Dose, Ralf. Magnus Hirschfeld: Deutscher, Jude, Weltbürger. Teetz: Hentrich und Hentrich, 2005. (in German)
  • Dose, Ralf. Magnus Hirschfeld: The Origins of the Gay Liberation Movement. New York City: Monthly Review Press, 2014; revised and expanded edition of Dose's 2005 German-language biography.
  • Herzer, Manfred. Magnus Hirschfeld: Leben und Werk eines jüdischen, schwulen und sozialistischen Sexologen. 2nd edition. Hamburg: Männerschwarm, 2001. (in German)
  • Koskovich, Gérard (ed.). Magnus Hirschfeld (1868–1935). Un pionnier du mouvement homosexuel confronté au nazisme. Paris: Mémorial de la Déportation Homosexuelle, 2010. (in French)
  • Kotowski, Elke-Vera & Julius H. Schoeps (eds.). Der Sexualreformer Magnus Hirschfeld. Ein Leben im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft, Politik und Gesellschaft. Berlin: Bebra, 2004. (in German)
  • Mancini, Elena. Magnus Hirschfeld and the Quest for Sexual Freedom: A History of the First International Sexual Freedom Movement. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
  • Steakley, James. "Per scientiam ad justitiam: Magnus Hirschfeld and the Sexual Politics of Innate Homosexuality", in Science and Homosexualities, ed. Vernon A. Rosario. New York: Routledge, 1997, pp. 133-54.
  • Wolff, Charlotte. Magnus Hirschfeld: A Portrait of a Pioneer in Sexology. London: Quartet, 1986.

OthersEdit

  • Beachy, Robert. Gay Berlin: Birthplace of a Modern Identity. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014.
  • Blasius, Mark & Shane Phelan (eds.) We Are Everywhere: A Historical Source Book of Gay and Lesbian Politics. New York: Routledge, 1997. See chapter: "The Emergence of a Gay and Lesbian Political Culture in Germany".
  • Bullough, Vern L. (2002). Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context. New York, Harrington Park Press, an imprint of The Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-193-9.
  • Dickinson, Edward Ross (May 2002). "Sex, Masculinity, and the "Yellow Peril": Christian von Ehrenfels' Program for a Revision of the European Sexual Order, 1902-1910". German Studies Review. 25 (2): 255–284. ISSN 0149-7952. PMID 20373550. 
  • Dynes, Wayne R. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York: Garland, 1990.
  • Gordon, Mel. Voluptuous Panic: The Erotic World of Weimar Berlin. Los Angeles: Feral House, 2000.
  • Grau, Günter (ed.) Hidden Holocaust? Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany, 1933–45. New York: Routledge, 1995.
  • Grossman, Atina. Reforming Sex: The German Movement for Birth Control and Abortion Reform, 1920–1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Lauritsen, John and Thorstad, David. The Early Homosexual Rights Movement, 1864–1935. 2nd rev. edition. Novato, CA: Times Change Press, 1995.
  • Steakley, James D. The Homosexual Emancipation Movement in Germany. New York: Arno, 1975.

External linksEdit