Madurese is a language of the Madurese people of Madura Island and eastern Java, Indonesia; it is also spoken on the neighbouring small Kangean Islands and Sapudi Islands, as well as by migrants to other parts of Indonesia, namely the eastern salient of Java (comprising Pasuruan, Surabaya, Malang to Banyuwangi), the Masalembu Islands, and even some on Kalimantan. The Kangean dialect may be a separate language. It was traditionally written in the Javanese script, but the Latin script and the Pegon script (based on Arabic script) is now more commonly used. The number of speakers, though shrinking, is estimated to be 8–13 million, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the country. A variant of Madurese that is Bawean is also spoken by Baweanese (or Boyan) descendants in Malaysia and Singapore.
|Madhura, Basa Mathura, بَهاسَ مَدورا|
|Region||Island of Madura, Sapudi Islands, Java, Malaysia (as Boyanese)|
|6.7 million (2011)|
|Latin script |
Arabic script (Pegon alphabet)
Official language in
|East Java (with Javanese and Indonesian)|
Madurese is a Malayo-Sumbawan language of the Malayo-Polynesian language family, a branch of the larger Austronesian language family. Thus, despite apparent geographic spread, Madurese is more related to Balinese, Malay, Sasak, and Sundanese, than it is to Javanese, the language right next door.
Links between Bali–Sasak languages and Madurese are more evident with the "low" form (common form). There are some common words between Madurese and Filipino languages as well as between Madurese and Banjar (a Malayic language).
|Close||i ꦆ||ɨ ꦆ||u ꦈ|
|Mid||ɛ ꦌ||ə ꦄꦼ||ɤ ꦄꦼꦴ||ɔ ꦎ|
|Nasal||m ꦩ||n̪ ꦤ||ɳ ꦟ||ɲ ꦚ||ŋ ꦔ|
|Plosive||voiceless||p ꦥ||t̪ ꦠ||ʈ ꦛ||c ꦕ||k ꦏ||ʔ|
|voiced||b ꦧ||d̪ ꦢ||ɖ ꦣ||ɟ ꦗ||ɡ ꦒ|
|aspirated||pʰ ꦧ||t̪ʰ ꦢ||ʈʰ ꦣ||cʰ ꦗ||kʰ ꦒ|
|Fricative||s ꦱ||h ꦲ|
|Approximant||central||j ꦪ||w ꦮ|
Madurese has more consonants than its neighboring languages due to it having voiceless unaspirated, voiceless aspirated, and voiced sounds. Similar to Javanese, it has a contrast between dental and alveolar (even retroflex) stops .
Madurese nouns are not inflected for gender and are pluralized via reduplication. Its basic word order is subject–verb–object. Negation is expressed by putting a negative particle before the verb, adjective or noun phrase. As with other similar languages, there are different negative particles for different kinds of negation.
From the Article 1 of the Declaration of Human Rights.
Sadajana oreng lahir mardika e sarenge drajat klaban hak-hak se dha-padha. Sadajana eparenge akal sareng nurani ban kodu areng-sareng akanca kadi taretan.
All Human Beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
- Madurese proper at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
Kangean at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Maduresic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Stevens, Alan (2001) "Madurese", in Facts About the World's Languages, Jane Garry (ed.) & Carl Rubino (ed.), New York: H. W. Wilson
- Davies, William (2010). A Grammar of Madurese. De Gruyter Mouton.