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The MacDowell–Mansouri action (named after S. W. MacDowell and Freydoon Mansouri) is an action that is used to derive Einstein's field equations of general relativity.


  • MacDowell, S. W.; Mansouri, F. (1977). "Unified geometric theory of gravity and supergravity". Phys. Rev. Lett. 38 (14): 739–742. Bibcode:1977PhRvL..38..739M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.38.739.
  • "Derek Wise on Cartan Geometry and MacDowell–Mansouri Gravity". The n-Category Café. July 7, 2007.