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Ma Hongbin (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺡْﻮ بٍ‎, September 14, 1884 – October 21, 1960), was a prominent Chinese Muslim warlord active mainly during the Republican era, and was part of the Ma clique. He was the acting Chairman of Gansu and Ningxia Provinces for a short period.[3]

Ma Hongbin
马鸿宾
Ma Hongbin.jpg
General Ma Hongbin
Governor of Gansu[1]
In office
November 1930 – December 1931
Preceded byWang Zhen (Wang Chen)
Succeeded byMa Wenche (Ma Wen-ch'e)
Governor of Ningxia (1st time)
In office
7 Jan 1921 – Dec 1928
Preceded byMa Fuxiang (Ma Fu-hsiang)
Succeeded byMen Zhizhong (Men Chih-chung)
Governor of Ningxia (2nd time)
In office
1948–1949
Preceded byMa Hongkui
Succeeded byPan Zili (P'an Tzu-li)
Personal details
BornSeptember 14, 1884
Linxia County, Gansu
DiedOctober 21, 1960(1960-10-21) (aged 76)
Lanzhou
NationalityHui
Political partyKuomintang
ChildrenMa Dunjing (1906–1972)
AwardsOrder of Leopold (Belgium)[2]
Military service
Nickname(s)"Ma the Kind Man"
Allegiance Qing Dynasty
 Republic of China
 People's Republic of China
Years of service1910–1960
Rankgeneral
UnitMa clique
Battles/warsSecond Zhili–Fengtian War, Central Plains War, War in Ningxia (1934), Long March, Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese Civil War

LifeEdit

 
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of China, in the middle, meets with the Muslim Generals Ma Hongbin (second from left), and Ma Hongkui(second from right) at Ningxia August 1942.
 
1939, Northwest China, Chinese Muslim fighters gather to fight against the Japanese[4][5]

Ma was born in the village of Hanchiachi, in Linxia County, Gansu. He was the son of Ma Fulu who died in 1900 when fighting against the foreigners in the Battle of Peking (1900) in the Boxer Rebellion.[6][7][8] As a nephew of Ma Fuxiang,[9] he followed him and later Feng Yuxiang into the army. He and Ma Fuxiang protected a Catholic mission in Sandaohe from attacks by the Gelaohui, and he received the Order of Leopold (Belgium) ("King Leopold decoration")[10] During an uprising in Gansu in the Central Plains War, the Muslim General Ma Tingxiang was attacked by Ma Hongbin who was serving in Feng's administration in Ningxia.[11][12]

Upon his cooperation with Chiang Kai-shek, he was named commander of the 22nd Division, 24th Army, within the National Revolutionary Army. He was governor of Ningxia from 1921 to 1928 and chairman of the government of Ningxia in 1930. However, Ma Hongbin vcaused and consequently lost a power struggle with his cousin Ma Hongkui, a fact that was exploited by Chiang Kai-shek to his own advantage by preventing Hongbin's total defeat. In 1930, Chiang named Ma Hongbin as the Chairman of the Provincial Council of Gansu, a post he held until 1931; Hongbin's control over Gansu remained very limited, however, as the province was mostly ruled by his rival Ma Zhongying. Even after Zhongying's departure to the Soviet Union in July 1934, Gansu's armies and civilian population was still loyal to Zhongying.[citation needed] Hongbin helped Ma Hongkui to fight off an invasion of Ningxia by fellow warlord Sun Dianying in early 1934.[13]

The Japanese planned to invade Ningxia from Suiyuan in 1939 and create a Hui Muslim puppet state. The next year in 1940, the Japanese were defeated militarily by Ma Hongbin, who caused the plan to collapse. Ma Hongbin's Hui Muslim troops launched further attacks against Japan in the Battle of West Suiyuan.[14][15]

He became the commander of the 81st Corps during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.[16] In 1940 Ma Hongbin's Muslim troops took part in the Battle of West Suiyuan against Japan and their Mongol puppet state Mengjiang.[17] In the same year at the Battle of Wuyuan, Ma Hongbin led the 81st Corps against the Japanese. The Japanese were defeated by the Chinese Muslim forces and Wuyuan was retaken. Throughout the war, Ma Hongbin continued military operations against the Japanese and their Mongolian allies.

Ma Hongbin's army was clan centered and feudal. In his 81st corps, his chief of staff was his brother in law, Ma Chiang-liang.[18]

The American Asiatic Association reported that he commanded the eighty fourth Army corps.[19]

After the war, he became a senior adviser within the Northwestern Army Headquarters. When his cousin Ma Hongkui resigned from his positions and fled to Taiwan, those positions where transferred to Ma Hongbin. In 1949 during the Chinese Civil War, when the People's Liberation Army was approaching the northwest, Ma Hongbin and his son Ma Dunjing led his 81st Corps to cross over to the communist side.[20] He was named vice-chairman (later restyled vice-governor) of Gansu province. He was also vice-director of the Commission of Ethnic Affairs as well as a member of the National Defense Commission of the People's Republic of China. He died in Lanzhou in 1960.[21]

FamilyEdit

Ma Hongbin
Traditional Chinese馬鴻賓
Simplified Chinese马鸿宾

Ma Hongbin's father was Ma Fulu, and his cousin was Ma Hongkui.[22][23] His uncles were Ma Fuxiang, Ma Fushou, and Ma Fucai. His grandfather was Ma Qianling.

Ma Hongkui's son was General Ma Dunjing (1906–1972), three of his nephews were Generals Ma Dunhou (Ma Tun-hou, misspelled as Ma Tung-hou) 馬敦厚, Ma Dunjing (1910–2003), and Ma Dunren (Ma Tun-jen) 馬敦仁.[24]

CareerEdit

  • 1921 - 1928 Governor of Ningxia Province
  • 1928 - ? Commander of the 22nd Division
  • 1930 Chairman of the Government of Ningxia Province
  • 1930 - 1931 Chairman of the Provincial Council of Gansu
  • 1938 - 1945 General Officer Commanding 81st Corps
  • 1940 - 1941 Commander in Chief 17th Army Group
  • Deputy Commander- in-chief of the XVnth Group Army

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hung-mao Tien (1972). Government and politics in Kuomintang China, 1927–1937. Stanford University Press. p. 186. ISBN 0-8047-0812-6. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  2. ^ Ann Heylen (2004). Chronique du Toumet-Ortos: looking through the lens of Joseph Van Oost, missionary in Inner Mongolia (1915-1921). Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press. p. 203. ISBN 90-5867-418-5. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  3. ^ Paul Preston; Michael Partridge; Antony Best. British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Asia, Volume 1. University Publications of America. p. 37. ISBN 1-55655-768-X. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  4. ^ Lin, Hsiao-ting (September 13, 2010). "4 War and new frontier designs". Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia. Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-136-92393-7.
  5. ^ Lin, Hsiao-ting (September 13, 2010). "4 War and new frontier designs". Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia. Routledge. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-136-92392-0.
  6. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 169. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  7. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
  8. ^ Joint Committee on Chinese Studies (U.S.) (1987). Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20-24, 1987, Volume 3. p. 20. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
  9. ^ Dudoignon, Stephane A.; Hisao, Komatsu; Yasushi, Kosugi, eds. (2006). Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation and Communication. Volume 3 of New Horizons in Islamic Studies. Routledge. p. 342. ISBN 1134205988. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
  10. ^ Ann Heylen (2004). Chronique du Toumet-Ortos: looking through the lens of Joseph Van Oost, missionary in Inner Mongolia (1915-1921). Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press. p. 203. ISBN 90-5867-418-5. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  11. ^ 刘国铭主编,中国国民党九千将领,北京:中华工商联合出版社, 1993年
  12. ^ 清末民国两马家 Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Lin (2011), pp. 37–39.
  14. ^ Xiaoyuan Liu (2004). Frontier passages: ethnopolitics and the rise of Chinese communism, 1921-1945. Stanford University Press. p. 131. ISBN 0-8047-4960-4. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  15. ^ The China monthly review, Volumes 80-81. J.W. Powell. 1937. p. 320. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
  16. ^ Charles D. Pettibone (May 2013). The Organization and Order of Battle of Militaries in World War II: Volume VIII ? China. Trafford Publishing. pp. 303–. ISBN 978-1-4669-9646-5.
  17. ^ George Barry O'Toole; Jên-yü Tsʻai (1941). The China monthly, Volumes 3–5. The China monthly incorporated. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  18. ^ Aleksandr I͡Akovlevich Kali͡agin, Aleksandr I︠A︡kovlevich Kali︠a︡gin (1983). Along alien roads. East Asian Institute, Columbia University. p. 29. ISBN 0-913418-03-X. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  19. ^ American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co. p. 660. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
  20. ^ United States. Joint Publications Research Service (1984). China report: economic affairs, Issues 92-97. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. p. 34. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  21. ^ 民国少数民族将军(组图)2 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  22. ^ Paul Preston; Michael Partridge; Antony Best. British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Asia, Volume 2. University Publications of America. p. 63. ISBN 1-55655-768-X. Retrieved June 5, 2011.[1]
  23. ^ Anthony Best; Michael Partridge; Paul Preston (2009). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From 1951 through 1956. Asia, 1955. Burma, China and Formosa, Japan, and Korea, 1955, Part 5. LexisNexis. p. 181. ISBN 0-88692-723-4. Retrieved June 5, 2011.[2]
  24. ^ 甘、寧、青三馬家族世系簡表

External linksEdit