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Maîtresse Françoise (pen name Annick Foucault) is a publicly known dominatrix in Paris, France. Her autobiography was published in France by publisher Éditions Gallimard.

Maîtresse Françoise
Maîtresse Françoise.jpg
Photo courtesy of Annick Foucault.
OccupationDominatrix, author
WebsiteOfficial site
Françoise Maîtresse
AuthorAnnick Foucalt
SubjectFemale dominance
PublisherÉditions Gallimard
Publication date
LC ClassPQ2666.O823 F73 1994




Annick Foucault was born in the South of France.[1][2] Her childhood was marred by the loss of her father.[1][2] After having been the victim of an accident, she consecutively had no real other alternative but dropping out of university.[3] Thus she chiefly became a self-taught woman.[4] She first ran a ready-to-wear shop[3] and then became interested in Minitel,[5] which she considered to be "an excellent means of communication, a kind of no-man's-land where anything is allowed".[6] She subsequently participated in various forums and set up a "debate forum", 3615 Fetish[citation needed], which was devoted to sadomasochism, before launching in 1994 her own specialized "minitel network", under the name of Miss M.[3] Marc Daum described her as "a major messaging authorizing officer 3615 on behalf of a foremost player in telematics, given that the good intellectual performance of her forums [had built] the loyalty of her knowledgeable readers".[7] During the same period, she was the chief editor of a magazine—La Scène—with a circulation of 5,000 copies.[8] In October 1996, she provided a "precious collaboration" to the journalist Monique Ayoun by the time she was writing an article dedicated to Minitel on behalf of the newspaper Biba [fr].[9]

In parallel with these telematic experiences, her sadomasochistic practices have evolved:

I used to meet dominant men on Minitel. One day, everything changed with one of them. I suddenly tore the whip off his hands and whipped him. He then kissed me on the pumps and said: Please punish me, you're a dominatrix.[10]


In 1994, Annick Foucault—who already enjoyed a strong reputation in specialized circles[11]—published a writing under her real name:[12] Françoise Maîtresse. This book—which, as pointed out by Anne-Élisabeth Moutet [fr], was edited by Gallimard[13]— is an autobiographical narrative which content, according to Jean Pache, appears to be "strange and meaningful".[4] The common thread unfolds over "her history, her childhood, the discovery of her cerebral sexuality, her experience as a dominatrix, in a style as precise as lively and literary".[10] The script is prefaced by Pierre Bourgeade, who considered the literary quintessentiality of this essay as part of the expression of an "unconscious freedom of its own",[14] while Jean-Jacques Pauvert displayed it as a "major work of erotic literature over the past ten years".[15] In this autobiography, the author presented herself in two ways: Françoise, the dominatrix, and Marianne, "who discovered her masochism by watching the whip scenes in pirate movies as a teenager".[10][16] Anne Larue [fr] emphasized on the link which appeared to prevail between those two paradoxical idiosyncrasies: "Françoise, it is first of all the name of a little girl of twelve years old [...] who plays the mistress".[16]

2009, Maîtresse Françoise, BDSM session. In this specific instance, the contractual plot—based on a preset synopsis, background and storyline—implies the individual to be "doomed" to remain hitched around an wheel.

The book introduced sadomasochism into mainstream literature, "without censorship, but also without complacency towards the reader",[12] by focusing on the "breaks" that lead to it,[17] from an angle that, according to Annick Foucault, gains the consent from partners.[18] Annick Foucault suggested that they be recognized as being endowed with "some weakness" and, further on, she commented the aforesaid point as follows:

Should this weakness be dramatized or simulated, what would be the concern? They come out strengthened while trading their cumbersome chains for a three-piece suit, then they return home feeling both soothed and comforted.[19][20]

She pleads for the abandonment of some biases:

By eroticizing barbarism, fetishists and sadomasochists castrate the true executioners through their own weapons.[21][22]

Her intellection echoes the philosophical thought of Gilles Deleuze, to whom she pays tribute,[23] in a way that, according to Charles J. Stivale, conveys a "perceptive and fascinating reflection on La Vénus à la fourrure, Présentation de Sacher-Masoch de Deleuze".[24] According to Céline du Chéné, Mistress Françoise turns out to be "probably the most intellectual of the dominatrixes of the Parisian scene", owning "all the editions" of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch and "having maintained a correspondence" with Gilles Deleuze,[10] who, as per Jean Pache, would have sealed "this unexpected disciple friendship and consideration".[4]

After the publication of her story, which, as duly noted by Giovanni Firmian, was "a great success in France",[25] she was invited to various French talk shows[5][7][26] and gave interviews about sadomasochism.[27][28]

On the occasion of the release of a translation of her book in Italy,[29] Giovanni Firmian described her author as "the queen of dominatrixes and sadomasochistic practices, the most famous one in France, but also known throughout the rest of Europe and United States".[25][12] However, the Italian periodical La Stampa reveals significantly more critical comments recorded by the journalist Mirella Serri, who believes that the author of Maîtresse Françoise considers herself to be the embodiment of "an outstanding artist belonging to a scarce and special breed: i.e. the "mystics" of sex".[8]

Published worksEdit

Autobiographical accountEdit

Foreign translationEdit


  • "Élodie en sous-sol". Digraphe [fr] (65). September 1993.
  • "Magnum le Chien". Digraphe. Qui est là ?. Gallimard (66). December 1993.
  • "Les femmes pornocrates". Digraphe (70). September 1994.
  • "Laissez-nous". Digraphe (79). Winter 1997.


Marquis MagazineEdit

  • « Laissez-nous ». "Leave us", Marquis Magazine [fr]', Number 19 English and French version.
  • « Pleine lune ». "full moon", Marquis Magazine, Number 21, English and French version.
  • « Pleine lune », Marquis Magazine, Number 21, photos Christophe Mourthé [fr].
  • « Interview JG-Leather », Marquis Magazine, Number 23, photos Christophe Mourthé.
  • « Dominatrix Park - Les dernières amazones », Marquis Magazine, Number 31, photos Christophe Mourthé.


  • « Tu montes Maître ou je te monte ? », Newlook [fr], September 1994.
  • « Agathe, tu ne jouiras point ! », Newlook, July 1994.





  • Les Bruits d'Avila, Sorbonne, texte de Philippe Guénin [fr],[30] mise en scène par Monique Kissel.
  • Transfiguration, auteur : Philippe Guénin, le Théâtre Poème, Bruxelles, 1995, le Théâtre du Lavoir moderne, Paris, 1995.[31]

Radio interviewsEdit

  • François Angelier (17 November 2013). "L'amour – fouet ou le monde masochien : Cécile Guilbert, Alain Robbe-Grillet, Harry Kumel". Mauvais genres. France Culture. Maîtresse Françoise est interviewée par Céline du Chéné. Émission préparée par Claire Martin du Gard et Pascale Dassibat. Réalisation de Laurent Paulré avec la collaboration de Jean-Baptiste Thoret, Philippe Rouyer, Céline du Chéné et Christophe Bier.
  • François Angelier (19 October 2013). "Week end Mauvais-genres : Les femmes fatales (rencontre avec Hélène Fillières), lauréats du prix Mauvais Genres 2013". Mauvais genres. France Culture. Entretiens avec Arielle Dombasle, André Engel [fr], Maîtresse Françoise, La Bourette, Dominique Kalifa — avec la collaboration de JB Thoret, P. Rouyer, Céline du Chéné, Antoine Guillot, Jean Pierre Dionnet, Joseph Gohsn. Intervenants : Hélène Fillières & Alexandre Mathis [fr].


Critical bibliographyEdit


  1. ^ a b Margherita d'Amico (5 April 1995). "Arriva le regina delle fruste. Con tutte le sue storie". Corriere della sera (in Italian).
  2. ^ a b Costanzo Costantini (4 April 1995). "Eroine del sesso: Intervista ad Annick Foucault sul suo libro La Dominatrice". Il Messaggero (in Italian).
  3. ^ a b c Hélène Hazera (5 August 1994). "" Maîtresse Françoise " : le fouet et la plume". Libération: 19.
  4. ^ a b c Jean Pache (8 November 1994). "Faut-il toujours à l'amour son théâtre de la cruauté ?". Tribune de Genève.
  5. ^ a b François Forestier (6 January 2017). "La boîte à bouquins de Forestier : Françoise maîtresse, impératrice du SM". Nouvel observateur.
  6. ^ Isabelle Girard (25 May 1994). "Les vrais secrets d'une fouetteuse". L'Événement du jeudi [fr].
  7. ^ a b c Cousin 2000, p. 176
  8. ^ a b Mirella Seri (4 April 1995). "Il libro della "Maîtresse" francese: Cure sadomaso per i mistici". La Stampa (in Italian)..
  9. ^ Monique Ayoun, Monique (25 October 1996). "Il m'a trompé avec moi-même". "Biba [fr] (200).
  10. ^ a b c d Céline du Chéné (foreword by François Angelier) (2017). "« K comme képi : Maîtresse Françoise »". L'encyclopédie pratique des mauvais genres. Recueil de chroniques radiophoniques diffusées sur France Culture dans l'émission Mauvais genres de 2012 à 2016. Paris: Nada. pp. 75–79. ISBN 9791092457223. BNF FRBNF45388766.
  11. ^ "The Maitresse". Skin Two. Londres (12): 84. 1989. Françoise is [...] an SM celebrity — one of France foremost dominants and a favourite of the media.
  12. ^ a b c "Annick Foucault raconta: come divenire dominatrice nel grande circo delle perversioni sadomasochiste". L'Europeo (in Italian): 65–66. 28 September 1994..
  13. ^ "Moutet's Paris: Nice work if a former minister can get it". The European. 21 May 1994. [...] published by non other than the snooty Gallimard
  14. ^ Préface de Pierre Bourgeade à Françoise Maîtresse, op. cit.
  15. ^ 4e de couverture de Françoise Maîtresse, La Musardine, 2000, op. cit.
  16. ^ a b Larue 2002, p. 130
    Elle fait allusion aux « grands films de sévices » de son enfance pour expliquer l’attrait sexuel de certaines scènes : « cow-boys, sexes d’étalons, tortures de pirates, viols d’Apaches, femme attachée au mât d’un navire pour recevoir le fouet.
  17. ^ Pauvert 2001, pp. 303–309
  18. ^ Jean-Pierre Dufreigne (18 August 1994). "Les mille-feuilles des filles d'Eros". L'Express. Annick Foucault [...] se confesse et catalogue ses amants [...] selon leurs désirs les plus intimes ou leurs spécialités — elle a déclaré qu'ils avaient été ravis de se rencontrer couchés sur le papier
  19. ^ Isabelle Girard, Isabelle (25 May 1994). "Les vrais secrets d'une fouetteuse". L'Événement du jeudi.
  20. ^ Jacques Frank (13 March 2001). "Sados et masos". La Libre Belgique.
  21. ^ Jean Streff [fr] (2005). Traité du fétichisme: à l'usage des jeunes générations. Denoël. p. 443.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ Maîtresse Cindy [fr] et Jean Streff [fr] (4 February 2006). Maîtresse Cindy interviewe tous azimuts des pratiquants sadomasochistes et des non-pratiquants (pdf).CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  23. ^ Annick Foucault (2001). "Homage to Gilles Deleuze".
  24. ^ Charles J. Stivale (July 2011). "Diverse essays and links". Deleuze and Guattari [Recensement des textes et liens internet en rapport avec Gilles Deleuze]. Web resources. Wayne State University.
  25. ^ a b Giovanni Firmian (27 May 1995). "Il sadomasochismo di Françoise Maîtresse: l'amore? È un gatto a nove code" [Le bondage et discipline, domination et soumission, sado-masochisme de Françoise Maîtresse : l’amour ? c’est un chat à neuf queues]. Amica [fr] (in Italian): 90–91..
  26. ^ a b Hervé G. (22 June 2018). Tout à fait, Thierry ! Cela ne nous regarde pas... p. 38. ISBN 0244995265. OCLC 1047590572.
  27. ^ a b France Culture, François Angelier & October 2013
    cf. Mauvais genre, 18 September 2013, cf. minutage 08:58 à 09:23}}.
  28. ^ France Culture & François Angelier 2013
    cf. Mauvais genre, 19 October 2013.
  29. ^ Foulcaut & Coletti 1995
  30. ^ See Digraphe [fr] Number 70 (photographies & texte by Bruits d'Avila), September 94, and Number 78 « La Mort de Paris VIII », texte "Théâtre" Pierre Boudot [fr], Autumn 1996.
  31. ^ La Bellone - Maison du Spectacle asbl, rue de Flandre 46 - 1000 Bruxelles.

External linksEdit